Abnormal Psych Flashcards

Terms Definitions
school refusal therapy
prev rate of schiz
neurotransmittor linked to schizophrenia
6, 2
Somatic Hallucination
a. Perception something happening inside body.
expressed genetic material; observable traits and characteristics; depends on interaction of genotype and environment (nature and nurture).
where individuals learn responses simply by observing other individuals and repeating their behaviors
drug treatments for bipolar disorder
-lithium*-anticonvolusants-antipsychotics(sometimes people don't want to take medicine because it gets rid of extreme highs)
Axis II
Personality disorders and mental retardation
preventative medication for dementia
acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (aricepts)(reminyl)
In psychoanalytic theory, occurs when a patient's responses to the analyst seem to relfect attitudes and ways of behaving towards important people in the patient's past, rather than reflecting actual aspects of the analyst-patient relationship.
Rational-emotive therapy
Designed to challenge irrational beliefs about ones selof and the world. Developed by albert ellis as a treatment for anxiety and depression
Cause or source of a disorder.
drugs that cause abnormal perceptual experience in the form of illusions or hallucinations which are usually visual
diathesis-stress model
stressful conditions act upon biological predisposition
simple form of learning where researches manipulate stimuli and rewards
perceptual experiences that are not real
having two poles, as the earth.
diathesis-stress model
Hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder.
panic control treatment (PCT)
Cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic attacks, involving gradual exposure to feared somatic sensations and modification of perceptions and attitudes about them.
A somatoform disorder in which the person, misinterpreting rather ordinary physical sensations, is preoccupiedwith fears of having a serious disease.
Symptoms of PTSD
Three categories:
1. Reexperiencing of the traumatic event; Relive in nightmares, memories.
2. Emotional numbing; They want nothing to do with it.
3. Hyperviligance and chronic arousal; Constantly on guard like something will happen to you.
      *May experience "Survival Guilt". Social support is HUGE.
Site of most sensory emotional and cognitive processes
Rapid or sudden release of emotional tension thought to be important factor in psychoanalytic therapy.
bulimia nervosa
alternate between extremes of eating large amounts of food in a short time and then compensating for the added calories by vomiting or other extreme actions
In a population, the proportion of active cases of a disorder that can be identified at a given point in, or during a given period of, time.
drugs to reduce worry and tension
antianxiety drugs
drugs mainly affecting emotions and thought processes
psychotropic medications
death darers
individuals who are ambivalent about dying and take actions that increase their chances of death but that do not guarantee they will die
a strange false belief firmly held despite evidence to the contrary
Study of the nervous system and its role in behavior, thoughts, and emotions.
expert witness
Person who because of special training and credentials is allowed to offer opinion testimony in legal trials.
Korsakoff's syndrome
Damage to the thalamus caused by chronic alcohol use, which develops thiamine deficiencies.
cerebral cortex
site of control and integration of sophisticated memory sensory and motor functions.
Rumiative response theory
a. Don’t make effort to become happyi. More likely to beocome depressed
DSM-IV axis description
I. All diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardationII. Personality disorders and mental retardationIII. General medical conditionsIV. Psychosocial and environmental problemsV. Global assessment of functioning scale (GAF)
Drugs Used to Treat Depression
-Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI's)- Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil -not addictive -Not chemically related to older tricyclics and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. -SSRI's inhibit the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin following its release into the synapse.-Most antidepressants workby increasing the availbility of serotonin, or norepinephrine, or of both.-Tricyclics-Commonly used
most widely used personality inventory
MMPI (minnesota multiphasic personality inventory)
Anorexia Nervosa
Inability and refusal to maintain a minimal normal body weight
Distorted thinking and cognitions, such as a fear that the sufferer is fat even though they are underweight
Must demonstrate the absence of 3 consecutive periods (controversial and can lead to underdiagnosis)
psychodynamic cause of paraphilias
fixation at early psychosexual stage
3. Genetic Vulnerability
Behavior is NOT genetically determined like "eye color" rather it is a product of genetics interacting with environment

Genotype-environment correlation, passive, evocative, and active effects

Genotype-environment interactions
Social Phobia
Fear of being judged or embarassed by others.
substance-related disorder
One of a range of problems associated with the use and abuse of drugs such as alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and other substances people use to alter the way they think, feel, and behave. These are extremely costly in human and financial terms.
Emil Kraeplin
One of the first to distinguish among various psychological disorders
drugs to lift the modd of depressed people
antidepressant drugs
gender identity disorder
a disorder in which a person persistently feels extremely uncomfortable about his or her assigned sex and strongly wishes to be a member of the opposite sex . Also known as transsexualism.
Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for BDD
Based on the treatment of OCD, exposure/reaction prevention. Other cognitive therapies as well to try and target mispercieved beliefs about themselves.
SMART (Self Management And Recovery Training) Program
- Teaches self-empowerment and self-reliance.- Encourages individuals to recover and live satisfying lives.* - Teaches tools and techniques for self-directed change.- Meetings are educational and include open discussions.- Advocates appropriate use of prescribed meds & psychological tx. - Evolves as scientific knowledge of addiction recovery evolves.
Halstead-Reitan battery tactile performance test- memory
after completing the timed test, the participant is asked to draw the form board from memory, showing the blocks in their proper location. both this and the timed test are sensitive to damage in the right parietal lobe
delusion of thought insertion
beliefs that one's thoughts are being controlled by outside forces
Symptoms of Conversion Disorder
Sensory - Problems in vision, hearing, and sensory loss (glove anasthesia) - but doesn't fit correct neuro pattern for loss.

Motor Symptoms - Can't write, walk, talk (often can whistle)

Seizures - Don't follow EEG, excessive thrashing about.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Hans Seyle came up with the GAS theory: Alarm, resistance, Exhaustion
stress-reduction and problem-solving seminar
a workshop or series of group sessions offered by a business in which mental health professionals teach employees how to cope with and solve problems and reduce stress
OCD Compulsions (as defined by DSM-IV-TR)
1. Repetitive behaviors (such as hand washing, ordering, checking) or mental acts (such as praying, counting, repeating words silently) that the person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rules that must be applied rigidly
2. Behaviors or mental acts that are aimed at preventing or reducing distress or preventing some dreaded event or situation; however, these behaviors or mental acts are not connected in a realistic way with what they should prevent
 *If they don't engage in ritual, tragedy will strike
Aversive classical conditioning (for what is it used, how does it work)
- Used to fight alcohol abuse- A drug is taken where the person feels ill after drinking alcohol. This is reinforced over time.
genetic theory behind APD - adoption study
- looked at adoptees who had at least one biological parent w/ APD vs adoptees who did not have any biological predisposition
- not a single person from the second group met diagnostic criteria for APD
- some individuals in the first group did show symptoms, particularly in stressful situations
Repetitive, ritualistic, time-consuming behaviors or thoughts a person feels driven to perform to reduce anxiety.
combined treatment
meds and psychotherapy
M.D./medical school +residency 
 --medications, some psychotherapy, some research
Cognitive theory
1. Neurological abnormalities of schizophrenia create difficulties in attention, inhibition and adherence to rules.
operant conditioning means...
learning through consequences
Institutions whose primary purpose was to care for people with mental illness
Unipolar depression physical/behavioral symptoms
-sleep disturbances-psychomotor retardation-fatigue and loss of energy-catatonia (keeping completely still, or restless)
Clinical Psychology
Application of psychological science to the assessment and treatment of mental disorders.
empirically based treatments more or less
Destructive beliefs and attitudes held by a society that are ascribed to "the other," i.e. the mentally ill.
relationship between a behavior and its consequences
Assessment and therapy pioneered by Sigmund Freud that emphasizes exploration of, and insight into, unconscious processes and conflicts.
a drug perscribed to heroin-dependent individuals to help them get control over their addiction with a safer and more controlled reaction
obsessive compulsive anxiety disorder
(anxiety disorder)unwanted, repetitive thoughts (obsessions) &/or actions(compulsions)
learning occurs by temporal association
classical conditioning
neurotransmitter in the brain, excess amounts of which have been thought to cause schizophrenia
not normal, average, typical, or usual; deviating from a standard:
synaptic cleft
Space between nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move impulses from one neuron to the next.
abnormal psychology
scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and ultimatly change abnormal patterns of functioning
health psychology
Investigates effects of stress and other psychological factors on physical factors.
Concerned w/ sleep, diet, smoking... coping strategies
To Change phsychological issues, change physical issues
sympathetic nervous system
controls actvities with increased arousal and energy expenditrure
moral therapy
Psychosocial approach in the 19th century that involved treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments.
forcing to rid oneself of whatever they have just eaten
Family Aggregation
The Clustering of certain traits, behaviors, or disorder within agiven family. Family aggregation may arise because of genetic or environmental similarities
policy which calls for the releasing of patients from public mental hospitals
bottom part of the brain containing the medulla, pons and cerebellum
drug treatments of unipolar depression
-antidepressants (Elavil)-monoamine oxidase inhibitors (Nardil)-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Prozac, Zoloft)
a symptom of schizophrenia marked by apathy and an inability to start or complete a course of action
Actuarial Interpretation
clinicians analyze the results of a specific test on the basis of an explicit set of rules that are derived from empirical research
expressive language disorder
An individual’s problems in spoken communication, as measured by significantly low scores on standardized tests of expressive language relative to nonverbal intelligence test scores. Symptoms may include a markedly limited vocabulary or errors in verb tense.
Prognosis for Bulimia Nervosa
Usually a chronic condition, especially if the person was large as a child, an excessive evaluation of weight, and a high level of social maladjustment.
endocrine system
collection of glands found at various locations throughout the body.
Depression with melancholic features
a. Physiological symtoms of depression are prominent
History of asylums
they were established for confinement and "care" of mentally ill. Patients were tortured and kept in small rooms where ppl paid to watch them
General Adaptation Syndrome
Helps explain the course of biological decompensation under excessive stress and consists of three tages: -Alarm reaction- body's defensive forces are "called to arms" by activation of the autonomic nervous system.-The stage of resistance- biological adaptation is at the maximal level in terms of bodily resources used.-Exhaustion- bodily resources are depleted and the organism loses its ability to resit (further stress can lead to illness or death).
tests which ask people to provide detailed information about themselves, but these tests focus on only one specific area of functioning
response inventory
Treatments for Autism
SSRIs (work well because serotonin dysregulation has been implemented in the disease)
Antipsychotics and stimulants (more controversial)
Behavior Therapy (Applied Behavior Analysis)
atypical antipsychotics
-more effective drug, good for people who don't respond to other drugs-fewer but different side effects-ex. clozapine (clozaril)
4. Temperament
Refers to a child's reactivity and characteristic ways of self-regulation.

Constitutional issues - physical handicaps at birth, low birth rate, FAS
Circadian rhythm sleep disorder
Sleep disruption leading to excessive sleepiness or insomnia that is due to a mismatch between the sleep wake schedule requred by a person's environmet and his or her circadian sleep wake pattern
agonist substitution
Replacement of a drug on which a person is dependent with one that has a similar chemical makeup, an agonist. Used as a treatment for substance dependence.
Benjamin Rush
i. Often known as the founder of American psychiatryii. Introduced moral therapy in America
part of the brain at the top which consists of the cerebrum, thalamus and hypothalamus
orgasm phase
the phase of the sexual response cycle during which an individuals sexual pleasure peaks and sexual tension is released as muscles in the pelvic region contract rhythmically
Associated features of Anorexia and Bulemia Nervosa
Anorexia Nervosa
-lower blood pressure and heart rate, sluggish movement, low energy, changes in brain chemistry and structure, may spend much time thinking about food, preparing food for other, not eating it though, high comorbidity with depression, anxiety disorders and substance abuse
Bulemia Nervosa
closer to normal weight, binge usually more food and followed by less consistent purging, high comobidity with anxiety disorder and low with mood disorders, substance abuse
Medical disorders of Anorexia Nervosa
- Death rate 5-8%- Cardiovascular complications - Arrythmia - Heart Failure- Acute expansion of the stomach- Bone weakening- Kidney damage- Immune system impairments
how does the CT/CAT (computerized axial tomography) work?
reveals structural abnormalities by detecting differences in tissue density (ex: enlarged ventricles); a moving beam of x-rays passes into a horizontal cross section of the person’s brain, scanning it through 360 degrees. the moving x ray detector on the other side measures the amount of radioactivity that penetrates, detecting subtle differences in tissue density
etiology of dissociative identity disorder
created under extreme stress, usually early in life
Diagnosis for Hypochondriasis
1. Either fears of having a serious disease or the idea that they actually have such a disease

2. Misinterpretation of bodily signs and symptoms - that could only be interpreted with thorough medical exam

3. NOT reassured by negative results, disappointed.

4. Must last 6 months
1. Central Nervous System
2. Peripheral Nervous System
   A. Somatic
   B. Automatic
      I. Sympathetic
      I. Parasympathetic
american law institute test
a legal test for insanity that holds people to be insane at the time they committed a crime if, because of a mental disorder, they did not know right from wrong or could not resist an uncontrollable impulse to act
Family theory of paranoid personality disorder
1. Family studies show more like in schizophrenic family.
Naltrexone and Naloxone (for what are they used, how do they work)
- Used to treat opioid addictions- These are antagonist drugs, which means the block the receptors for opioids and thus reduce the desire for the drug. It helps keep the positive effects of the opioids down
what are the two main forms of dissociative amnesia and what are their characteristics?
- localized - memory loss is specific to a time period, event
- selective - may recall some of the traumatic experience but not all of it
Primitive Forces
Most commonly treated phobia
Psychopathology research method examining the prevalence, distribution, and consequences of disorders in populations.
A euphoric state of mind.
Gradual-onset deterioration of brain functioning, involving memory loss, inability to recognize objects or faces,and problems in planning and abstract reasoning.
Gradual deterioation of brain funtioning, judgement, memory language and advanced cognitive processes. Stages: memory and visual spatial impairments, agnosia: inability to recognize names and objects, facial agnosia. deluisions, apathy, agitation, agression and Depression (usually later).. Death usually due to inactivity or other illness
Central nervous system stimulant often used to treat ADHD
devices for gathering information about a few aspects of a person's psychological functioning
Born normal poisoned by phenylalanine they can't break down
Etiological Validity
Measurements of factors that contribute to the onset of disorders
attributional style
relatively consistent explanations a person forms about why personal stressors or other negative life events occur, taking the form of internal vs external, stable vs unstable, and global vs. specific
Behavioral theory
1. Believe developed through operant conditioning.2. Believe disturbed do not learn at an early age how to respond to certain stimuli.
Histrionic Symptoms
1. Many similar to Borderline personality disorder2. Differencesa. Want to be center of attentionb. More dramatic, seductive, and emphasize positives of physical appearance
visual hallucination
-second most common hallucinationex: seeing satan next to your bed
Impact of Psychodynamic
-Development of therapeutic techniques, such as free association-Saw abnormal as result of exaggerated defense mechanisms -Critisms: Case study approach does not lend itself to scientific validation; lack of evidence to support many of its basic assumptions.
causal factors long ago
distal causal factors
Inability to identify known objects during dementia
loss of pleasure in everything, indifference
DSM IV-TR Anxiety Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)PhobiaPanic DisorderObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)Acute Stress DisorderPost-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Interpersonal Therapy
Focus on current relationships, work on communication and problem-solving skills.
psychological autopsy
Postmodern psychological profile of a suicide victim constructed from interviews with people who knew the person before death.
A primarily verbal means of helping people change their thoughts, feelings, and behavior to reduce distress and to achieve greater life satisfaction.
Paranoid Schizophrenia
i. Have tons of hallucinations and delusions with persecution and grandiosity often times.ii. Not as much grossly disorganized speech or behavior.
DID explanations
1. Result of coping strategies to trauma/physical or sexual abuse.a. Pretend abuse is happening to someone elesb. May use self hypnosis to excape other traumas
Catatonic schizophrenia
nearly total unresponsiveness to the environment, as well as motor and veral abnormalities
presenting problem
Original complaint reported by the client to the therapist. The actual treated problem may sometimes be a modification derived from the presenting problem.
Learning Disorders?
Indicated by school achievement or standardized scores at least 2 standard deviations below the mean for the appropriate age and IQ.
responses an organism makes to its environment
Schizoaffective Disorder
A mood disorder (depression, bipolar, etc) combined with schizophrenia
Characterized by a period of time lasting at least 2 weeks and containing either a depressive episode, manic episode, or a mix of both and delusions or hallucinations
Mood disorder symptoms are slightly more prominent
a paraphilia in which perosns have repeated sexually arousing urges or fantasies about exposing their genitals to another person, and may act upon those urges
Conversion Disorder
A somatoform disorder in which the symptoms are real, but nothing is physiologically wrong.
Reciprocal Gene-Environment model
Genes might influence the environment that people seek out.
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder marked by pevasive pattern of disregard for an violation of the rights of others. deceitful,unremorseful, manipulative, lacks anxiety and guilt
Intervention Guided Master Techniques
Reducion of Catastrophizing Cognitions
Time Management
Schizotypal personality disorder symptoms
1. Socially isolated, restricted range of emotions, uncomfortable in interpersonal interactions.2. Percieve others as deceitful and hostile3. Believe random actions or events associated with them4. Hold odd beliefs and magical thinking5. Illusions that are just short of hallucinations.
paranoid personality disorder
Cluster A (odd or eccentric) personality disorder involving pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent.
a child with this disorder urinates in clothes or in the bed after the age when they are expected to be continent. At least twice a week for a min of 3 consecutive monts in children who are at least 5 years old
Ego-defense Mechanisms
Discharge or soothe anxiety, but they do so by helping a person push through painful ideas out of conciousness rather then dealing directly with the problem. Result in leaving a person with a distorted view of reality, although some are clearly more adaptive than others.-A way of protecting the psyche-Normal part of psychic development-Can use more primetive defenses over more "sopisticated" defenses. -When under stress, people can overuse defense mecanisms.
Preclinical phase
new drug is developed and identified and tested (5 years)
developmental coordination disorder
disorder involving deficits in the ability to walk, run, or hold on to objects
criminal commitment
a legal process by which people accused of a crime are instead judged mentally unstable and sent to a mental health facility for treatment
Biological causes of GID
- Hormones present during development in the fetus may play a role in development of GID- The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, located I the anterior hypothalamus, is smaller in transsexual men than in non-transsexual men. Usually this area is smaller in women than in men.- There may be some evidence for pre-natal testosterone exposure in females contributing to GID
Treatment for dependant personality disorder
1. Teach tecqniques that create assertive behaviors2. Challenge assumptions about need to rely on others
Philippe Pinel (1745-1826)
created home where mentally ill lived. they did gardening and received medical treatment from Dorthea Dix.
Normal vs. Abnormal
a difference of type: takes a categorical approach to classification
killing of another person as an act of mercy
biological theories behind borderline personality disorder
- some genetic predisposition
- hypersensitive nervous system - result of early abuse; person becomes primed to react to their environment = overreaction
- abnormal (deficient) serotonin receptors = impulsivity
- smaller amygdala, hippocampus - more sensitive to subtle changes in facial emotions
A. Over a period of at least 6 months, recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the use of nonliving objects (e.g., female undergarments)B. The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioningC. The fetish objects are not limited to articles of female clothing used in cross-dressing (as in Transvestic Fetishism) or devices designed for the purpose of tactile genital stimulation (e.g., vibrator)
Treatment of schizoid personality disorders
1. Increase social skills and awarness of his feelings.
Learned Helplessness Theory of Depression
Cognitive theory of depression that suggests that an organism that learns it has no control over aversive events will show motivational, cognitive, and emotional deficits similar to those shown by depressed persons.
employee assistance program
a mental health program offered by a business to its employees
hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Apparent lack of interest in sex and hence a low level of sexual activity.
What disorders are classified under "Somatoform Disorder."
These disorders are manifested by physical or bodily symptoms that cause reduced functioning.(ie Conversion disorder, hypochondriasis)
Specific Diagnosis for Anorexia Nervosa
1. Lack of appetite due to nervousness
2. Really a fear of being fat, and a refusal to maintain normal body weight - usually about 85% normal
3. Distorted perception of body shape and size
4. Absence of 3 consecutive menstrual cycles
5. Denial of any weight problems
Damage to Nerve Cells that has been implicated in Alzheimer's
Neurofibrical tangles and amyloid plaques have been implicated
Catch, trap, and interrupt electrical signals between neurons
warning signs for Munchhausen's by proxy?
- lab work and symptoms don't agree
- prolonged illness
- parents extremely devoted, try to arouse sympathy
- during hospital stays, children get more sick when parents visit
Rewards/punishment, Societal/cultural influences
Persistent, irrational, narrowly defined fears of an object or situation 
what we focus on
Shared Environment
similar experiences growing up
Dissociative Fugue
Dissociative disorder featuring sudden, unexpected travel away from home, along with an inability to recall the past, sometimes with assumption of a new identity. 
Examples of positive symptoms
-Delusions-Hallucinations-Disorganized thought and speech-Disorganized or catatonic behavior
Cognitive problems (memory, spatial tasks, language) that result from a medical condition (ie. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's or Pick's)
reading disorder
developmental disorder involving deficits in reading ability
Susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder.
Substance withdrawal
Experience of clinical significant distress in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning due to the cessation or reduction of substance use.
Serves in various functions in regulating stages of sleep
Psychodynamic theory
i. Help person realize ncioncious hostility and fears of abandonment to facilitate change in self concept and behaviors
occipital lobe
• Location-lies behind the parietal and temporal lobes• Function-vision
Flat affect
severe reduction in emotional expressiveness
a reliving of past repressed feelings
neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of mood and impulsive responses
- relatively distinct and enduring patterns
- appears to be ingrained, seems to be present at early age
Anorexia-Restricting Type
Weight loss is recieved through low/limiting food intake.
Arbitrary Inference
Jumping to conclusions without any evidence to support it at all.
compensatory behavior
In eating disorders, those behaviors intended to avoid gaining weight from ingesting food. Examples arepurging, forced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercising.
Direct Effects Model (DEM)
Psychological factors (stress, personality styles):
   -> Leads body to physiological response
   -> Leads to disease leads to illness/disease
Electroconvulsive therapy
involves the deliberately inducing a seizure by passing electricitiy through the brain
systematic desensitization
Behavior therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation.
the view that behavior is best understood by reducing it to basic biological composition.
A person must have a persistently depressed mood most of the day, for more days than not, for at least 2 two years (1 yr for children and adolescents) and are not psychotic. Also must have at least two of the six symptoms when depressed:1. Poor appetite or overeating2. Sleep Disturbance3. Low energy level4. Low self-esteem5. Difficulties in concentration or decision making6. Feelings of hopelessness
Uses effective psychotropic drugs and is another name for the somatogenic view
biolical perspective
drugs which help reduce the confusion, hallucinations, and delusions of psychotic disorders
antipsychotic drugs
disorder marked by violent emotional outbursts, memory loss, suicidal thinking, involuntary body movements and absurd beliefs. Traced to a loss of cells in the basal ganglia
Huntington's disease
expressed emotion
family interaction style in which families are over-involved with each other, are overprotective of the disturbed family member, voice self-sacrificing attitudes to the disturbed family member, and simultaneously are critical, hostile, & resentful of him
dopamine hypothesis
the theory that schizophrenia results form excessive activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine
Depressed mood for most of the day everyday for a period of 3 or more years. (CHRONIC) 
Symptoms (2 w/depressed mood): poor or large apetite, sleep disturbance, low energy levels, low self esteem, concentration difficulties
depression general treat guide
behavior ther; cogn ther; interpersonal ther
Erectile Dysfunction
- Persistent inability to obtain and maintain an erection- Treatments: Drugs, psychological therapy, vacuum constriction, surgical therapies
Disorganized or catonic behavior
1. Engage in unpredictable behavior that is untriggered.2. Engage in socially unacceptable behavior,
Positive Symptoms
Behavioral excesses or things added to persons behavior, normal things people dont do or do less of.
Examples: Disorganized Speech (Incoherence, jumpled phrases, Neologism (made up words, indecisiveness constantly changing topics, lude associations. Clanging (Stringing words together) words repeated often). Positive Delusions: Control, grandeur, altered perception. Positive Hallucinations: Hearing voices, seeing people.
Schizoid Personality Disorder
1) Description
2) Causes
3) Treatment
1) Detachment from social relationships and restricted range of emotions. Little interest/pleasure in activities or personal relationships.
2) Childhood abuse, biological dysfunction relating to dopamine.
3) Therapist points out value of relationships. Patient goes through social-skills training. 
false positive
Assessment error in which pathology is reported (that is, test results are positive) when none is actually present.
Onset of schizophrenia?
Between late adolescence and mid 30s.
model where abnormal behavior is best understood in the light of social and cultural forces that influence an individual
sociocultural model
causes of dissociative identity disorder
-horrible, unspeakable child abuse-believed to be a mechanism to escape from impact of trauma-closely related to PTSD
treatment for hypochondriasis
- extremely difficult because the person will be pretty convinced they have a particular disease
- get frustrated at suggestion that there is a psychological reason
- goal in therapy is to develop coping strategies to deal with anxiety, worry, feelings of depression
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
Trouble controlling worries, lead to significant distress. Must have restlessness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, edginess. 
Etiology of Phobias: Cognitive
Social Phobia; developes in people that have way high standars, assume always being judged.
Depression with postpartum onset
a. Depression 4 weeks after giving birth for women
schizotypal personality disorder
a d/o characterized by people with peculiar, eccentric and oddly bizarre ways of thinking, behaving and relating to others.
used to determine how and why a person is behaving abnormally
clinical assessment
Behavioral perspective in Schizophrenia
-cause is faulty operant conditioning, especially attention and social responses-not a widely accepted theory, its treatments are though
Casual issues in Sedative dependence
-Often older individuals become addicted to "calm down" or sleep
-Usually they are NOT alcohol or other drug users - take them for "medicinal" purposes and get hooked - silent abusers.
-Others combine with alcohol, amps, to get an intense high
HIV related dementia
The infection wears away parts of the brain and causes global functioning issues.
Positive symptoms (type I symptoms)
characterized by the presence of unusual perceptions, thoughts, or behaviors. -symptoms represents very salient experiences.
Difference between abuse and dependence
Abuse: recurrent substance use that leads to significant harmful consequences
Dependence: substance use that leads to physiological dependence (will go through withdrawals), significant impairment, or distress
Both abuse and dependence are generally long-term
associated features with DID
- childhood abuse - extreme abuse
- comorbidity is high - on average people have 7 other disorders (alternates can also have disorders)
- seems to be culture specific - mostly in US
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
Disorder in which as many as 100 personalities or fragments of personalities co-exist with one body and mind. Formerly known as multiple personality disorder. 
Antidepressant drugs in substance abuse disorders (for what are they used)
Used to help alleviate the symptoms of withdrawal.
Individual and General Causes of PTSD
The trauma of rape
The trauma of military combat
Severe Threats to Personal Safety and Security
why is it difficult to diagnose dissociative amnesia?
- need to rule out brain injuries, drug use, malingering
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