APUSH 128 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Mentor
Wise Adviser
Black Panthers
Huey Newton--"black power"
Greensboro, NC
site of first "sit-in"
eastern campaign:
Antietam
 
sept 17, 1862
sharpsburg, maryland (border state)
bloodiest single day of war
union general= McClellan w/ 75,000 troops
vs. confed general= Lee w/ 55,000 troops
union wins! first turning point
first offensive attack by Lee- invades union hoping that maryland would secede so england would join confed. good plan but fails cuz union soldier finds battle plan so McClellan knows it and ambushes confed
McClellan loses 12,000 men and Lee loses 13,000
McClellan should have captured Lee but was too scared so fired again
a win for union means lincoln can now free slaves= emancipation proclamtion= changes reason for war
 
Tenochtitlan
Wealthy capital of the Aztec empire
Innate
Inborn, Inherent, Not learned or acquired
The Polk administration was frustrated by its inability to purchase California from Mexico. T or F
True
Social Gospel
a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially social justice, inequality, racial tensions, slums, bad hygiene, child labor, poor schools, and the danger of war.
Japanese interment
forcible relocation by the US government in 1942 of approximately 120,000 Japanese American and Japanese residing in the US to camps called "war relocation camps."
Henry Clay
An American bureaucrat in the ninteenth century. He was a war hawk, created the American System and the Missouri Compromise.
federalists
group that argued for ratification of the consitution w/ a poss. bill of rights to be discussed after the ratification was complete
1830s-1840s
there was much reform from temperance movement, Education by Horace MANN, abolitionist movement
Spoils System (1828)
Jackson's methods of exchanging government officials with new civil servants; supposed to democratize government and lead to reform by allowing common folk to run the government; not always the most qualified for the positions over time, this system led to corruption and inefficient
Exodusters
name given to African Americans who fled the Southern United States for Kansas in 1879 and 1880
Battle of Antietam


1862; Lee’s army (Confederate) found a strong defensive position. McClellan’s forces (Union) were about to defeat Lee’s when Jackson’s troops showed up. The Confederate armies were able to retreat when general McClellan could not finish them off.  The fighting was brutal. It was the bloodiest day in American history. Thousands died and were injured.  It was the turning point that ensured that Europe would not help the South. Since the North won, this was the green light for the Emancipation Proclamation.
Credibility Gap
(1967) Johnson continued to support the American intervention in Vietnam, saying that it was of great importance to the Nation's security and prestige. Many administration officials, journalists, and other held a more pessimistic view of the war, saying that the Johnson Administration was suffering from a Credibility Gap that was withholding and hiding discouraging information about the war in Vietnam. They said that the media and administration's positive reports on the progress of the war were not telling the whole, truthful story of the conflict. The war was also having great effect on American finances, increasing the national deficit, and leading to inflation problems in the 1970s. Johnson had to act defensively in the face of opposition to the war in Vietnam.
Spanish Armada 1588
Went to attack England and failed
Tecumseh
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
Great Compromise
An agreement between large and small states during the Constitutional Convention. It proposed a bicameral legislature.
Townshend Acts
1767; raised colonial taxes to pay colonial officials
Bessemer Steel
steel girders could now support taller buildings and the first elevators began to be installed in buildings in the early 1880s
XYZ affair
Demanded bribe loan from US in exchange for french stay away from american ships (code for three agents)
Ho Chi Minh
Formed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and led the Việt cộng during the Vietnam War until his death
Zora Neale Hurston
black female author during harlem renaissance most famous for her novel Their Eyes Were Watching God
Force Bill
 1828, 1833; The slave owners in South Carolina were afraid of a slave rebellion since the whites were a minority, and they feared emancipation. They wanted to weaken the national government to prevent this, so they targeted the tariff of 1828 (abominations) when legislation was passed to retain the duties, declaring it null (Ordinance of Nullification) in the state and prohibiting the collection of these taxes. They were going off of Calhoun’s (vice) tract, The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, (1828). the president passed this to be able to force them to pay the taxes.
Assasination of Lincoln
14 april 1865 (good friday)
ford theater to see Our American Cousin to celebrate end of war
john wilkes booth
andrew johnson becomes president- southern demo from seceded state= north is pissed!
Confederate States of America
Political entity formed by the seceding of states of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana in February 1861; Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina joined later.
Justice Samuel Chase
Associate justice of the Supreme Court and signer of the Declaration of Independence, he was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1791 by Washington, and was impeached for his criticism of President Jefferson. Chase was defended strongly, and was later acquitted by the Senate.
Allies
in World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers
Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917
Lessened the tension in the feuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere of influence in China in exchange for Japan's continued recognition of the Open Door policy in China.
Fort Sumter
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
Albany Congress
during the French and Indian war, Ben Franklin attempted to unify the colonies behind G.B. in its war against France.
Townshend duties
Series of acts enforced by Britain on the colonists that raised revenues for Britain and punished colonists for not cooperating with Quartering Act.
Whiskey Ring Scandal

1875; a network of treasury agents and liquor distillers defrauded the government millions of dollars (of excise taxes on whiskey). One of president Grant’s appointed men led the network in the scandal, and another of his men (Babcock) had a hand in the scandal. Grant stood by Babcock while all the others were arrested. 

 
The Great Famine
A period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland. Ireland's population dropped about 25% and approximately one million died and one million emigrated to America.
Declaratory Act (1766)
Act which declared that the Stamp Act was repealed
Charles II, James II
little to no sympathy for colonial legislatures
Sedition act 1918
made it illegal to criticize the gov. the constitution, the US army, or the Navy 1000 Americans were found guilty
The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and Veterans Administration (VA)
home-loan guarantees, making it more economically attractive to own a home in the suburbs rather than to rent an apartment in the city.
Macon's Bill #2
enacted by Congress on 1 May 1810. objective was to get Great Britain&France to stop their restrictions against U.S. shipping. prohibited British &French armed vessels from entering American waters &ports unless forced in by distress or to deliver dispatches. reopened American trade to the entire world.
Cult of Domesticity
the role of women as being the keeper of the house and the primary influence on their children. While many women, such as Catharine Beecher, were satisfied with their calling, others found it to be confining and were dissatisfied with making sandwiches and washing clothes and joined movements.
Russian Revolutions, 1917, March and Bolshevik
After years of oppression, the peasants rebelled against the czars. The first government was democratic and weak, so another revolution overthrew that government and instituted a Communist government lead by the Bolshevik party under Lenin. Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI (The Germans may have aided his rise to power so they would not have to fight on two fronts).
102 Compromise of 1877-
the ___ ___ ___ resolved the disputed election of 1876 between Sam Tilden and Rutherford B Hayes.
Alien and Sedition Acts
(1798) Four laws passed under Adam in anticipation of war with France. Allowed the gov to forcibly expel foreigners and jail editors for "scandalous and malicious writing." This was a political stunt by the Federalists to destroy the Democratic-Republicans.
Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan
Served as Secretary of State under Wilson from 1913-1915, he resigned in protest of U.S. involvement in WW I.
What did 1950's activists against the Jim Crowe Laws NOT do?
use violence to intimidate the local politicals
All of the following have been cited as reasons for the dropping of atomic bombs on Japan in 1945 EXCEPT the need to
block a planned Japanese invasion of the United States
37. Which of the following was true of a woman in the colonial era?
 
a. She would be sentenced  to prison for crimes committed by her husband
b. She could vote as her husband's proxy in elections
c. She generally lost control of her property when s
d. She was the prime beneficiary by law of her husband's estate
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