APUSH 56 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Missouri Compromise
Monroe
Copperheads
anti-war Northern Democrats
john pemberton
Pharmacist/inventor of Coca-Cola
Canada
the country that America unsuccessfully tried to invade through Detroit, Niagara, and Lake Champlain in 1812
SALT I
Strategic Arms Limitation Treat
1972
US and USSR agree to stop building ballistic missiles for 5 years
Theodore Roosevelt
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
John Bell
Presidential candidate of the Constitutional Union Party in 1860. He drew votes away from the Democrats, helping Lincoln win.
Populism
a politial physiology supporting the rights and power of the people in their struggle agaisnt the privilaged elite
Northern Democrats, also known as Peace Democrats, who opposed Lincoln’s war
policies and were concerned with the growth of presidential power. In the election of
1864, General George McClellan was nominated by the Democrats with their support.
Copperheads
Plymouth
A town in southeastern Massachusetts, on the Atlantic coast. The site in 1620 of the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers, it was the earliest permanent European settlement in New England
Bison
The killing of much of this population, along with the spreading of disease limited down the indian population.
Mary Baker Eddy
founder of Christian Science movement
Aztec
group from the north that invaded central Mexico; were first wandering warriors; built their capital city at Tenochtitlan; increased their power until they dominated central Mexico; built causeways, pyramids, marketplaces, and palaces; adopted many customs from other cultures; used chinamapas for farming; militaristic society; known for human sacrifice and dedication to the sun god; ended when conquered by Spanish explorers in the 1500s
Trent Incident
In 1861 the Confederacy sent emissaries James Mason to Britain and John Slidell to France to lobby for recognition. A Union ship captured both men and took them to Boston as prisoners. The British were angry and Lincoln ordered their release
freeport doctrine
Douglas' opinion (the document) that no matter how the Supreme court ruled, slavery would be defeated if the people voted against it, as it would be impossible to enforce it
Appomatox
Grant corners Robert E Lee & confederates here & Lee surrenders ending the war-1865
provides a broad definition of citizenship, overruling Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) which had excluded slaves and their descendants from possessing Constitutional rights. The amendment requires states to provide equal protection under the law to all peop
Fourteenth Amendment:
forsaken
to quit or leave entirely; abandon; desert:
Regulators
A person or thing that regulates something, in particular

A person or body that supervises a particular industry or business activity
Dollar Diplomacy
give countries money to avoid military intervention; Taft, Knox
Erie Canal
opened as a toll waterway connecting New York to the Great Lakes. Approved in 1817 with the support of New York's Governor, Dewitt Clinton. Along with the Cumberland Road, it helped connect the North and the West.
Powhatan Confederacy
Large confederacy of Indian tribes led by Powhatan in Virginia. Successful for many years in keeping Virginians off Indian lands
John Quincy Adams
6th president from 1825-1829; served in the Senate and House of Representatives; son of President John Adams; helped formulate the Monroe Doctrine as Secretary of State; lost his re-election to Andrew Jackson; viewed as one of the greatest diplomats in American history.
Gadsden Purchase
The Gadsden Purchase was the 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad, it also showed the American belief in Manifest Destiny. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement.
Nelson W. Aldrich
senator of Rhode Island, tacked hundreds of upward tariff revisions onto the reductive tariff bill in 1909
proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
abolitionist movement
movement dedicated to the abolition of slavery that existed primarily in the North in years leading up to the Civil War; had both white and black members.
Citizen Genet
a French ambassador to the United States during the French Revolution. The Citizen Genêt affair began in 1793 when he was dispatched to the United States to promote American support for France's wars with Spain and Britain. However, Genêt's goals in South Carolina were to recruit and arm American privateers which would join French expeditions against the British. His actions had endangered American neutrality in the war between France and Britain
Put forward by Andrew Johnson, it included repeal of ordinances of secession, repudiation of Confederate debts, and ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment. By the end of 1865, only Texas had failed to meet these terms.
Presidential Reconstruction
panacea
a remedy for all disease or ills; cure-all.
Self-sacrificing (adamsian) republicanism
civic virtue is key and natural aristocracy gives leaders
WEB DuBois
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Pontiac's Rebellion
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
The Columbian Exchange
an exchange of plants, animals, and diseases the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa
Maryland Act of Toleration
- 1649; Guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians in Maryland.
- Granted after a Protestant became governor.
- Important precedent for later characteristics of the US and its Constitution.
boston massacre
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
spoils system
placed members of his own party into positions of power
1689 - When King James II was dethroned and replaced by King William of the Netherlands, the colonists of New York rebelled and made a militia officer, governor of New York. He was hanged for treason when royal authority was reinstated in 1691, but the re
Leisler’s Rebellion
epithet
any word or phrase applied to a person or thing to describe an actual or attributed quality:
United States Steel Corporation
the company that in 1901 was capitalized at $1.4 billion. It was America's first billion-dollar corporation, a sum larger than the total estimated wealth of the nation in 1800
Embargo of 1807, opposition
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
General Oliver O. Howard
Service as director of the Freedmen's Bureau.
Yellowstone National Park
first park in late 1800s; after this, Roosevelt committed to making more national parks and forests
1825 - This was opened as a toll waterway connecting New York to the Great Lakes. Along with the Cumberland Road, it helped connect the North and the West.
Erie Canal
Fugitive Slave Clause
Article IV, Section 2, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stated that slaves who escaped must be returned to their owners. It was later abolished in the Thirteenth Amendment
Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election because of
-overwhelming support in the highly populated north while his opponents divided the vote elsewhere
First time a state law is declared unconstitutional; contract clause of the Constitution overrode state law.
Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
Charles de Gulle was pro-American TRUE/FALSE
False, Charles de gulle was the president of France who wanted an independent Eur& vetoed Br. application in the Common Market since he feared it would deepen American power over Eur. affairs
July, 1848 - Site of the first modern women's right convention. At the gathering, Elizabeth Cady Staton read a document listing the many discriminations against women, and adopted eleven resolutions, one of which called for women's suffrage.
Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
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