APUSH 67 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
18th Amendment
prohibition of alcohol
John Winthrop
A prosperous, educated 'pillar-of-english-society' man who migrated to Massachusetts and became the first governer of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and helped them prosper. He believed he ha a 'calling' from God to lead the new religious experiment. He helped the colony prosper as fur trading, fishing, and ship building became inportant industries.
Blitzkrieg
German term meaning "lightning war"; term applied to the rapid German military advance into Poland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands, and France in 1939 and 1940.
Fourteen Points
Wilson's peace plan assuring confidence in WWI "A war to end all wars"
The Grange
Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads
Renaissance
14th century: nurtured an ambitious spirit of optomism and adventure, after the discovery of the New World, along with the printing press (1450). The word means re-birth (of old art/culture).
House of Burgesses
The first representative self-government in America. Issued by the Virginia Company in 1619, they authorized the villagers to summon an assembly. Around this time, the first slaves were brought to America, thus establishing slavery and miniture parliaments on American soil.
Thirteenth Amendment
the constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
Tallmadge Amendment
In 1819, Representative Tallmadge proposed an amendment to the bill for Missouri's admission to the Union, which the House passed but the Senate blocked. The amendment would have prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and would have mandated the emancipation of slaves' offspring born after the state was admitted.
"Quarantine the Aggressor"
Quarantine Speech by President Roosevelt; use economic pressure as an alternative to neutrality and isolationism
Recession
A moderate and temporary decline in the economy
Imperialsim
the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, polical, or military control over weaker territories
Lend-Lease Act
1941: allowed limitless supplies to Britain.
Graft
the act of grafting something onto something else
Whiskey ring
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
Levi Strauss
Immigrant from Germany who produced the first denim pants in San Francisco during the California Gold Rush.
Lincoln Steffens
Reporter from McClure's Magazine whose portraits of a "machine government" and "boss rule" in cities had a studied moral outrage that was reflected in the title of his book that emerged from it, "The Shame of the Cities."
Squatters
Because their landing site was outside of the Virginia Compnay's domain, the Plymouth Bay setters became this, people who colonize and live on land that is not rightfully theirs, land not given to them by the government. They were there without legal right to the land and without specific authority to establish a government.
Grover Cleveland
22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes
Benjamin Harrison
1889 President; McKinley tariff and Sherman AT Act; 1st Billion Dollar Congress
Puritans
Protestants who wished to purify the Anglican Church by breaking away from Catholic practices and barring people from the church who were not commited
Andrew Carnegie
hated monopolistic trusts. entered the steel business in the Pittsburgh area and created an organization with about 40 Pittsburg millionaires. He produced one-fourth of the nation's Bessemer steel in 1990
Indian Reorganization Act
a U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans. Halted the sale of tribal lands and enabled tribes to regain title to unallocated lands.
Casablanca Conference
planned the European strategy of the Allies during World War II
Dawes plan
attempt following WWI for the Triple Entente to collect war reparations debt from Germany; replaced by the Young Plan
Manhattan Project
project conducted during World War II to develop the first atomic bomb
Adolf Hitler
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)
Collective Bargaining
Negotiation between an employer and 1 or more trade union often relating to past results
Recall
the act of removing an official by petition
Booker T. Washington
felt that african americans should accept segregation and the best way to overcome it is to improve you farming an d vocational skills
James B. Weaver
general a presidential canidate for the Greenback Party in 1880
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
Baron Von Steuben
Foreign millitary experts from Prussia that aided George Washington and the Continental army. They also help the colonists prevail against the British.
William Berkeley
Governer of Virgina. In 1670 he disenfranchised many footloose freemen wandering around Virgina. These freemen were usually freed indentured servents who didnt acquire their promised freedom dues because there wasnt any land availiable. They couldnt get land or wives, which led to depression.
Populist Party Platform
Had the following ideas: Secret Ballots, Popular Election of U.S. Senators, Direct Democracy, Banking Reform, Government ownership of Railroads, Graduated income tax, Free and unlimited coinage of silver
Middle Passage
The journey slaves took across the Atlantic from Africa to the colonies; very brutal, awful circumstances
The Seminole War
When Andrew Jackson received orders from Calhoun to stop the raids on American territory by Seminole Indians, he used it as an ecuse to invade Florida and seize the Spanish forts at St. Marks and Penascola, an operation which became known as the Seminole war. The American Government assumed responsibility for Jackson's raid, saying that they had done what was necessary to stop threats from across the borders, and demonstrated to the Spanish that the United States could easily take Florida by force, and that they might consider doing so.
Victory Gardens
Plots of land set aside by Americans during World Ward 1 and 2 for the cultivation of vegetables so as to limit the purchase of produce in stores.
Quarantine Speech
Speech that marks turning point in US policy from isolationism to interventionism. FDR condemning Fascism as a disease needing embargoes to be quarantined.f
Theodore Roosevelt
26th pres, leader of Rough Riders and hero of Spanish American War, known for big stick quote.
Compromise of 1877
This settled the election of 1876, troops were removed from Louisiana and South Carolina and concessions for building a southern transcontinental railroad made
The American Medical Association
1901, A national professional society that, by 1920, nearly two-thirds of all American doctors were members. They quickly called for strict, scientific standards for admission into the practice of medicine.
Continental Currency
When the colonies needed money for the war they turned to the idea of printing paper money. They soon printed too much and inflation occured, Congress realized that the money was virtually worthless. In the end the war was financed by borrowing money from other nations.
Mayflower Compact
And because the Pilgrims did not have a lawful government, the Pilgrim leaders before disembarking, drew up and signed this contract, which was not a constitution per se. It did set an invaluable percedent for later written Constitutions. This contract was an agreement to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon. This was a promising step toward genuine self-government; soon these leaders were assembling to make their own laws in open-discussion town meetings -- a vital laboratory of liberty.
Maryland Act of Toleration
Lord Baltimore founded Maryland in 1634 as a Catholic refuge for his family. Soon Protestants flocked because of the promise of free land and threatened to submerge the Catholics. Also, Baltimore permitted an unusual amount of freedom of worship at the outset. However the Protestants placed heavy restrictions on the Catholics as in England. This act gave support to the Catholics, passed in 1649. It guaranteed toleration to all Christians. Also, less liberally, it decreed the death penalty to those who denied the divinity of Jesus (Jews and atheists).
Homestead Act
Gave cheap land to people who moved west
Sir Walter Raleigh
English elite who established the Lost Colony of Roanoke in present-day NC
Panic of 1819
Begining in 1819, new management at the national bank began tightening credit, calling in loans, and foreclosing mortgages. This precipitated a series of failures by state banks, and the result was a financial panic. Six years of dpression followed. This caused widespread panic and distress that followed as a warning that rapid economic growth and territorial expansian would destabalize the nation.
Battle of Manila Bay
Lead by George Dewey, A decisive defeat killing 400 without a single death.
Ray Stannard Baker
He worked with Tarbell and Steffans at McClure's. Best known for his work "Railroads on Trial". He was the first prominent journalist to write on race relations in the South- "The Clashes of the Races in a Southern City." He believed that social justice required journalism of "righteous indignation."
Chief Dragging Canoe
The leader of the Cherokee in the western Carolinas and Virginia who launched a series of attacks on outlying white settlements in the summer of 1776. Patriotic militias responded in great force, ravaging Cherokee lands and forcing the chief and many of his followers to flee west across the Tennesse River.
Munn V. Illinois
Stated that states had the right to interfere with private property if it was used for public means
Thomas Hooker
A reverend from Boston who led a group into present-day CN where they established the town of Hartford; against the strict policies of Winthrop and the MBC
Johnson v. McIntosh
In 1823, leaders of the Illinois and Pinakeshaw tribes had sold parcels of their land to a group of white settlers, incluing Johnson, but had later signed a treaty with the federral govt. ceding territory that included those same parcels to the United States. The govt. proceded to grant homestead rights to new white settlers, McIntosh, on the land claimed by Johnson. The court was asked to decide which claim had precedence. Marshall's ruling favored the United States. But in explaining it, he offered a preliminary definition of the place of Indians within the nation. He said that the tribes had basic rights to their tribal lands and that preceded all other American law. Individual American citizens could not buy of take land from the tribes, only the federal government could do that.
Battle of San Juan Hill
Victory by the Rough Riders, key Battle in Span-American war. (US 3 times the casualties, mostly blacks)
The Settlement House Movement
Based on the belief that a person's success depends on their environment and if elevating the distressed it required an improvement of the conditions in which the distressed lived. In 1889, this was the most famous settlement house in Chicago as a result of the efforts of Jane Addams. It became a popular model for over 400 similar institutions throughout the nation.
town meetings
Held in New England as a form of local administration
John Jay, Ben Franklin, John Adams
The three principals of the American diplomats who where in France and talked informally with British emissaries.
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