APUSH 69 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Hearst
United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism (1863-1951)
James Weaver
1892 Populist Party leader
Manzanar
camp where Japanese Americans were imprisoned during World War II
Valparaiso
Where two Americans were killed, forcing Chile to pay indemnity, almost war.
Boston marriages
Long-term relationships between two single women.
Glorious Revolution
Otherwise known as bloodless. Dethroned the despotic and unpopular (1688-1689) Catholic James II and gave the throne over to the Protestant rulers of the Netherlands: (Dutch-born) William II and his wife (English-born) Mary, daughter of James II. This change of power caused the Dominion of New England to collapse in America, and Andros was sent back to England. This blatant display of rebellion to the crown inspired American colonists; they used this occaision to strike out against royal authority in America. Unrest rocked New York and Maryland from 1689-1691 until newly appointed royal governers were selected and order was restored. However: the new monarchs relaxed their royal grip on colonial trade and inaugerated a period of 'salutary neglect' when the Navigation Laws were weakly enforced.
Mugwumps
Republicans who were against Blaine's party platform
Providence
In present-day RI; Established by Roger Williams on land he purchased from the Indians; Vowed to accepts all settlers regardless of their beliefs
Deflation
A reduction in available currency and credit that results in a decrease in the general price level.
Second front
British and American invasion of France to relieve pressure on the Soviet Union in the east; Stalin had insisted on opening the second front from June 1941, but the invasion of Normandy (Operation Overlord) did not take place until June 1944.
Bonus bill
passed under FDR. The Treasury distributed $1.5 billion in Treasury checks to the 4 million veterans
Price Discrimination
changing prices to hurt certain crowd
George Dewey
a United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War
Theodore Dreiser
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
United States suffragist and feminist
Benedict Arnold
A general, along with Richard Montgomery, who unsuccessfully threatened Quebec in the late 1775 and early 1776 in a battle that Montgomery was killed in and he was wounded.
Middle passage
Referred to the transatlantic sea voyage that brought slaves to the New World. The long and hazardous "middle" segment of a journey that began with a forced march to the African coast and ended with a trek into the American interior. Many died during this time. "Triangle trade" 1700's.
William McKinley
1897-1901 President; Ran with Mark Hanna to defeat William Jennings Bryant
proprietary colony
Colony fully governed by governors chosen by private land owners; granted permission by the Crown; are eventually reclaimed by the Crown and made into royal colonies; Ex. MD, PN, DE
mercantilism
Idea that colonies existed solely for the benefit of the mother country; provided raw material and resources for England; goal is to export more than import
Alexander Graham Bell
created the telephone that revolutionized the way Americans communicated.
London Naval Conference
resulted in agreements between the major powers on navy vessel numbers, armaments and the rules of engagement in the inter-war period
Budget and Accounting Act
landmark legislation that established the framework for the modern federal budget; required the President to submit to Congress an annual budget for the entire federal government
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
US agency during the Hoover administration; gave aid to state and local gov'ts and made loans to banks, railroads, farm mortgage, and other businesses. Hoover's response to G.D.
2nd Point
Freedom of navigation--you can sail 14 miles from a country unrestrictively.
Boxer Rebellion
Group of chinese banded together to throw out "foreign devils". Lead to more troops being sent.
Russo Japanese War
War between Russia and Japan (collision of empires) out of rival imperial ambitions for Manchuria and Korea
Florence Kelley
reformer who worked to prohibit child labor and to improve conditions for female workers
Ashcan School
a group of United States painters founded in 1907 and noted for their realistic depictions of sordid aspects of city life
Alice Paul
The head of the National Woman's Party. She argued that the Nineteenth Amendment alone would not be enough to protect woman's rights.
John Burgoyne
A British commander of the northern forces, who was supposed to lead his forces down from Canada and meet William Howe in Albany. He began a two-pronged attack to the south along the Mohawk and the upper Hudson approaches to Albany. He was abandoned by Howe, however, who instead of meeting with him, went to capture Philadelphia. This left him alone to carry out the plan in the north.
Virgina Company
1606 (two years after peace with Spain) the joint-stock company recieved a charter from King James I for a settlement in the New World. Motive: gold and desired passage through America to the Indies. The company was intended to endure for a few years after which the stockholders hoped to liquidate it for a profit. This put sever pressure on the colonists: strike it rich and get out or be stuck in the New World.
Restoration
The period after Charles II came back to the throne. During Cromwell's leadership, colonization had been interrupted in England, and now it was restored with even greateer intensity and royal involvement.
Half-Breeds
led by James G. Blaine; party for somewhat civil service reform (jobs given based on competence)
George Westinghouse
Invented railroad air brakes that had his name on it
Wabash Case
1886 supreme court case that decreed that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce; involved Jay Gould
Metacom
Name by which King Phillip went by; Wampanoag chief; declared war on Puritan NE towns damaging and burning many; later executed
Standard Oil
the first great monopoly in America created by John D. Rockefeller
National Road
In 1807, Congress enacted a law propsed by the Jefferson administration that permitted using revenues from Ohio land sales to finance this, it was supposed to go from the Potomic River to the Ohio. By 1818, this ran as far as Wheeling, Virginia, on the Ohio River; and the Lancaster Pike, financed in part by the state of Pennsylvania, extened westward to Pittsburgh.
Charles Lindbergh
young pilot who flew solo across the Atlantic to Paris in 1927. Treated as a celebrity.
Neutrality Act of 1939
allowed European democracies to buy war materials on a "cash-and-carry" basis
Open Door Policy
No Gov't can prohibit commerce from another gov't, issued with China Affair.
William Jennings Bryan
Principle figure in Populist Party - served as Sec. of State under Wilson (resigned in protest of WWI) - prosecutor in the Scopes Trial
Louis Brandeis
A lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling.
Thorstein Veblen
Author of "A Theory of the Leisure Class", which he was harshly critical of the industrial tycoons of the late nineteenth century. Veblen proposed a new economic system in which power could reside in the hands of highly trained engineers, because only they could fully understand the "machine process" by which modern society was governed.
John Dickinson
A man from Pennsylvania that led one end of the extreme at the Second Continental Congress. He led a group of moderates, much like himself, that hoped for a quick reconciliation with Great Britian.
Hernan Cortes
1519, left Cuba with horses and men and set sail for Mexico. On the Yucatan Peninsula, he rescued a female Indian slave, Malinche, who knew Mayan and Nahuatl, the language of the Aztec rulers. She learned Spanish and became his interpretor. He landed at the Aztec capital of Tchochritlan, where there was great unrest among the people who were awaiting a great prophet (which they found in this explorer). The leader, Moctezuma, allowed the conquistadores to approch the capital unopposed because he believed in the profit. The explorer demanded gold and very soon wore out his welcome. Stripped the Aztecs dry.
Communism
A rising idea in the US; An economic system in which all wealth and property is owned by the community as a whole
New England Confederation
Comprised of MBC, New Haven, Plymouth, and CN; joined to fight against Pequots in Pequot War (1636-37)
National Labor Union
lasted six years and attracted 600,000 members.
Wildcat Bank
This made it easy for settlers and speculators to get easy credit, this also fueled the land bloom.
Johnson Debt Default Act
1934 forbade any countries that still owed the U.S. money from borrowing any more cash
Charles Francis Adams Jr.
Along with others, this man uncovered corruption among the railroad barons.
King Philip; King Philip's War
Indians in the Connecticut River Valley area tried hard to resist English encroachment by intertribal unity, a pan-Indian alliance against the swiftly spreading English settlements. In 1675, Metacom (or otherwise known as this to the englishmen) forged such an alliance and together the Indians assulted the English villages, especially froniter settlements. Metacom ensued a war, __, that ended in 1676 when Metacom was beheaded. The war slowed the westward march of English settlements, but also inflicted a lasting defect on Indians.
Jacob Coxey
Led an army of unemployed workers in a march to the white house; was arrested for stepping on a lawn
Sir Edmond Andros
appointed by James II to oversee the enforcement of the Dominion of New England; despised by colonists for autocracy and loyalty for Anglican church
Adams-Onis Treaty
Made in 1819, where Spain ceded all of Florida to the United States and gave up its claim to territory north of the 42nd parallel in the Pacific Northwest. In return, the American government gave up its claim to Texas.
Barnum and Bailey
Two performers that put on a Circus in the early 1900's
Statue of Religious Liberty
Was enacted in 1786 in Virginia, and written by Thomas Jefferson. This called for the complete separation of church and state. It was drawn up because even though most Americans believed that church should play some role in government, they did not wish to give special privalages to any particular domination.
The Tariff of Abominations
Was a bill cursed as this by southerners after Adams signed it. It was a bill for a new tariff on imported goods in 1828. It originated with New England states' woolen manufacturers. To gain support from middle and western states, the administration had to accept duties on other items as well. This antagonized the origninal New England supporters of the bill, so adams just signed the bill.
Second Bank of the United States
Was needed because of more wartime experience, and the charter on the other one expiring. So Congress chartered this in 1816, it was much like the other but with more capital. This could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.
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