APUSH 70 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
(Women's Christian Temperance Union) group organized in 1874 that worked to ban the sale of liquor in the U.S.
Favored aristocrats; Granted vast feudal estates to those who would settler at least 50 persons on them; Heavily protested
Detaining enemy aliens during wartime; term specifically applied to Japanese aliens and Japanese-Americans living on the West Coast (and elsewhere in the U. S.) Who were sent to relocation centers (Manzanar, Topaz, etc.) In 1942 allegedly because of possible disloyalty.
Germany military submarines used in WWI
The town where John Burgoyne surrendered to Haratio Gates after he surrounded him on October 17, 1777. Burgoyne was forced to surrender because he had been short on supplies.
John Cotton
Emigrated to Massachusetts 'bible Commonwealth' to avoid prosecution after speaking badly about the Church of England. He was most prominet amoung the 'first clergy', those select few 'pure' Puritans who dictated the acceptance of new members into the Puritan church. Only 'visible saints' who alone were eligible for church membership could be freemen. He devoted himself to protecting the government's duty to enforce religious rules.
Edward Bellamy
Socialist writer; wrote Looking Backwards
Bacon's Rebellion
Freedmen (former indentured servants) had difficulty working and living within the colonies and would often squat on Indian land; after several attacks from Indians, the freedmen requested protection from the gov't (Berkeley); when he refused to send aid and instead enacted policies to help the Indians, the freedmen were outraged; Nathaniel Bacon, an aristocrat and member of the House of Burgesses began mobilizing a militia to protect whites from Indians; massacred Indians and set fire to Jamestown causing Berkeley to flee; after Bacon died of disease, Berkeley crushed the rebellion; SIGNIFICANCE: colonists began to realize how dangerous indentured servants were becoming and upped slave imports
Deficit spending
The English economist John Maynard Keynes proposed that governments cut taxes and increase spending in order to stimulate investment and consumption. The effect was to increase the deficit because more money was spent than was taken in.
A. Phillip Randolph
African-American civil rights leader; founder of both the March on Washington Movement and the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, a landmark for labor and particularly for African-American labor organizing
Cowboy diplomacy
Pejorative term used to describe resolution of international conflicts with risk, force and or military.
Joseph Stalin
Communist dictator of the Soviet Union
A nickname for the inexperienced but fresh American soldiers during WWI
Sherman Anti-trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Depression of 1893
Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.
Marco Polo
Italian adventurer. Returned to Europe in 1295 after a 20 year voyage in China. Told fabulous tales and is considered an indirect discoverer of the New World. His tales excited many people and encouraged them to find cheaper routes to the treasures in the East. Encouraged a breakthrough in European expansion, especially water and land trade routes.
Law that decreeded that only eldest sons were eligible to inherit land estates.
Washington Gladden
Urban preacher of the social gospel
Tribe whose chief, Metacom, known to the colonies as King Phillip, united many tribes in southern New England against the English settlers
Horizontal integration
joining with competitors to monopolize a given market
King Caucus
Up until 1820, presidential candidates were nominated by caucuses of the two parties in Congress, but in 1824, this idea was overthrown.
Lost Generation
Term coined by Gertrude Stein to describe American expatriate writers of the 1920s; include T. S. Eliot, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, and Stein herself.
Gertrude Stein
an American writer who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature
Capstone Point
idea for a general association of nations formed to make mutual agreements.
Cordell Hull
Secretary of State under FDR, founder of the UN, believed trade was two way street.
Haymarket Square Riot
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
Mother Jones
United States labor leader (born in Ireland) who helped to found the Industrial Workers of the World (1830-1930)
Samuel Gompers
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
Triangle Shirtwaist Company
Located in New York's Washington Square. A terrible fire took place in 1911, 146 workers were killed, most of them were women. For the next three years, state commission studied not only the background of the fire but the general condition of the industrial workplace. By 1914, the commission had issued a series of reports calling for major reforms in the conditions of modern labor institutes.
Lord Shelburne
succeeded Lord North as prime minister after Cornwallis surrendered at yorktown.
Headright system
Beginning of slavery as profitable and positive in America. Tobacco grown in Maryland and Virgina meant more land needed, and more labor to sustain the crop. Problem: where was the labor suposed to come from? Families grew too slow to provide natural population increase, blacks were too expensive, Indians died too quickly. Indentured servents, who were really displaced farmers in England looking desperatly for a job, were willing to exchange several years of servitude for transatlantic passage and eventual "freedom dues". Maryland and Virgina passed this system to encourage the importation of servant workers. The terms: whoever paid for the passage of a laborer recieved the right to acquire 50 acres of land. Masters, not laborers, reaped the benefits of landownership form this system.
Oliver Cromwell
When King Charles I of England disbanded Parliament in 1629 in a blind rage, he created tensions between the people and the monarchy, especially regarding religion. King Charles I called Parliament back in 1640 and the members were mutinous. They rallied behind this Puritan soldier and beheaded Charles I in 1649. He substituted as king for a decade until Charles II was ready to come to the throne in 1660. This whole time, colonization in America was interrupted and during the 'Restoration' period, empire building began again with fervor.
Veteran's Pension Bill
The surplus from Harrison's billion dollar congress goes to giving war veterans more money
A branch of the populist party for free silver
William Penn
Founded Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers and as an experiment of liberal ideas in gov't while making a profit
James Oglethorpe
founded GA, the last British American colony established, as a haven for debtors as well as a buffer state to prevent any Indian or Spanish incursions from the South (FL)
U.S. Steel Corporation
Americas first billion dollar company created by J.P Morgan
Mountain Men
Fur traders and trappers who began trading in the Far West even though there were few of them. The developed important relationships with the existing residents of the West and altered the character and society there. These men where mostly white, young, and single men. A lot of them, about 2/3, married Indian or Hispanic women.
Bureau of the Budget
established by the Budget and Accounting Act; reviews funding requests from government departments and assist the president in formulating the budget
AF of L
A labor union created by Samuel Gompers that was the ONLY labor union that only accepted skilled workers
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Fort Laramie
Area in the Wyoming territory where a treaty was signed by United States and the Lakota nation, Yanktonai Sioux, Santee Sioux, and Arapaho in 1868 guaranteeing to the Lakota ownership of the Black Hills, and further land and hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana. The Powder River Country was to be henceforth closed to all whites. The treaty ended Red Cloud's War.
W.E.B. Du Bois
A Harvard graduate in sociology and history. In "The Souls of Black Folk", he launched an open attack on Washington's "Atlanta Compromise." He accused Washington of unnecessarily limiting the aspirations of his race and advocated that talented blacks should accept nothing less than a full education.
Remember the Ladies
The famous words written by Abigail Adams to her Husband John Adams in 1775. She talks about how she thinks that in the new code of laws being written that the men should be more favorable and generous to women than their ancestors were. Abigail was also calling for new protection against abusive and tyrannical men.
Phillis Wheatley
A poet and slave girl brought to Boston at age eight and never given a formal education. At age twenty, she went to Europe and wrote/published a book of verse and other poems that reveled the influence of Alexander Pope. Remarkable that she overcame her disadvantaged background and wrote poetry.
Eugene Debs
Leader of the Pullman Strike and the American Railway Union
Pequot Wars
wars fought b/t Pequots and the NE Confederation from 1636-37; despite Puritan victory over Indians, NE fought to ensure security from Pequot attacks in the futures
Cornelius Vanderbilt
a railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.
Office of Price Administration
controlled prices and rents after the outbreak of World War II
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
Charles Sheldon
Wrote In His Steps, the story of a young minister who abandoned his comfortable post to work among the needy. This book sold over 15 million copies.
"Black Legend"
The birth of this idea came form the misdeeds of the Spanish in the New World, which obscurred their substantial achievements. This (false) concept held that the conquistadores merely tortured and butchered the Indians ("killing for Christ"), stole their gold, inflicted them with small pox, and left little but misery behind. Although this was all true, the spanish also erected a colossal empire (from California to Florida to Tierra del Fuego). They grafted their culture, laws, religion, and language onto a wide array of native societies, laying the foundations for spanish-speaking nations. They were empire builders and cultural innovators in the New World. More then the English: Spanish mingled whereas English destroyed and conquered.
Waving the bloody shirt
A process of showing off wartime service done by almost all presidents of this era except cleveland and some other republican guy (mckinley?)
Thomas Alva Edison
created many inventions but one of his most famous was the perfection of the electric light bulb in 1879
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
labor union formed initially to change AFL policy from within. Broke away from AFL in 1938, and remained as AFL's largest rival labor federation.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
Richard Henry Lee
A man from Virginia, who was a leader of one of the sides of the Second Continental Congress. The side that he led was for independence and hoped to gain it from the war.
National Origins Act of 1924
limited the number of immigrants to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States. Limited immigration from Europe.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People included
Consisted of Du Bois and his followers and led the drive for equal rights for blacks. They used one of their principle weapons, lawsuits in the federal courts.
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