APUSH civil war 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
appomattox
general lee surrendered to grant
Laird rams
Two confederate warships being constructed in British shipyards; these warships were designed to destroy the wooden ships of the Union navy with their iron rams and large-caliber guns; eventually seized by the British for British use to remain neutral in the Civil War when the London government bought the ships for the Royal Navy because of Minister Adams
Trent Affair
Confederate diplomats Mason and Slidell were traveling on a British steamer, the Trent, on a mission to gain recognition for their government; Union warship stopped the British ship, removed Mason and Slidell, and brought them to the US as prisoners of war
14th amendment
provided the first constitutional definition of citizenship
Charles Finney
(1820s-1830s) avid reformer who started the Second Great Awakening
Winfield Scott
General-in-Chief of Union army, veteran of the 1812 and Mexican wars. Devised a 3-part strategy for winning the war: 1) Anaconda plan 2) Divide Confederacy in two by controlling Mississippi River 3) Raise/train army to take Richmond
Maximilian
Archduke of Austria whom Napoleon III put in charge of Mexico; was eventually killed by firing squad in 1867 after US threatened to march south
black codes
restricted rights and movements of blacks
Dorothea Dix
the Union army's first superintendent of women nurses, she said tthat nurses should be sober, earnest, self-sacrificing, was in charge
greenbacks
paper currency that the government did not back with gold or silver that were issued during the Civil War
Elijah Lovejoy
(1837) editor of an abolitionist newspaper in Alton, Illinois and was victimized repeatedly and finally killed when he tried to defend his press from attack.
Fredericksburg
Gen. Ambrose Burnside led the Union toward Richmond and marched into waiting Confederate troops who shot them down as they marched. Horrible defeat for the Union.
Eugene Genovese
slavery is paternalistic and allowed slaves to create their own community
Battle of Antietam
pivotal/turning point of the Civil War; Confederate diplomats convinced BR and FR to come to an open alliance; Lee defeated John Pope and almost gained foreign alliance but when Lee went on the offensive to invade Maryland, McClellan's forces found the South's military plan and the battle ended in a draw; North gains more confidence and South fails at convincing BR and FR
Emancipation Proclamation
Declared that "all persons held slaves within any state, or designated part of a state,, the people whereof shall bein rebillion against the United States, shall be then, and thencefoward and forever free", and allowed blacks to enlist in the army, the border states were not affected by the proclamation
Homestead Act (1862)
promoted settlement of the Great Plains by offering parcels of 160 acres of public land free to whatever person or family would farm that land for at least 5 years
grandfather laws
permitted men who could not meet literacy and property qualifications to vote if their ancestors had voted before the civil war
American System
program proposed by Henry Clay and others to foster national economic growth and interdependence among the geographical sections. It included a protective tariff, a national bank, and internal improvements.
Panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of Europena demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
Thaddeus Stevens
A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.
emancipationist memory
meant to recreate america according to Lincoln's POV. it discusses fredom and politics of reconstruction
General G. Meade
replaced Hooker to face Lee in Gettysburg, where Lee lost because of General Pickett's failed effort; Pickett commanded 15,000 to charge uphill and a across a mile of open field; tried to break the Union line but Union reinforcements arrived and "Pickett's Charge" failed; first decent victory for the Union
impeachment of johnson
violated tenure of office act by firing edwin stanton, was going to be impeached but senate didnt agree,
Election of 1864
Lincoln running with Andrew Johnson on the National Union ticket, opposing McClellan who ran as a democrat even though he disagreed with the idea of ending the war, Lincoln wins because of support emerging from the victory at Atlanta and Sherman's march to the sea
George McClellan
General who was the new commander of the Union army in the East, who insisted that the troops be given a long period of training and discipline before going into battle; attacked VA in March 1862, and was stopped as a result of brilliant tactical moves by Confederate General Robert E. Lee (became South commander of Eastern forces); forced McClellan to retreat and was replaced with General John Pope
March to the Sea
1864 General WIlliam T. Sherman's troops cut a sixty mile wide path of devastation through the state of Georgia
Dred Scott Case
(1857) Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the South
Gettysburg
Turning point of the war - Last chance for confederacy. Most important battle fought on Union soil. The union won, which prompted Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
Anti-war critics
CW irripressible b/c it was caused by ideas that might not have been able to be compromised.
Army of the Potomac
Major Union army created by Lincoln; recruited 75,000 men to put down the Southern "rebellion"; Led by George McClellan in the first battles of the Civil War
General Stonewall Jackson
Robert E. Lee's right hand man, his troops were very quick and he led many cavaltry charges for Lee, he got his nickname for being a stonewall at the first battle of bull run, died when his own soldiers accidentally shoot him and he dies of pnemonia
Fifty-Four Forty or Fight
(1844) Polk's slogan referring to the desire to fight for all of Oregon
TTP chapter 10
part by Faust. thesis: the slaves were only able to survive the appaling actions of white masters b/c of their overwhelming sense of community. It talks about how slaves created their own community within the plantations. However, the primary sources indicate that life was incredibly hard and horrible on the platations, somewhat diminishing the community idea.
Indian Removal Act of 1830
(1830) Passed by Congress under the Jackson administration, this act removed all Indians east of the Mississippi to an "Indian Territory" where they would be "permanently" housed.
How We Were Created Equal
by Gary Wills. It's about the Emancipaton Proclamation and how unclear and vague it was because Lincoln didn't want to upset anybody. One point Wills makes is that Lincoln defines the definitionof freedom with respect to the declaration of independence. The DOR is the founding document, according to Lincoln.
lincolns plan for reconstruction
10% plan, get 10% of states to oath of allegience granted into union,
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