APUSH Final: People Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Noah Webster
dictionary and Blueback Speller
The Know-Nothings
nativists feared that Catholicism challenged Protestantism (Popish idols) so they formed the "Order of Star-Spangled Banner"
Emma Willard
established Troy Female Seminary (1821)
Nathaniel Bowditch
studied practical navigation and oceanography
Nathaniel Hawthorne
The Scarlet Letter (psychological effect of sin)
Pinckney's Treaty
Established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
Benjamin Silliman
pioneer in chemistry geologist (taught in Yale)
Gilbert Stuart
painted Washington and competed with English artists
George Bancroft
founded the naval academy; published U.S. history book and was known as the "Father of American History"
Shakers
a communistic community (led by Mother Ann Lee); they couldn't marry so they became extinct
Oneida Community
practiced free love, birth control, eugenic selection of parents to produce superior offspring; it survived ironically as a capitalistic venture, selling baskets and then cutlery.
Neal S. Dow
against alochol; "father of prohibition"
Catharine Beecher
Unmarried daughter of a famous preacher, who tirelessly urged women to enter the teaching profession.
Mary Lyon
Mount Holyoke Seminary (1837) was established by
Grimke sisters
wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.
Roger Williams
First American who believed the separation between Church and State. Began the Providence Plantation colony for a refugee for religious minorities.
James Madison
Was an American politician and political philosopher who served as the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817) and is considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. "Father of the Constitution" and "Father of the Bill of Rights".
Daniel Webster
Was a leading American statesman during the nation's Antebellum Period. He first rose to regional prominence through his defense of New England shipping interests. His increasingly nationalistic views and the effectiveness with which he articulated them led Webster to become one of the most famous orators and influential Whig leaders of the Second Party System.
John Adams
Was an American statesman, diplomat and political theorist. A leading champion of independence in 1776, he was the second President of the United States (1797–1801). A New England Yankee, he was deeply read and represented Enlightenment values promoting republicanism. A conservative Federalist, he was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. A lawyer.
Kentucky/Virginia Resolutions
Were political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799, in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures resolved not to abide by Alien and Sedition Acts. They argued that the Acts were unconstitutional and therefore void, and in doing so, they argued for states' rights and strict constructionism of the Constitution. They were written secretly by Vice President Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, respectively.
John Brown
Was a revolutionary abolitionist from the United States, who advocated and practiced armed insurrection as a means to abolish slavery for good.
Election of 1800
Vice President Thomas Jefferson defeated incumbent president John Adams. The election was a realigning election that ushered in a generation of Democratic-Republican Party rule and the eventual demise of the Federalist Party in the First Party System.
Pontiac
An Indian leader who gathered many Indian tribes to fight the British in the Midwest. Leader of Pontiac's Rebellion.
James Fenimore Cooper
1st US novelist, The Leatherstocking Tales (which included The Last of the Mohicans which was popular in Europe)
Lucretia Mott
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
Dorothea Dix
fought for reform of the mentally insane in her classic petition of 1843
Millerites
predicted Christ to return to earth on Oct 22, 1844. When this prophesy failed to materialize, the movement lost credibility.
Joseph Smith
claimed to have found golden tablets in NY with the Book of Mormon inscribed on them. He came up with the Mormon faith, officially called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
Whiskey Rebellion
Was a resistance movement in the western part of the United States in the 1790s, during the presidency of George Washington. The conflict was rooted in western dissatisfaction with various policies of the eastern-based national government. The name of the uprising comes from a 1791 excise tax on whiskey that was a central grievance of the westerners. The tax was a part of treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton's program to centralize and fund the national debt.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Was an American abolitionist and author. Her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Stephen Douglas
Was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Northern Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. He was largely responsible for the Compromise of 1850 that apparently settled slavery issues. However, in 1854 he reopened the slavery question by the highly controversial Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Battle Lexington/Concord
Were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. The battles marked the outbreak of open armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen colonies in the mainland of British North America.
Louisiana Purchase
Was the acquisition by the United States of America of 828,800 square miles of France's claim to the territory of Louisiana in 1803. US paid $15 million for the purchase. Done by Jefferson's administration.
Andrew Jackson
Was the seventh President of the United States (1829–1837). commander of the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans (1815) and is an eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy. A polarizing figure who dominated the Second Party System in the 1820s and 1830s, his political ambition and widening political participation shaped the modern Democratic Party.
Oliver Wendell Holmes
was a physician by profession but achieved fame as a writer; he was one of the best regarded American poets of the 19th century.
William H. Prescott
published on the conquest of Mexico, Peru
William H. McGuffey
created the nations first and most widely used series of textbooks
Adams-Onis Treaty
Was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that gave Florida to the U.S. and set out a boundary between the U.S. and Mexico.
Jay's Treaty
Was a treaty between the United States and Great Britain that is credited with averting war, solving many issues left over from the American Revolution and the Treaty of Paris of 1783.
Connecticut (Great) Compromise
Was an agreement between large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution. It proposed a bicameral legislature, resulting in the current United States Senate and House of Representatives.
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
Occurred on June 22, 1807, the British warship HMS Leopard attacked and boarded the American frigate Chesapeake.
Thomas Jefferson
Was the third President of the United States (1801–1809) and the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776). Jefferson was one of the most influential Founding Fathers, known for his promotion of the ideals of republicanism in the United States.
Abraham Lincoln
Served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led the country through its greatest internal crisis, the American Civil War, preserved the Union, and ended slavery.
Clement Valandigham
Was an Ohio resident of the Copperhead faction of anti-war Democrats during the American Civil War.
John C. Calhoun
Was a leading politician and political theorist from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. Calhoun began his political career as a nationalist and proponent of protective tariffs; later, he switched to states' rights, limited government, nullification and free trade.
Monroe Doctrine
Is a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, 1823 in response to independence of Central American countries. It stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention.[1] The Monroe Doctrine asserted that the Western Hemisphere was not to be further colonized by European countries but that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries.
John Rolfe
He was credited for finding tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia. Married to Pocahontas.
Bacon's Rebellion
Was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony in North America, led by 29-year-old planter Nathaniel Bacon. About a thousand Virginians rose because they resented Virginia Governor William Berkeley's friendly policies towards the Native Americans.
John Smith
Admiral of New England was an English soldier, explorer, and author. He is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia.
Leisler's Rebellion
Was an uprising in late 17th century colonial New York, in which German American militia captain Jacob Leisler seized control of lower New York from 1689 to 1691. The uprising, which occurred in the midst of Britain's "Glorious Revolution," reflected colonial resentment against the policies of King James II. Royal authority was restored in 1691 by British troops sent by James' successor, William III and Leisler was executed.
2nd Great Awakening
a tidal wave of spiritual fervor that resulted in prison reform, church reform, temperance movement (no alcohol), women's rights movement, abolition of slavery in 1830s
American Temperance Society
was formed at Boston (1826) - the "Cold Water Army" (children), signed pledges, made pamphlets, and an anti-alcohol novel emerged called 10 nights in a Barroom and What I Saw There
Era of Good Feelings
Was a period in United States political history in which partisan bitterness abated. It lasted approximately 1816-1824, during the administration of U.S. President James Monroe, who deliberately downplayed partisanship.
Gibbons vs. Ogden
Was a landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution.
Marbury vs. Madison
This case resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury, who had been appointed by President John Adams as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia but whose commission was not subsequently delivered by Madison. Result was judicial review= courts ability to rule constitutionality
Stamp Act/Congress
Was a meeting on October 19, 1765 in New York City of representatives from among the Thirteen Colonies. They discussed and acted upon the Stamp Act recently passed by the governing Parliament of Great Britain overseas, which did not include any representatives from the colonies. The Congress consisted of delegates from 9 of the 13 colonies.
Siege of Yorktown
In 1781 was a decisive victory by a combined assault of American forces led by General George Washington and French forces led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis. It proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in North America, as the surrender of Cornwallis' army prompted the British government eventually to negotiate an end to the conflict.
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