APUSH first semester final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Oregon Territory
Most important new world settlement
(Women's Christian Temperance Union) group organized in 1874 that worked to ban the sale of liquor in the U.S.
The first successfully marketed colonial crop from the English colonies in North American was
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Know-Nothing Party
anti-immig. and anti-catholic, unite native-born protestants against alien menace of Ir. & Ger catholics, prohibit further immig. and institute literacy tests for voting
opposed constitution fearing loss of st. gov't power; feared that constitution lacked declaration of individual rights, feared that powerful central gov't would be run by aristocracy of wealth; favored keeping gov't close to ppl with nation as collection of sm. sovereign republics.
Walt Whitman
American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.
settlers from scotland/ ireland that immigrated to America and brought thier Whiskey makin talents to Rocky Top
Susan B. Anthony
Advocated for Women's rights
Gag Resolution
1836. Required all anti-slavery appeals to be put on hold
Hartford Convention
1814. Financial assistance from Washington to compensate for lost trade from embargo. Made them look more like strict constructionists. Outcome was made to look like betrayers of Us. Marked end of federalist influence.
The Lowell System recruited
young women only
Jackson’s Presidency
focused on the “Common Man;” removal of Indians, removal of federal deposits in BUS, annexation of territory, liberal use of veto
The Colonists objected to the stamp tax because it was...
Anne Hutchinson
argued salvation was not something earned, it was bestowed by God. Diminished role of all established authority, found heretical, banished and settled in RI then NY
Shay's Rebellion
merchants and creditors persuaded MA leg. to repay st. war debt by increasing taxes and deter inflation by halting issuance of paper currency with poor farmers no pay debt threatened with court suits. so bands of angry farmers closed courts by force and resistance gradually grew into full scale revolt proving money of war and fruits of independence not shared evenly; Gov;t passed riot act outlawing illegal assembly and equipped a formidable fighting force and called for additional troops to put down rebellion.
Grimke sisters
turned to Christian bible for justification, Jesus defines duties of followers without any reference to sex or condition, invoked enlightenment principles to claim civic rights for women
eminent domain
commonwealth system that used st. incentives to encourage business to improve general welfare
common ownership of prop. and devised unconventional forms of marriage and family life, challenged cap. values and trad. gender roles
Daniel Webster
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
Mechanical Reaper
Machine invented by Cyrus McCormick that could harvest wheat quickly
Neutrality Proclamation
Washington's declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
American Federation of Labor. A union of skilled workers from one or more trades which focused on collective bargaining (negotiation between labor and management) to reach written agreements on wages hours and working conditions. The AFL used strikes as a major tactic to win higher wages and shorter work weeks.
Pro constitution, no bill of rights because there are no other rights that the citizens have, citizens have all rights unless it says they don't, richer political party, led by george washington
William Seward
Senator of New York, anti-slavery, argued that God's moral law was higher than constitution
Henry D. Thereau
Transcendentalist who believed one should reduce his bodily wants to learn teh truth through meditation.
Radical Republicans
supported rights for black people, thought southern states had to be completely reinvented. Wanted to go to radical reconstruction.
The first governor of Plymouth Plantation was
William Bradford
New Jersey Plan
equal representation in unicameral congress
Committees of Correspondence
committees appointed from different colonies to communicate on matters; asserted rights to self-government, cooperation between colonies
Force Bill
Bill that says Congress is authorized to use the military against belligerent states. Is nullified by South Carolina.
Joint-Stock Companies
Financed the trips to the new world
Washington's Farewell Address
warns against foreign influence, break with EU, Republicans = anti-isolationism, Federalists = pro-isolationism
Embargo Act
1807 prohibited Am. ships from leaving home port until Fr. and Br. repealed restrictions, US exports plunge 108 million to 22 million over 2 years, merchants and farmers howl at lost profits and fed howl at tyranny.
Eugene V. Debs
became nations leading socialist after being imprisoned for activity in Pullman strike emerged avowed radical committed to lifelong struggle against employers to enlist powers of gov't to beat down ppl
Conscription Act
aka Enrollment Act of 1863, increased quotas and was strongly opp. by immig. and seized by N. dems as opportunity to bash Lin. started violent riots in NYC.
Utopian communities
escape constraints of life in Am's emerging market society, hoped planned societies org. life in new ways allow members to realize spiritual and moral potential, opted out of competition and tension of urban society, members hoped to develop minds and souls and inspire new social order
Edgar Allen Poe
(1809-1849). Orphaned at young age. Was an American poet, short-story writer, editor and literary critic, and is considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre. Failing at suicide, began drinking. Died in Baltimore shortly after being found drunk in a gutter.
Irish Immigration
Irish: arriving in immense waves in the 1800's, they were extremely poor peasants who later became the manpower for canal and railroad construction.
Spoils System
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power, started by Jackson
Stono Rebellion
The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to go.
the upper house of the United States Congress, 2 members per state
Middle Colonies
New York New Jersey and Pennsylvainia. had fertile soil moderate winters warm summers and a good growing season and economy was based on farming mineing craft jobscash crops grain manufacturing and trade
Populist Party
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Spot Resolutions
Abraham Lincoln wanted to spot the place where an American was killed on American soil
John Brown
Was an abolitionist. Was leader of Pottawatomie Massacre in 1856. Killed a lot of people
Uncle Tom's Cabin
1852. Published by Harriet Beecher showing the horrors of slavery.
Populist/Peoples party
Frustrated farmers in West and south, wanted graduated income tax
Indians 1800s
Supreme court ruled that Indians could stay. Ignored by jackson. Whites choose to remove Cherokees to gain more land.
Interstate commerce Act/Commission
1887. Prohibited rebates and pools, required railroads to publish rates openly, forbade unfair discrimination against shippers, outlawed charging more for a short trip
Free Soilers
Founded by anti-slavery men in north. Supported feeral aid for internal improvements. ARgued that slave wage labor would go away. Focus on territories.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854. Decided that the territory would be divided into 2 parts and each state could choose to be a free or slave state. But went against compromise of 1820 and compromise of 1850. Status would be decided by popular sovereignty.
Protective tariff
1789, tax on imported goods, helping domestic industry, protecting against europe
Excise Tax
Enforced by Adams, tax on certain goods, favors domestic manufacturing, push industrial revolution
The Pilgrims of Plymouth Plantation benefited from their relationship with the Indians in that
all answers below
Whig Party
believed in expanding federal power on economy, encouraged industrial development; could only gain power on the local level, led by Henry Clay (anti-Jackson)
Articles of Confederation
states joined for foreign affairs, Congress reigned supreme (lacked executive and judicial), one vote per state, 2/3 vote for bills, unanimous for amendments; too much power to states, unable to regulate commerce or taxes
Bacon’s Rebellion
rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native Americans
specie circular
decreed that the government would not accept paper money for government land
Wilmot Proviso
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico
Louisiana Purchase
Napoleon coerced Sp. to give Fr. LA and ordered Sp. officials to restrict Am. access to New Orleans, so Jefferson negotiated purchase of New Orleans and ended up with whole LA territory because Napoleon feared Am. invasion with failure of Fr. Haitian invasion and war in EU already going on. Bought for $15 mill; Jefferson forced to reconsider interpretation of constitution
Maryland Toleration Act
1649 granted religious freedom to all Christians. Created after political conflict constantly threatened the states stability and to protect the Catholic coreligionists who remained a minority.
First Continental Congress
Patriot leaders called a meeting of new all-colony assembly. Delegates chosen by 12 mainland assemblies met in Philly Sept. 1774 and addressed a set of controversial and divisive issues. S. favored new econ. boycott, New Eng. advocated polt. union and defensive military preparations, mid-Atl. wanted to seek a polt. compromise.
John Adams
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the constitution, fought for by Anti-federalists and served as a compromise to get the constitution ratified
Lewis and Clark Expedition
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
Bonanza Farming
very large farms in the United States performing large-scale operations, mostly growing and harvesting wheat.
right of instruction
listen to what people wanted. If president couldn't do that then should step down. Also for members of congress.
Force Acts
1870. Response to KKK but was too late.
Compromise of 1877
Electoral Count Act. Set up electoral commission consisting of 15 men selected from senate, house of representatives and supreme court. Made to determine which party would win. Committee determined that Republicans were victorious and democrats were outraged.
US vs. Wong Kimark
1899. Supreme court decision about what determines US citizenship. His parents were born in china but he was born in US. Wong won the case.
Trent Affair
1861. A union war ship stopped a British main steamer and removed confederate diplomats bound for europe.
Which of the following is NOT a system of recruiting factory labor?
Stephen Austin
American who settled in Texas, one of the leaders for Texan independence from Mexico
Battle of San Jacinto
(1836) Final battle of the Texas Revolution; resulted in the defeat of the Mexican army and independence for Texas
Booker T. Washington
black leader of the day advocating for black econ. progress giving up on polt. protests and avoiding direct assault on wh. supremacy. advocated indust. edu - manual and agr. training. preached values of thrift, hard work and prop. ownership and saw wh. S. elite as crit. allies when they were dependent on black labor they would recognize the justice of black rights
Harriet Beecher Stowe
United States writer of a novel about slavery that advanced the abolitionists' cause (1811-1896) Uncle Tom's Cabin
American Colonization society
1817. WAs founded as a form of abolition.
Anti-Masonic party
A third party in election of 1832. Was opposed to masonic order. Gained supports from protestants groups. Were anti-Jackson.
The first enduring European settlement in New England was established by
a congregation of Puritan Separatists
Nat Turner’s Rebellion
Nat Turner led a slave rebellion in Virginia, attacked many whites, prompted non-slaveholding Virginians to consider emancipation
Marbury Vs. Madison
a case that set a precedent that the Supreme Court could rule a law passed by Congress as unconstitutional.
Proclamation Line of 1763
Brit est. law in return for Pontiac and his allies accepting Brit as new political fathers; closed trans-Appalachian W. to Anglo-Am. settlements; without permission from Brit authorities charters theoretically went to Pac.
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
came from the Compromise of 1850; federal commissioners were appointed and given authority to issue warrants, gather, posses and force citizens to help catch runaway slaves
Jim Fisk and Jay Gould
1869. Tried to raise price of gold
In much of the North, antislavery sentiments were fueled by all of the following except
encouragement and support from southern legislators
French and Indian War
French threat at the borders was no longer present, therefore the colonies didn’t need English protection; more independent stand against Britain
Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
Polk signed Feb. 1848 US agreed to pay Mex. $15 mill. in return for over 1/3 of territory - TX, NM, and CA, ratified by senate Mar. 1848
The colony of Virginia was the first English colony in North America to
all of the answers below
tensions leading to the French and Indian War
Ohio Co. earned 200,000 acre land grant in VA (Iroquois land) alarming France and Iroquois; France constructed forts where upon George Washington came into land with troops and seized and expelled prompting calls for war among expansionists; Head of parliament Board of Trade Will Pitt = expansionists and persuaded PM to send military British had reaped unprecedented money from its overseas trading empire and was determined to crush France, the main obstacle to British expansion
Those cities along the East coast that were not able to successfully construct canals linked to the West were eventually able to
capitalize on the newly emerging railroad industry
The situation of women and immigrants in the factory system was similar in that they both
were powerless to affect pay rates or working conditions
Conscience Whigs
Nullification Crisis
Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void, Jackson responded with Force bill and suggested compromising over tariff; John C Calhoun was a big advocate
National American Woman Suffrage Association; founded in 1890 to help women win the right to vote
Mayflower Compact
A promising step towards self-government
ruling ideology, rule by property owning men of talents and virtues
Salutary Neglect
British colonial policy during 1714-1760 contributed significantly to the rise of American self-government. Royal bureaucrats relaxed their supervision of internal colonial affairs, focusing instead on defense and trade. By-product of political system developed by Robert Walpole, leader of the British Whigs.
Three Branches of Government
Executive, Judicial, Legislative
Confederate States
Virginia, North Carolin, South Carolina, Arkansas, Florida, Texas, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia
Congressional/Radical Reconstruction
1867-72. New state constitutions. Former office holders of confederacy are barred from office. Aim to completely change the south and guarantee blacks their rights.
Black Codes
1865. Eliminated through radical reconstruction. Series of laws designed to regulate affairs of emancipated slaves. Aimed to ensure stable labor force. Blacks were forced to continue working on plantations because of sharecropping.
Perfec tsocieties. New Army. Oneida community: free love. Brook farm. People go to live in a communal way. Commit yourself to the same as everyone.
Second Great Awakening
religious movements, traveling “meetings,” rise of Baptist and Methodist ministries; Charles G. Finney, revivals
Jonathan Edwards
Puritan minister, led revivals, stressed immediate repentance
Port Bill
An intolerable act; closed Boston Harbor until E. India co. was paid for its tea
Justice Act
An intolerable act; Protect royal officials from Am juries, allowed trials for capital crimes be transferred to other colonies or Brit.
Gov. Act
An intolerable act; annulled MA charter and prohibited local town meetings
limited liability
easier to attract investors, if business failed, personal assets of share holders would not be seized to pay for co.'s debts
Freedman's bureau
provide emergency aid to ex-slaves during transition from war to peace
1820s/1830s in practice meant rule by popularly elected party politicians, maj. sh gov.
reformers but not for social justice, workers meant little to keeping the state out of welfare of business which should be big and the less gov't the better. Brand of reform perfectly in step with the conserv. ethos of the time; injected elitist bias into public opinion.
Royal Colonies
Colonies controlled by the British king through governors appointed by him and through the king's veto power over colonial laws.
The practice of forcing people into service. British ships would stop American vessels and impress American sailors. This led to Americans becoming extremely angry and eager for war with Britain.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Great compromise
Bi-cameral legislation, two parts of congress: house of representatives and senate.
Panic of 1857
California gold inflating. Over speculation in land and railroads. North was hit hardest.
Sumner/Brooks fight
1856. South applauds violence for this, annoys North.
Horace Mann
Campaigned effectively for a better schooling system
2nd Great Awakening
Baptist, Methodist congregations grew during this time. Led to camp meetings. Salvation is offered to everyone. No more predestination.
In South Carolina during the early 1740s, a new staple crop was
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
organized Seneca Falls Convention, founded (with Anthony) National Women Suffrage Organization
Washington’s Farewell Address
warned against permanent foreign alliances and political parties, called for unity of the country, established precedent of two-term presidency
Joseph Smith
He was responsible for forming the Mormon sect of Christianity. This new sect was an American one and not European in origin as with all the other sects.
XYZ Affair
Fr. navy seized Am. merchant ships, Fr. foreign ministers Talleyrand Solicited a loan and bribe from Am. diplomats to stop seizures, Admas charged that Talleyrand's agents (dubbed X,Y,Z) had insulted Am. honor. Party conflict now extended to foreign affairs
designed by William Penn as a refuge for Quakers who were persecuted in England because they refused to serve in the army and would not pay taxes to support the Church of England
labor sys. by which freedmen agreed to exchange a portion of their harvested crops with the landowner for use of the land, a house, and tools. sys. developed a cash-trapped S. cuz freedmen wanted to work their own land but lacked money to buy it, while wh. landowners needed agr. laborers but no money to pay wages
free-soil movement
to thwart plan of massive "slave power" conspiracy, joined by ordinary yeomen farmers believing slavery = institution of aristocratic men and threat to liberty of masses; abandoned focus on sinfulness of slavery and depicted it as threat to repub institutions and wh. yeomen farmers
Bank War
Jackson vs. Bank & Biddle; Jackson begins taking out funds and putting them into pet banks, successfully "killing" the bank; leads to fluctuation in economy and eventual panic
Draft Riots
Conscription Act in 1863 forced men between 20-45 years old to be eligible for conscription but one could avoid it if they paid 300 or got someone in their place; provoked anger from poor workers
Valley Forge
the site where George Washington and his troops endured a harsh winter without proper food, shelter, or clothing 1777-1778, showed Wahington's leadership- stayed with troops entire winter
Frederick Jackson Turner
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
Missouri Compromise
1820. Missouri became a slave state. Main was created as a new state without slavery so there were equal free and slave states.
Stephen Douglas
Wanted to break north and south deadlock
Wabash Case
1886. Individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce
Reconstruction Act
1857. Divided south into 5 military districts each commanded by a union general Required state wishing to be re-admitted into Union to ratify amendments.
Fugitive Slave law
1850. Southerners demanded this law. Made it so northeners have to assist in slave catching. Now northerners have to participate in slave.
Mexican War
1847. US Wanted California. First US tries to take it but didn't work. Mexico wants to re-take Texas. Disputed border. Both sides want war. Mexicans had big army who were experienced. America had better generals. Not universally popular in US- some opposition.
The Massachusetts Bay colony was founded as
a business venture
Manifest Destiny
stated the United States was destined to span the breadth of the entire continent with as much land as possible, advocated by Polk
Boston Massacre
British soldiers shot into crowd of snowball fight; two of nine soldiers (defended by John Adams) found guilty of manslaughter
Tariff of Abominations
under JQ Adams, protectionist tariff, South considered it the source of economic problems, made Jackson appear to advocate free trade
Battle of Thames
General William Henry Harrison won a decisive victory over the British here, in a battle that also resulted in the death of Tecumseh.
Committee of Correspondence
group of colonists who wrote letters and pamphlets reporting on British actions
Treaty of Ghent
1815; restored prewar borders to US; made Andrew Jackson war hero, redeemed US pride and w/ coming of peace undercut Hartford convention's demands for sig. revisions to constitution.
Declaration of Independence
to persuade Am. and foreign observers to support independence vilified Geo III. Employed ideas of EU enlightenment justifying republicanism by proclaiming unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, govt derives power from consent of governed and can be overthrown if govt destructive of rights, linked docs of individual liberty, pop. sovereignty, and repub. form of govt with independence, Jefferson est. as defining values of new nation; est. legitimacy of repub. st. gov't
Stamp Act Congress
NY Oct. 1765; called meeting of colonies to implore relief from the act; nine assemblies sent delegates; the group issued a set of resolves, challenging the constitutionality of the stamp and sugar acts and declaring only the colonists' elected representatives could tax them. The resolves also protested against the loss of Am. rights and liberties especially trial by jury. Most sought compromise not confrontation. Concluded the resolves by assuring Parliament that Am. glory in subjects of king and petitioned for repeal of stamp act.
Impeachment of Johnson
Feb. 1868 11 counts of pres. misconduct, 9 of which were violations of the Tenure of Office Act. acquitted but completely defanged for remainder of presidency
Trail of Tears
Scott's army rounded up 14,000 Inds and forcibly marched 1,200 mi. to new Ind territory. arduous journey w/ 3,000 Ind die of starvation and exposure. All tribes removed except Seminole who waged successful guerrilla warfare
American Industrial Revolution
Some of the most important industries of this era were railroads, steel production, oil production, and banking.
Compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
Teller Amendment
This Amendment was drafter by Henry M. Teller which declared that the US had no desire for control in Cuba & pledged the US would leave the island alone.
Whiskey Rebellion
1794, excise tax on whiskey that was part of hamilton's program, there was a resistance against the tax but was put down. Showed determination of US to enforce federal laws
Orders in Council
closed the european ports under French control to foreign shipping. French order the seizure of all merchant ships that enter British ports.
Railroad Strike of 1877
Bad economy, people had lower wages.
Homestead Strike
1892. Led by people working in steal industries. Was put down.
Shay's Rebellion strengthened the movement to
produce a new national constitution
Battle of Antietem
Maryland, battle that should of been a federal victory. First march into the north, change in strategy, lee is invading the north, this allows lincoln to relaease the emancipation proclamation, bloodies day in american history about 23,000 casualties. First battle in Civil War to take place on Northern soil.
Legacy of Civil War
armies of union destroyed confed. and much of econ.; milt. struggle preserved union and destroyed slavery but cost of war = enormous in money, resources, and lives
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
1798. Written by Madison and Jefferson protesting against sedition laws. Says that states can refuse to comply with national law with the law of nullification.
Alien and Sedition Acts
1798. Laws passed by federalists that said had to be in US for 14 years to become a citizens. Trying to reduce immigration. Some say went against first amendment of free speech
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward
1819. Dartmouth college was given a charter by King George. New Hampshire wanted to take it away. John Marshal ruled in favor of college. Proved validity of corporate charters.
For James the Duke of York, to take possession of the colony granted to him by his brother, Charles II, he had to use military force against
the Dutch
William Penn and the Quakers
settled in Pennsylvania, believed the “Inner Light” could speak through any person and ran religious services without ministers
Judiciary Act of 1789
created fed. dist. courts in each st., provided 3 circuit courts to hear appeals from the dist., permitted appeals to the supreme court, ensuring that nat'l (not st.) judges would decide meaning of constitution.
Kansas Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Virginia New Jersey Plans
Big State vs. small states. Both had suggestions for constitution but Virginia won with bicameral legislation and division of powers.
In 1781, the states ratified a plan of the decentralized national government of the United States that was called the
Articles of Confederation
Battle of Tippecanoe
decisive victory in the War of 1812 by Harrison over Tecumseh, used in Harrison’s campaign for presidency
Charles River Bridge Co. v. Warren Bridge Co.
Taney declared leg. charter not necessarily bestow monopoly, leg. could promote gen. welfare by chartering a competing bridge co.
The rise of the factory began in the
textile industry in the Northeast
John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry
hoped to secure arms and lead slave rebellion and est. separate Af. Am. st. in S., Repub leaders disavowed unsuccessful, but dems called natural, logical, and inevitable result of repub docs and teachings. horrified S. feared future
The survival and expansion of Virginia were due, in part, to
the discovery that tobacco would grow well there
The Erie Canal revolutionized domestic markets because it permitted the
transfer of goods from New York to New Orleans along inland waterways
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