APUSH midterm 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Know-Nothing Party
nativist
Electoral College (House)
435
Plethora
Superabundance, Plenty, Excess[ANT: Dearth]
Indentured servant
indenture resembled apprenticeship; for transportation, servant agreed to work for usu. 5 yrs – during which they received no compensation beyond their keep; women forbidden to marry, if pregnant then time lost was added to their terms of service; servants lacked full civil and political rights; masters allowed to abuse; indenture was however a contract, servants could sue
Populism
movement for the farmers, industrial workers and the common man in the Midwest; they at first support the Silver Standard, but don't get
Second Great Awakening
1790s-1840s; emphasized personal salvation and individual faith
National Bank
 
Alexander Hamilton’s_______ was established to improve the national economy, but it also created a constitutional crisis on interpretation of the U.S. constitution.
 
Laissez-faire capitalism
environment in which transactions between private parties are free from state intervention, including restrictive regulations, taxes, tariffs and enforced monopolies.
John Rolfe
Discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony & he married Pocahontas
Land Ordinance
less land, pay with cash only
Joseph Smith
religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830 (1805-1844)
Farmer's Alliance
Movement which focused on cooperation between farmers. They all agreed to sell crops at the same high prices to eliminate competition. Not successful.
JOIN OR DIE
UNIFICATION EFFORT THAT BENJAMIN FRANKLIN NEARLY LED TO SUCCESS BY HIS ELOQUENT LEADERSHIP AND CARTOON ARTISTRY.
Montezuma
Emperor of Mexican empire in South America
Daniel Shays
leader of Shay's Rebellion (tax revolts-you're just as bad as king george) Mass. 1886
John Muir


 (1870) a devoted lover and preservationist of Yosemite. Yosemite later became a National Park in 1890 because of preservationists like John Muir. They failed to save the Hetch Hetchy gorge that was north of Yosemite National Park from being dammed up. California had become unique by linking the health of society with the preservation of the natural environment of California. 
Pinckney's Treaty
(1796, ratified) GW sent Thomas Pinckney to Spain. There, he extracted a promise from Spain to try to prevent attacks on the West from Natives, and use of the Mississippi R.
Roger Williams
governor of Rhode Island (or the "gutter") as a haven for all prejudices
Compromise of 1877
South would allow the Northern republican candidate, Rutherford B. Hayes, to win the election of 1877 in exchange for the removal of federal troops in the South and at least one Southern democrat's appointment to Hayes' cabinet.
Pittsburgh Steel Strike
250,000 workers walked off, owners brought in African Americans to end strike
Stamp Act / Repeal of Stamp Act
1765, 1766
Pet Banks
local or state banks that Jackson used to move the money from the national bank to.
Hartford Convention
Meeting of New England Federalist who were opposed to the War of 1812 and wanted to seek a separate peace with Britain even if it meant seceding from the Union.
Pocahontas
A female member of the Powhatan tribe that Smith fell in love with and, according to him, was saved by.
William Bradford
1st leader of Plymouth colony in Massachusetts
George Washington Carver
African American scientist at Tuskegee Institute, who promoted crops like peanuts, soybeans, etc.
Haymarket Square Riot
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
Lowell System
Located in New England; it was the first women textile industry
Peter Stuyvesant
Conqueror of New Sweden who later lost New Netherland to the English
"Evil Empire"
Reagan referred to the Soviet Union as an "Evil Empire"
Seneca Fall Convention
Feminists met at Seneca Falls, New York in a Woman's Rights Convention in 1848 to rewrite the Declaration of Independence to include women.
Frances Willard & WTCU
She led the Womens' Temperance Christian Union. She was able to get some cities to pass "dry laws" which controlled or abolished alcohol.
Federal Employee Loyalty Program
Established the first general loyalty program in the United States, which was designed to root out communist influence within the various departments of the U.S. federal government.
New Deal coalition
he alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until the late 1960s
William Graham Sumner
Professor are Yale. He supported the idea of social Darwinism.
Second Continental Congress
(May 1775) The congress prepared for war by estab a Continental Army, printing money, and creating gov offices to supervise policy. The congress appointed Washington as the commander in chief b/c he was well liked and a Southerner who could draw loyalist support.
peace settlement at paris
french lost all north american land. only allowed to keep french indies islands. spain traded florida for cuba
Pago Pago, Samoa
1878 - The US gained the strategic port Pago Pago in Samoa for use in refueling US warships overseas. It was part of building an international military presence.
Harvard founded
1636 - Founded by a grant form the Massachusetts general court. Followed Puritan beliefs.
Transportation in the 1840s and 1850s
Tremendous expansion of railroad lines, created a national market for goods; railroads linked the Midwest to the Northeast steamboats and clipper ships became more popular for travel
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882


 (1882) Because of the poverty they had and the success of the California Gold Rush, the Chinese flocked to the US between 1850 and 1880. The Chinese became free workers in the US, usually working for a Confederation of Chinese Merchants (Six Companies) or working on the transcontinental and other railroads. After these jobs, the Chinese took to agriculture, irrigation, and other projects. California targeted the Chinese for racism because there were not many blacks. Mobs broke out and both the Republicans and Democrats joined with the cause of Anti-Chinese. Congress then passed the Chinese Exclusion Act which securely barred and further entry of Chinese laborers into the United States. 
British Foreign Secretary George Canning
asked the American minister in London if the United States would band together with the British in a joint declaration renouncing any interest in acquiring Latin American territory, and specifically warning the European dictators to keep their harsh hands off the Latin American republics.
Ford Motor Company
first est. in 1903 and by 1910 it produced nearly 12,000 cars per year. they were super fast car makers because of the assembly line
Andrew Johnson's plan for Reconstruction:
required the southern states to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment.
By the 1750's, the British colonies on the North American mainland were characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
disdain for British constitutional monarchy
40. Which of the following accurately characterizes the foreign policy goals of Jefferson and Madison before 1812?
 
a. Strengthen the U.S. trade relations with Britain and France
b. Maintain U.S. neutral rights without going to war
c. Seek an allian
b. Maintain U.S. neutral rights without going to war
169. Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill)
At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the British troops were based in Boston. The British army had begun to fortify the Dorchester Heights near Boston, and so the Continental Army fortified Breed’s Hill, north of Boston, to counter the British plan. British general Gage led two unsuccessful attempts to take this hill, before he finally seized it with the third assault. The British suffered heavy losses and lost any hope for a quick victory against the colonies. Although the battle centered around Breed’s Hill, it was mistakenly named for nearby Bunker Hill.
22. The Second Great Awakening of the eighteenth century led to
 
a. Growth of religious conformity
b. The establishments of religious colleges
c. The growth of hysteria over witchcraft
d. An endorsement of the values of the upper class
e. Increase
e. Increase in the temperance and anti-slavery reform movements
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