APUSH Quarter Key Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
offense; annoyance; displeasure:
New Nationalism
Theodore Roosevelt's progressive platform in the election of 1912; building on his presidential "Square Deal," he called for a strong federal government to maintain economic competition and social justice but to accept trusts as an economic fact of life.
overflowing with fervor, enthusiasm, or excitement; high-spirited:
haughtily disdainful or contemptuous, as a person or a facial expression.
Brook Farm
utopian society established by transcendentalist George Ripley near Boston in 1841; members shared equally in farm work and leisure discussions of literature and art. Author Nathaniel Hawthorne and others become disenchanted with the experiment, and it collapsed after a fire in 1847.
John Brown
violent abolitionist who murdered slaveholders in Kansas and Missouri (1856-1858) before his raid at Harpers Ferry (1859), hoping to incite a slave rebellion;he failed and was executed, but his martydom by northern abolitionists frightened the South
Ku Klux Klan
Reconstruction-era organization that was revived in 1915 and rose to political power in the mid-1920s when membership reached 4 to 5 million; opposed to blacks, Catholics, Jews, and immigrants, its membership was rural, white, native-born, and Protestant.
a characteristic, habit, mannerism, or the like, that is peculiar to an individual.
present everywhere at the same time:
Louisiana Purchase
an 828,000 square mile region purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million; the acquisition doubled the size of the U.S. and gave it control of the Mississippi River and New Orleans. Jefferson uncharacteristically relied on implied powers in the Constitution(loose construction) for the authority to make the purchase
James Buchanan
weak, vacillating president of the United States, 1857-1861; historians rate him as a failure for his ineffective response to secession and the formation of the Confederacy in 1860 and 1861
Ulysses S. Grant
hard-fighting Union general whose relentless pursuit of Robert E. Lee finally brought the war to an end in April 1865; elected president in 1868, he presided over two disappointing and corrupt terms and is considered a failure as a president
Popular sovereignty
political process promoted by Lewis Cass, Stephen Douglas, and other northern Democrats whereby, when a territory organized, its residents would vote to decide the future of slavery there; the idea of empowering voters to decide important questions was not new to the 1840s and 1850s or to the slavery issue, however.
Mexican Cession
region comprising California and all parts of the states of the present-day American Southwest that Mexico turned over the Unites States after the Mexican War.
Stephen Austin
leader of American immigration to Texas in the 1820s; he negotiated land grants with Mexico and tried to moderate growing Texan rebelliousness in the 1830s. After Texas became an independent nation, he served as it secretary of state.
Robert La Follette
progressive governor (1900-1904) and senator (1906-1925); he established the "Wisconsin idea" that reformed the state through direct primaries, tax reform, and anticorruption legislation. La Follette was the Progressive Party's presidential nominee in 1924.
Social Gospel
movement that began in Protestant churches in the late nineteenth century to apply the teachings of the Bible to the problems of the industrial age; led by Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch, it aroused the interest of many clergymen in securing social justice for the urban poor. The thinking of Jane Addams, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and other secular reformers was influenced by the movement as well.
Lincoln Steffens
a leading muckraking journalist who exposed political corruption in the cities; best known for his "The Shame of Cities" (1904), he was also a regular contributor to "McClure's" magazine.
John Fiske
historian and expansionist who argued that, with the superiority if its democracy, the United States was destined to spread over "every land in the earth's surface."
Warren Harding
weak but affable president (1921-1923) who allowed his appointees to loot and cheat the government; after his death, political an personal scandals tarnished his presidency. Harding is rated as a failure as president by most historians.
having the same ancestry or descent; related by blood.
an act of usurping; wrongful or illegal encroachment, infringement, or seizure.
Non-Intercourse Act (1809)
replaced the embargo policy by allowing American trade with all countries except Britain and France; like the Embargo Act, this attempt to use American trade as an instrument of foreign policy failed. British and French interference with U.S Shipping continued and the Non-Intercourse Act was repealed in 1810.
Republican Party
political party formed in 1854 in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act; it combined remnants of Whig, Free Soil, and Know-Nothing Parties as well as disgruntled Democrats. Although not abolitionist, it sought to block the spread of slavery in the territories. It also favored tariffs, homesteads, and a transcontinental railroad.
Liberty Party
political party formed in 1840 that supported a program to end the slave trade and slavery in the territories and the District of Columbia James Birney ran as the party candidate in 1840 and in 1844. In 1848, it merged into the Free Soil Party.
George McClellan
union general who was reluctant to attack Lee because of military/political reasons; his timidity prompted Lincoln to fire him twice during the war. He ran unsuccesfully for president against Lincoln in 1864 on an antiwar platform
Charles Finney
a leading evangelist of the Second Great Awakening, he preached that each person had capacity for spiritual rebirth and salvation and that through individual effort could be saved. His concept of "utility of benevolence" proposed the reformation of society as well as of individuals.
Second Great Awakening
period of religious revivals between 1790 and 1840 that preached the sinfulness of man yet emphasized salvation through moral action; it sent a message to turn away from sin and provided philosophical underpinnings of the reforms of the 1830s.
Jefferson Davis
president of the Confederate States of America; a leading southern politician of the 1850s, he believed slavery essential to the South and held that it should expand into the territories without restriction. He served as U.S senator from Mississippi and secretary of war before becoming president of the Confederate States of America (1861-1865). After the war, he served two years in prison for his role in the rebellion
Henry Clay
a leading American statesman from 1810 to 1852; he served as a member of Congress, Speaker of the House, senator, and secretary of state and made three unsuccessful presidential bids. He was known as the Great Compromiser for his role in the compromises of 1820, 1833, and 1850.
Gradual Emancipation
approach to ending slavery that called for the phasing out of slavery over a period of time; many gradual emancipation proposals were built around the granting of freedom to children of slaves who were born after a specified sate, usually when they attained a specified age; in this way, as existing slaves aged and dies, slavery would gradually die too. Many of the northern states, which abolished slavery following the American Revolution, adopted this method of ending the institution.
"Grandfather clause"
laws in southern states that exempted voters from taking literacy tests or paying poll taxes if their grandfathers had voted as of January 1, 1867; it effectively gave white southerners the vote and disenfranchised African Americans.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
naval officer, writer, teacher, and philosopher of the new imperialism of the 1890s; he stressed the need for naval power to drive expansion and establish America's place in the world as a great power.
Booker T. Washington
influential black leader; his "Atlanta Compromise" speech (1895) proposed blacks accept social and political segregation in return for economic opportunities in agriculture and vocational areas. He received money from whites and built Tuskegee Institute into a powerful education and political machine.
Credit Mobilier
a major scandal in Grant's second term; a construction company, aided by members of COngress, bilked the government out of $20-40 million in building the transcontinental railroad. Members of Congress were bribed to cover up the overcharges.
Charles Lindbergh
mail service pilot who became a celebrity when he made the first flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927; a symbol of the vanishing individualistic hero of the frontier who was honest, modest, and self-reliant, he later became a leading isolationist.
Marcus Garvey
black leader in early 1920s who appealed to urban blacks with his program of racial self-sufficiency/separatism, black pride, and pan-Africanism; his Universal Negro Improvement Association ran into financial trouble, however. He was eventually arrested for mail fraud and deported to his native Jamaica in 1927.
to depart in a sudden and secret manner, esp. to avoid capture and legal prosecution:
Horace Mann
reformer who led a crusade to improve public education in America; as secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he established a minimum school term, formalized teacher training, and moved curriculum away from religious training toward more secular subjects.
Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
Supreme Court case that established the Court's power to invalidate state laws contrary to the Constitution; in this case, the Court prevented Georgia from rescinding a land grant even thought it was fraudulently made
Free Soil Party
formed from the remnants of the Liberty Party in 1848; adopting a slogan of "free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men," it opposed the spread of slavery into territories and supported homesteads, cheap postage, and internal improvements. It ran Martin Van Buren (1848) and John Hale (1852) for president and was absorbed into the Republican Party by 1856.
Zachary Taylor
military hero of Mexican War and the last Whig elected president (1848); his sudden death in July 1850 allowed supporters of the Compromise of 1850 to get the measures through Congress
Missouri Compromise (1820)
settlement of a dispute over the spread of slavery that was authored by Henry Clay; the agreement had 3 parts: (1)Missouri became the 12th slave state;(2) to maintain the balance between free states and slave states in Congress, Maine became the 12th free state;(3) the Louisiana territory was divided at 36 deg. 30', with the Northern part closed to slavery and the southern area allowing slavery. This compromise resolved the first real debate over the future of slavery to arise since the Constitution was ratified
James Birney
former slaveholder who at one time was a member of the American Colonization Society, the American Anti-Slavery Society, and the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society; in 1840 and 1844, he ran for president on the Liberty Party ticket.
Transcontinental railroad
linked the nation from coast to coast in 1869; the Union Pacific Railroad built west from Omaha and the Central Pacific started east from Sacramento. The federal government supported construction with over $75 million in land grants, loans, and cash.
John Hay
secretary of state in the McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt administrations; he was the author of the Open Door Notes, which attempted to protect American interests in China in the early 20th century by asking European countries to pledge equal trading rights in China and the protection of its territory from foreign annexation.
Federal Reserve Act (1913)
established a national banking system for the first time since the 1830s; designed to combat the "money trust," it created 12 regional banks that regulated interest rates, money supply, and provided an elastic credit system throughout the country.
Fourteen Points (1918)
Woodrow Wilson's vision for the world after World War I; it called for free trade, self-determination for all peoples, freedom of the seas, open diplomacy, and a League of Nations. Wilson hoped his Fourteen Points would be the basis for a negotiated settlement to end the war. However, they were not harsh enough on Germany for the other Allies to accept. Only a few of them were incorporated into the treaty.
Dred Scott decision (1857)
Chief Justice Roger Taney led a pro-slavery Supreme Court to uphold the extreme southern position on slavery; his ruling held that Scott was not a citizen (nor were any African Americans), that slavery was protected by the Fifth Amendment and could expand into all territories, and that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
Quaker sisters from South Carolina who came north and became active in the abolitionist movement; Angelina married Theodore Weld, a leading abolitionist and Sarah wrote and lectured on a variety of reforms including women's rights and abolition.
Cult of domesticity
the belief that as the fairer sex, women occupied a unique and specific position and that they were to provide religious and moral instruction in the homes but avoid the rough world of politics and business in the larger sphere of society.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Supreme Court case about Jim Crow railroad cars in Louisiana; the Court decided by 7 to 1 that legislation could not overcome racial attitudes, and that it was constitutional to have "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites.
Knights of Labor
labor union founded in 1869 and built by Terrance V Powderly; the Knights called for one big union, replacement of the wage system with producers' cooperatives, and discouraged use of strikes. By 1886, they claimed membership of 700,000. Membership declined after the union's association with the Haymarket Riot of 1886.
American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society
organization founded in 1840 and led by Tappan brothers that opposed the radical ideas of William Lloyd Garrison, especially his attacks on the churches and the Constitution; it followed a more moderate approach and supported the political activities of the Liberty Party.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
agreement that ended the Mexican War; under its terms Mexico gave up all claims to Texas north of the Rio Grande and ceded California and the Utah and New Mexico territories to the United States. The United States paid Mexico fifteen million dollars for the lands, but the land cession amounted to nearly half that nation's territory.
Granger Movement (National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry) (1867)
a farmers' organization and movement that started as a social/educational association; the Grange later organized politically to pass a series of laws to regulate railroads in various states.
actively poisonous; intensely noxious:
Corrupt Bargain
agreement between presidential candidates Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams during the disputed election of 1824; Clay threw his support to Adams in the House of Representatives, which decided the election, and in return, Adams appointed Clay secretary of state. Andrew Jackson, who had a plurality (but not a majority) of the popular and electoral votes, believed he had been cheated out of the presidency.
Calvin Coolidge
taciturn, pro-business president (1923-1929) who took over after Harding's death, restored honesty to government, and accelerated the tax cutting and antiregulation policies of his predecessor; his laissez-faire policies brought short-term prosperity from 1923 to 1929.
characterized by great knowledge; learned or scholarly:
Border States
Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri; these slave states stayed in the Union and were crucial to Lincoln's political and military strategy. He feared alienating them with emancipation of slaves and adding them to the Confederate cause.
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
harsh Congressional Reconstruction bill that provided the president would appoint provisional governments for conquered states until a majority of voters took an oath of loyalty to the Union; it required the abolition of slavery by new state constitutions, the disenfranchisement of Confederate officials, and the repudiation of Confederate debt. Lincoln killed the bill with a pocket veto
Pet banks
financial institutions friendly to Andrew Jackson's administration that received federal finds when he vetoed the Second National Bank's recharter in 1832 and removed all government deposits from it.
white southerners who cooperated with and served in Reconstruction governments; generally eligible to vote, they were usually considered traitors to their states
Franklin Pierce
northern Democratic president with southern principles, 1853-1857, who signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act and sought sectional harmony above all else.
William McKinley
Republican president, 1897-1901, who represented the conservative Eastern establishment; he stood for expansion, high tariffs, and the gold standard. He led the nation during the Spanish-American War (1898) and was assassinated in 1901 by a radical political anarchist.
W.E.B. Dubois
black intellectual who challenged Booker T. Washington's ideas on combating Jim Crow; he called for the black community to demand immediate equality and was a founding member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
acuteness of mental discernment and soundness of judgment.
being without moisture; extremely dry; parched:
Dorothea Dix
schoolteacher turned reformer; she was a pioneer for humane treatment of the mentally ill. She lobbied state legislatures to create separate hospitals for the insane and to remove them from the depravity of the penal system.
John Breckinridge
vice president under James Buchanan and Democratic presidential nominee in 1860 who supported slavery and states' rights; he split the Democratic vote with Stephen Douglas and lost the election to Lincoln. He served in Confederate army and as secretary of war
Robert E. Lee
highly regarded Confederate general who was first offered command of the Union armies but declined; Lee was very succesful until he fought against Ulysses S. Grant in 1864 and 1865. He surrendered the Army of the Northern Virginia to Grant on April 9, 1865, to end major fighting in the war.
Sam Houston
leader of the Texas revolutionaries, 1835-1836, first president of the Republic of Texas, and later a U.S. Senator from the state of Texas; he was a close political and personal ally of Andrew Jackson.
political party formed in 1832 in opposition to Andrew Jackson; led by Henry Clay, it opposed executive usurpation (a strong president) and advocated rechartering the National Bank, distributing western lands, raising the tariff, and funding internal improvements. It broke apart over the slavery issue in the early 1850s.
Spoils System
practice of appointing people to government to positions as a reward for their loyalty and political support; Jackson was accused of abusing this power, yet he only removed about 20 percent of office holders during this tenure.
"slave power"
the belief that a slave-holding oligarchy existed to maintain slavery in the South and to spread it throughout the Unites States, including into the free states; this belief held that a southern cabal championed a closed, aristocratic way of life that attacked northern capitalism and liberty.
Abby Kelley
effective public speaker in the American Anti-Slavery Society, her election to an all-male committee caused the final break between William Garrison and his abolitionist critics in 1840 that split the organization.
Charles Sumner
senator from Massachusetts who was attacked on the floor of the Senate (1856) for antislavery speech; he required three years to recover but returned to the Senate to lead the Radical Republicans and to fight for racial equality. Sumner authored Civil Rights Act of 1875.
William Seward
Lincoln's secretary of state and previously his chief rival for the Republican nomination in 1860; however, his comments about the Fugitive slave law and "irrepressible conflict" made him too controversial for the nomination. As secretary of state, he worked to buy Alaska from Russia
Radical Republicans
Republican faction in Congress who demanded immediate emancipation of the slaves at the war's beginning; after the war, they favored racial equality, voting rights, and land distribution for the former slaves. Lincoln and Johnson opposed their ideas as too extreme
Upton Sinclair
socialist muckraker who wrote "The Jungle" (1906) in which he hoped to indict the capitalist system but instead helped convince Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act (1906), which cleaned up the meat industry.
John Pershing
American commander in France during World War I; his nickname of "Black Jack" resulted from his command of black troops earlier in his career. Before being dispatched to France, Pershing led an American incursion into Mexico in 1916 in a failed attempt to capture Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa.
Eighteenth Amendment (1919)
prohibited the sale, transportation, and manufacture of alcohol; part of rural America's attempt to blunt the societal influence of the cities, it was called the "Noble Experiment" until it was repealed by the Twenty-first Amendment (19330>
Republican in the 1870s who supported Ulysses Grant and Roscoe Conkling; they accepted machine politics and the spoils system and were challenged by other Republicans called Half-Breeds, who supported civil service reform.
Bloody Shirt
Republican campaign tactic that blamed the Democrats for the Civil War; it was used successfully in campaigns from 1868 to 1876 to keep Democrats out of public office, especially the presidency.
Josiah Strong
expansionist who blended racist and religious reasons to justify American expansion in the 1880s and 1890s; he saw the Anglo-Saxon race as trained by God to expand throughout the world and spread Christianity along the way.
Pineapple Republic
popular name for the government American sugar planters in Hawaii set up in 1894 after they, assisted by the U.S. ambassador there and Mariners from a U.S. warship offshore, overthrew the Hawaiian monarch; the rebels immediately sought annexation by the United States, an action supported by many members of Congress. President Cleveland opposed it, and the islands remained independent until 1898, when Congress, with President McKinley's approval, made Hawaii a territory of the United States.
arising from or relating to the surface of the earth (
a feeling or condition of hostility; hatred; ill will; animosity; antagonism.
Martin Van Buren
senator, vice president, and president of the United States; the Panic of 1837 ruined his presidency, and he was voted out of office in 1840. He later supported the Free Soil Party.
Know-Nothing Party
influential third party of the 1840s; it opposed immigrants, especially Catholics, and supported temperance, a waiting period of citizenship, and literacy tests. Officially the American Party, its more commonly used nickname came from its members' secrecy and refusal to tell strangers anything about the group. When questioned, they would only reply, "I know nothing."
William Lloyd Garrison
most prominent abolitionist leader of the antebellum period; he published the antislavery newspaper The Liberator and founded the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Wilmot Proviso
measure introduced in Congress in 1846 to prohibit slavery in all territory that might be gained by the Mexican War; southerners blocked its passage in the Senate. Afterward, it became the congressional rallying platform for the antislavery forced in the late 1840s and early 1850s.
Cotton Diplomacy
a failed southern strategy to embargo cotton from England until Great Britain recognized and assisted the Confederacy; southerners hoped the economic pressure resulting from Britain's need for cotton for its textile factories would force Britain to aid the South. But direct aid was never forthcoming.
Andrew Jackson
US general who defeated the Native Americans at Horseshoe Bend and commanded the victory over the British at New Orleans; he became national hero as a result of his record in the War of 1812 and later rode that fame to the presidency
"New immigration"
wave of immigration from the 1880s until the early twentieth century; millions came from southern and eastern Europe, who were poor, uneducated, Jewish, and Catholic. They settled in large cities and prompted a nativist backlash and, eventually, restrictions on immigration in the 1920s. These immigrants provided the labor force that allowed the rapid growth of American industry in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
Platt Amendment (1901)
an amendment added to Cuba's constitution by the Cuba government, after pressure from the United States; it provided that Cuba would make no treaties that compromised its independence or granted concessions to other countries without U.S. approval. The amendment was abrogated in 1934.
Theodore Roosevelt
assistant secretary of the navy, who headed a volunteer regiment in the Spanish-American War; nicknamed the Rough Riders by the Press, the First Volunteer Cavalry consisted of Roosevelt's colorful friends from the West and his Harvard days. After the war, Roosevelt "rode" his Rough Riders image to the vice presidency and then the presidency of the United States.
The Maine
U.S. battleship sent to Havana in early 1898 to protect American interests; it blew up mysteriously in February 1898 killing 266 men. American newspapers blamed the Spanish, helping to cause the war. In 1976, it was discovered that the ship blew up accidentally.
Tea Pot Dome Scandal
biggest scandal of Harding's administration; Secretary of Interior Albert Fall illegally leased government oil fields in the West to private oil companies; Fall was later convicted of bribery and became the first Cabinet official to serve prison time (1931-1932).
Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
first federal action against monopolies; the law gave government power to regulate combinations "in restraint of trade." Until the early 1900s, however, this power was used more often against labor unions than against trusts.
William Jennings Bryan
a spokesperson for agrarian western values, 1896-1925, and three-time Democratic presidential candidate (1896, 1900, 1908); in 1896 his "Cross of Gold" speech and a free-silver platform gained support from Democrats and Populists, but he lost the election.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Filipino patriot who led a rebellion against both Spain and the United States from 1896 to 1902, seeking independence for the Philippines; his capture in 1901 helped break the resistance to American control of the islands.
Eugene V. Debs
labor leader arrested during the Pullman Strike (1894); a convert to socialism, Debs ran for president five times between 1900 and 1920. In 1920, he campaigned from prison where he was being held for opposition to American involvement in World War I.
something or someone that is not in its correct historical or chronological time, esp. a thing or person that belongs to an earlier time:
Specie Circular (1836)
a federal government action to dampen inflation brought on by land speculation following the closure of the Second National Bank; Jackson issued an order requiring payment for public lands only in gold or silver. This action contracted credit, caused overextended banks to fail, ands precipitated the Panic of 1837.
Exposition and Protest
document was secretly written by Vice President John C. Calhoun in support of nullification; calling on compact theory, he argued that the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional and that South Carolina could lawfully refuse to collect it.
Fourteenth Amendment (1868)
granted citizenship to any person born or naturalized in the US; this amendment protects citizens from abuses by state governments, and ensures due process and equal protection of the law. It overrode the Dred Scott decision
"His Accidency"
nickname given to John Tyler in 1841 by his opponents when he assumed the presidency upon the death of William Henry Harrison; the first vice president to succeed to the presidency, his nickname reflected his conflict with the Whig Party leaders over rechartering the National Bank, raising the tariff, and supporting internal improvements at government expense.
American System
set of proposals by Henry Clay that called for a national bank, protective tariffs, and internal improvements; their goal was American economic self-sufficiency
Indian Removal Act (1830)
gave the president authority to negotiate treaties with southeastern tribes and to trade their land in the east for territory in the west; it also provided money for land transfer and relocation of the tribes.
John L. O' Sullivan
influential editor of the Democratic Review who coined the phrase "manifest destiny" in 1845.
John Quincy Adams
son of President John Adams and secretary of state who helped purchase Florida and formulate the Monroe Doctrine and president who supported an activist government and economic nationalism; after Jackson defeated his bid for a second term in 1828, he continued to serve America as a member of Congress.
Treaty of Paris (1898)
ended the Spanish-American War; under its terms, Cuba gained independence from Spain, and the United States acquired Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. The United States paid Spain twenty million dollars for the Philippines.
Jim Crow Laws
series of laws passed in southern states in the 1880s and 1890s that segregated the races in many facets of life, including public conveyances, waiting areas, bathrooms, and theaters; it legalized segregation and was upheld as constitutional by Plessy v. Ferguson.
Dawes General Allotment Act
abolished communal ownership on Indian reservations; each family head got 160 acres of reservation land; 80 acres for a single person; 40 acres for each dependent child. More than two-thirds of Indians' remaining lands were lost due to this law.
Sacco and Vanzetti
Italian radicals who became symbols of the Red Scare of the 1920s; arrested (1920), tried and executed (1927) for a robbery/murder, they were believed by many to have been innocent but convicted because of their immigrant status and radical political beliefs.
disposed to be silent or not to speak freely; reserved.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
author of Uncle Tom's Cabin. a best selling novel about the cruelty of slavery; often called the greatest propoganda novel in US history, the book increased tension between sections and helped bring on the Civil war
Lewis and Arthur Tappan
founders of the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society; as successful businessman, they funded many antislavery activities in the 1830s and 1840s. They also supported the Liberty Party in the 1840s.
Zimmerman Note (1917)
a secret German proposal to Mexico for an alliance against the United States; Germany offered to help Mexico get back territories it lost to the United States in 1848. Britain alerted the Wilson administration to the plan, and Mexico refused the idea.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Supreme Court case in which the court established the supremacy of federal law over state law; in this case, the court set aside a Maryland law that attempted to control the actions of the Baltimore branch of the Second Natl Bank by taxing it. By preventing Maryland from regulating the Bank, the ruling strengthened federal supremacy, weakened states' rights, and promoted commercial interests.
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
ended World War I; it was much harder on Germany than Wilson wanted but not as punitive as France and England desired. It was harsh enough, however, to set stage for Hitler's rise of power in Germany in 1930s.
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