APUSH Review Terms 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
antinomianism
Essentially anarchy; Hutchinson's believe that man did not need to follow laws as his behavior has not bearing on his predestined outcome
Stalwarts
"Traditional" faction of Republican party lead by Conkling who supported patronage and a third term for Grant
America First Committee
non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into World War II
McKinley Tariff
Brought sugar/economic problems urging U.S. to Annex Hawaii.
NCLC
National Child Labor Committee which is where children would work because women and children could be paid less than men. Gave laws today where children can't work under a certain age.
Mayflower
A Seperatist ship which recieved rights to settle under its jurisdiction in the New World with the Virgina Company. These seperatists were escaping Holland, the land they fleed to after James I banished them in 1608 (he feared rebellion in England). The Seperatists feared the 'Dutchification' of their children, so they wanted to move to America to escape religious prosectution: become pure. They setteled the colony after Jamestown.
Conquistadores
Spansih conquerors. Spain became the dominating exploring and colonizing power in the 1500's. These conquerors fanned out across the Caribbean and eventually America, in the service of God (converted the Indians to Christianity) and in the search of gold, silver, and glory.
Roger Williams
Minister from Salem; extreme Separatist who argued legality of MBC and Plymouth b/c both colonies were built on Indian land which the King had no authority over; Strongly believed in separation of church and state, King should have nothing to do with religious matters;
James Monroe
From Virginia, originally James Madison's Secratary of State, but was then elected as the 5th president of the United States with a total of 183 ballets in the electoral college. He was 61 years old when he became president, and had remarkably favorable circumstances, there a decline in the Federalists and the War of 1812 had ended. After his inaugeration he made a good-will tour through the country. He was accepted and recieved by New Englanders with enthusiasm. The Columbian Centinel, a Federalist newspaper in Boston, observed than an "era of good feelings" had arrived. And on the surface, at least, Monroe's years in presidency did seem to be an era of good fellings. In 1820, he was reelected without opposition. For all practical purposes, the Federalists party had ceased to exist.
Huey Long
FDR's rival; preached "Share Our Wealth;" believed all families could enjoy comfortable income.
Bracero Program
Wartime agreement between the United States and Mexico to import farm workers to meet a perceived manpower shortage; the agreement was in effect from 1941 to 1947.
Indemnity
payment as compensation for a loss like in war.
Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensationalism and attract readers
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.
Mark Hanna
business mogul, financial power behind McKinley's nomination and his subsequent campaign for president; promised a strong and prosperous industrial nation; a mass media genius
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions
Nathanael Greene
Was Horatio Gates' replacement after congress recalled him. It was George Washington who chose him to be the replacement. He was one of the ablest of all the American generals of the time.
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494: Portugese explorer Christopher Columbus discovered the New World, and especially the advanced civilized tribes of the Incans and Mayans. He discovered the gold and silver mines (rich prizes) of the Indian tribes in Mexico and Peru. Spain secured its claim to these territoris in this treaty, and split it with Portugel. Spain recieved more of the prize then Portugal, but Portugal recieved territory in Africa and Asia, as well as Britain.
Henry George
Socialist writer for free trade, secret ballots, single tax on land
Frederick Jackson Turner
"Frontier shapes American character"; stressed the role of western frontier
Northwest Passage
Waterway from Atlantic to Pacific; sought since the 1600s
Vertical integration
combined all phases of manufacturing into one organization
Final Solution
Plan for the extermination of the Jewish population in Nazi-occupied Europe; a total of six million Jews were killed in death camps such as those established at Auschwitz, Belzec, Majdanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka.
Thomas Dewey
leader of the liberal Republicans, but lost Presidential race twice
Allie Powers
Side of WWI consisting of Great Britian, France, U.S., and Russia
James G. Blaine
SOS in two administrations, Harrison and Garfield, and urged Big Sister Policy to LA.
The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
The Treaty of non-aggression between German and the Soviet Union.
Transcontinental RR
cerated standered time, end of na, killed their food supply, brouth setlers west, connected the contry by shipingh goods all over the country, allowed cattle industry
Panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
populists
a party made up of farmers and laborers that wanted direct election of senators and an 8hr working day
Eugene V. Debs
37. The Socialist Party's presidential candidate for the 1912 election. He received nearly one million ballots.
John Locke
A philosopher whose ideas from his social contract theory was used in the first part of the Declaration. His theory was that the government was formed to protect what Thomas Jefferson called, "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
Continental Impost
Was called up by Robert Morris, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and others. It called for a 5% duty on imported goods to be levied by Congress and used to fund the debt. Many Americans feared that this impost would concrete too much financial power in Morris and his allies in Philadelphia. Congress failed to approve the impost in 1781 and 1783.
Johnathon Edwards
The pastor (and great orator) from Northampton, Massachusetts who started the Great Awakening in America. He proclaimed (with burning rightousness) of the folly of believing in salvation through good works and affirmed the need of complete dependence on God's grace. He scared his followers with images of hell.
First Amendment
an amendment to the Constitution of the United States guaranteeing the right of free expression
United Mine Workers
Resulted from the combination of Knights of Labor and some Mine workers party
Chesapeake colonies
Comprised of MD and VI; had characteristics of both the Middle and Southern colonies - slavey and tobacco (South), farmed grain (Middle)
Social Darwinism
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
Amercian System
Proposed creating a great home market for factory and farm producers by raising the protective tariffs, strengthening the national bank, and financing internal improvments.
Office of War Information
government agency created during World War II to consolidate government information services; coordinated war news and propaganda
F. Scott Fitzgerald
American author of novels and short stories about the Jazz Age, a term he coined himself. He is widely regarded as one of the twentieth century's greatest writers.
JP Morgan
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Carrie Chapman Catt
Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter ., became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspiried speaker and abrilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage.
Anna Howard Shaw
Along with Carrie Chapman Catt, they led the National American Suffrage Association which grew from 13,000 members in 1893 to over 2 million in 1917.
Horatio Gates
After John Burgoyne was mauled by New England minutemen on August 16 he was sent into a need for supplies. Short of materials, he fought several costly battles and finally he was forced to withdraw to Saratoga, where this general surrounded him and took his surrender on October 17, 1777.
Nathaniel Bacon
1676: he led a rebellion in Virgina. Many of these people were frontiersmen who were forced into the untamed backcountry in search of avaliable land. Berkeley was friendly toward the Indians and refused to retaliate when they attacked the frontiersman (he had a profitable fur trade with the Indians).
Quota System
an arrangement placing a limit on the number of immigrants from each country (may be out of era)
Act of Toleration (1649
Guaranteed religious freedom for those who asserted the divinity of Jesus Christ (excluded Atheists and Jews)
Cohens v. Virginia
In 1821, in this case Marshall explicitly affirmed the constitutionality of federal review of state court decisions. The states had given up part of their sovereignty in ratifying the Constitution, he explained, and their courts must submit to federal jurdisdiction.
Sedition Act of 1918
Attempt to control morale, it forbade Americans from using disloyal language about U.S. Gov't.
The Union Labor Party
Committed to a program of reform. Almost indistinguishable from that of the middle-class and elite progressives in the city.
George Rodgers Clark
He led a patriot expedition over the Appalachian Mountains and captured settlements in the Illinois country from the British and their Indian allies.
National Labor Union
One of the first labor unions; had over 600k people but neglected blacks, women, and new immigrants
New Amsterdam
Founded as a sea port and company town by the Dutch; later renamed New York
The Monroe Doctrine
In 1823, Monroe announced a new policy that would become known as this, even though it was mostley the work of John Quincy Adams. In it Monroe stated "The American continents are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers." The U.S. would then see any foreign challenge to the sovereignity of existing American nations as an unfriendly act. At the same time, he proclaimed "Our policy in regard to Europe is not to interfere in the internal concerns fo any of its powers. This had few immediate effects, but it was important as an expression of growing nationalism in the U.S.
Federal Reserve Act
Sparked by the Panic of 1893 and 1907, the 1913 Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve System, which issued paper money controlled by government banks.
Joseph and Mary Brant
A Mohawk brother and sister who were among some members of the Iroquois Confederacy who allied themselves with the British, even though they had declared their neutrality on the Revolutionary War in 1776. This alliance was fatal to the Iroquois Confederacy that was already divided and weakened because only three of the Iroquois nations followed them in their support for the British.
Leland Stanford
a member of the Big Four, was one of the financial bankers of the enterprise. Helped build the Central Pacific Railroad.
Hard v. Soft Money Policy
Following civil war the US gov starts deflating economy/ Farmers want inflationary policy because they see their money decreasing
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