APUSH Semester One Final Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Nativist Sentiment
anti-immig.
Loose
Before 1763, navigation laws were...
Federalists
Hamilton followers, loose contruction, strong federal government
Laissez-faire
An economic philosophy. Business should be free to operate without government interference. Business self regulates competition.
Taxation
The Articles of Confederation didn't allow for...
Crittenden Compromise
called for constitutional amendment that'd permanently protect slavery from fed. interference in any st. where already existed, called for W. expansion of MO compromise line to CA border. Slowly barred N. of line and protect S. including any territories hereto after acquired
sentimentalism
celebrated importance of feeling - physical, sensuous appreciation of God, nature, and other human beings caused new marriage system to appear
Congress
The legislative branch of government, as described in Article I of the US Constitution, consisting of the House of Representatives and Senate. Primarily responsible for making laws.
Political Parties/ Factions
Democratic Republicans and Federalists, Because of the debate between Jefferson and Hamilton over states right and loose/strict construction
Free Silver
Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan
Robber Barons
Andrew Carnegie: industrialist steel king, John Rockefeller: oil barren, J. P. Morgan: financed reorganization of railroads and bought carnegie for 400 million. Created US Steel corporation in 1901
King Cotton
Cotton industry was becoming increasingly monopolistic in the south.
Where were the Mid-Atlantic factories located?
Northeast
Social Reciprocity
society naturally punishes criminals indiscriminantly
National Road
part of transportation revolution, from Cumberland MD to Wheeling WVa, toll road network; stimulated Western expansion
Anne Hutchinson
challenged New England Calvinist ministers’ authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism
Mayflower Compact
foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land
3/5 Compromise
Compromise over slavery in the Northwest Territories
Patriot Advantages
1/3 zealous patriots, 1/3 supported with taxes/milt. duties, experienced politicians who commanded public support and inspired leader (Geo. WA). Washington had greater margin for error than Brit. gen., Am. decided outcome preferring patriots to loyalists, had financial and milt. support of Fr.
Roger Williams
As a Puritan, preferred Pilgrims separation of church and state and condemned congregationalism; settled with followers in RI in 1636, no legally established church, congregation = autonomous free to worship as pleased
Chesapeake Affair
During Napoleonic era neither Fr./Br. respected neutrality o Am. merchant vessels. so 1807, Brit warship attacks US vessel, 21 casualties outraging Am.
total war
arraying entire resources of two societies against each other
Revolution of 1800
bloodless transfer of power demonstrated that gov'ts elected by ppl could be changed in orderly way even in times of bitter partisan conflict
Border States
States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did not secede. Very important to union success
Sequoyah
Cherokee who created a notation for writing the Cherokee language (1770-1843)
Loose Construction
The belief that the Constitution should be interpreted "loosely" or "broadly". The idea that what the constitution did not forbid it permitted. This was the viewpoint taken by Hamilton during his debate with Jefferson over the national bank. Hamilton won.
John Winthrop
First governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony (1630-1649). Wanted colony to be a "city on a hill" puritan
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Liberal Republican party
1872. Against corrupt political situation
Hinton Helper
Non aristocrat from north carolina. Wrote the impending Crisis in South 1857: hated by slavery and blacks, attempted to use statistics to prove that non slave holding whites were the ones who suffered most.
Panic of 1819
First financial panic since Washington. caused by over-speculation. Bank of US forclosed many farms.
Democrats vs. Whigs
Second party system
Democrats: Strict counstructionalism, pro-slavery
Whigs: Conservatives who supported reforms and public schools. Wanted internal improvements: canals, railroads. Anti-slavery, protective tariff
Fort Sumter
1861. In charleston, needed supplies in order to support men.
Macon's Bill
Reopened American trade with entire world
National Republicans would have been in favor of all the following except
states' rights
Valley Forge
scarce supplies (food and clothing), army motivated by von Steuben
Non-Intercourse Act
sought to encourage domestic American manufacturing
Dorothea Dix
worked towards asylums for the mentally insane, worked alongside Mann
Spoils System
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
Tariff of 1816
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Sons of Liberty
mainly middling artisans and minor merchants, leaders of mob who demanded resignation of stamp tax collectors (mostly native colonists) made effigy of collector Andrew Olicer which beheaded and burned, then destroyed his warehouse, attacked house of lt. gov. Hutchinson; Rabble (crowds of angry people) - intimidated royal officials. NY leaders = radical whigs who feared reform of imperial system = undermine polt. liberty; published names of merchants who imported Brit. goods, broke store windows and harassed employees
Deism
God had created world, but allowed it to operate in accordance with the laws of nature; influenced by Enlightenment science; rejected authority of bible and relied on people's natural reason to define moral code
Whig Party
formed by Clay, Calhoun, and Webster; rise of dem sparked the creation of 2nd party; began in 1834 by congmen who opp Jackson's policies, accused Jackson of violating constitution with spoils sys. and increasing pres. authority. goal - polt world dom. by men of ability and wealth chosen by talent not birth, celebrated role of enterprising entrepeneurs, welcomed indust. rev. of investments, money capitalists, provide poor with jobs and continue econ progress with return of Clay's Am. sys.
Emancipation Proclamation
issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free. Freed no slaves when issued
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Horizontal Integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
Rush-Bagot Agreement
1817. Between US and Britain. Decided that no one would have military ships on the Great lakes. Improved relations between the two.
National Banking System
1863. Cooperate system where Banks agree on standards of how they will opperate.
Green Backs
paper money, backed by the government fluctuating gold supply. During the civil War
All of the following groups were active in the slave trade in large numbers except
Italian seamen
Battle of Saratoga
American general Horatio Gates was victorious over British general Burgoyne
James Oglethorpe
established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors
Hartford Convention
December 1814, opposed War of 1812, called for one-term presidency, northern states threatened to secede if their views were left unconsidered next to those of southern and western states, supported nullification, end of Federalist Party
Marbury v. Madison
John Marshall declared that the Supreme Court could declare federal laws unconstitutional
Commonwealth Vs. Hunt
Declared that labor unions were lawful organizations and that the strike was a lawful weapon
Henry Clay's American System
integrated program of national econ development that relied on the 2nd bank of the US to regulate st. banks and advocated use of tariff revenues to build roads and canals; nationalistic prog. pop. in W. which needed transport. improvements but crit. in S. w/ no manufacturing indust. to protect
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
In 1639 Connecticut Puritans adopted this plan of government that included an established church, a popularly elected governor and assembly and voting rights for most property-owning men not just church members
Compromise of 1850
to mollify S. included new fugitive slave act, to satisfy N. leg. admitted CA as a free st. resolved boundary dispute between NM and TX in favor of NM and abolished slave trade in WA D.C., org. rest of lands acquired from Mex into territories of NM and UT on the basis of pop. sovereignty
Commonwealth v. Hunt
maj. legal success, improved long term prospects of labor movements by upholding rights of workers to form unions and enforce closed shop, overturned common law precedents by ruling union is not an inherently illegal org. and could strike
James Polk
pres 1845 - 1849; strategy of linking TX and OR put him in the wh. house and TX in the union; initiated Mex-Am. War
congregational church
A church grown out of the Puritan church, was established in all New England colonies but Rhode Island. It was based on the belief that individual churches should govern themselves
New England Town Meetings
Democratic style of government. Towns and cities grew around gathering places, and allowed mass participation in politics.
Mexican Cession
historical name for the region of the present day southwestern United States that was ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the Mexican-American War. this massive land grab was significant because the question of extending slavery into newly acquired territories had become the leading national political issue.
Civil Service
A system of hiring and promotion based on the merit principle and the desire to create a nonpartisan government service.
List of Territorial Acquisitions
Treaty of Paris, 1783: Old Northwest/Ohio Valley/Trans-Appalachia
Louisiana Purchase, 1803
Florida Purchase, 1819 (took from spain)
Texas, 1845
Oregon territory, 1846
The Mexican Cession, 1848
Hudson River School
romanticism about nature and about the land. More art was being created about nature.
Gadsen Purchase
1853. Land from mexico to build a railroad. Negotiated for 10 million.
To protect the nation from the “tyranny of the people,” the original U.S. Constitution provided that the people would directly elect only one part of the national government, the
House of Representatives
Seneca Falls Convention of 1848
women’s rights, organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, modeled requests after the Declaration of Independence
Separatist vs. non-Separatist Puritans
Radical Calvinists against the Church of England; Separatists (Pilgrims) argued for a break from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and established the settlement at Plymouth
Election of 1824
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain."
Noyes and Oneida community
complex marriage, all married to each other, wished to free women from prop. of husbands, no multiple pregnancies, communal nurseries, women cut hair and wore pants
First Bank of the U.S.
repository of nat'l assets, issue paper money based on assets, source of investment capital
Adams-Onis Treaty
1819; persuaded Sp. to cede FL, to US in return US gov't took responsibility for its citizens and financial claims against Sp., renounced Jefferson's claim Sp. TX part of LA purchase and agreed on compromise boundary btwn New Sp and st. of LA
Midnight Judges
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
Seneca Falls Convention
1848. Feminists met here at a women's rights conventions. Re-wrote declaration of independence to include women.
Lincoln Douglas Debates
1858. Debate over slavery to win over senate in Illinois.
New Republican Party
1854. Was formed in mid-west. Hated by southerners. comes from whig ideas. Anti0democrat. Moral reformers. Pro business, pro industry, pro internal improvement. want protective tariff and BUS. Free soilers joined in, know nothings
Grandfather Clause
When an old rule can apply in some situations even though there is a new rule.
If the National Republicans were in favor of a strong, national government, the Democratic Republicans were probably in favor of
a weak national government
The Half-Way Covenant
New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints
American Federation of Labor
began by nat'l trade unions in Dec. 1886 after failing to desist knights union activity; looked to place trade-union structure as evoked in 1880s with the underlying structure that workers need to take the world as it was not dreamed as it might be. opp polt. party for workers.
Bank of the United States
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.
Ex Parte Milligan
1866. People who were in jail were now tried because habeas corpus was suspended during the war.
During its first few years, Jamestown suffered from
the debilitating effects of malaria
Stamp Act Congress
held in New York, agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed
Union Pacific and Central Pacific
1862 chartered by the Repub. cong. to build a transcont. RR line assisted with lavish subsidies by gov't; became free enterprises handed over to construction co.'s persuaded to accept bonds as payment and when that failed selling/borrowing bonds to raise cash.; also limited liability in buying stock.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago
1848. Us paid for the land they took after the MExican war
In the 1820s, the Republican Party was divided into two factions
National Republicans and the Democratic Republicans
European country line up for French and Indian War
France, Spain, and Austria v. Britain and Prussia with British mounted offensives in India, W. Af. and N. Am.
In the early 1600s, the common characteristics of the English colonies included all of the following except
the made efforts to blend English society with native societies
Indian Removal Act of 1830
granted money and lands in OK & KS to Ind. who would give up ancestral holdings
By the end of the American Revolution, most Native American tribes had
experienced a weakening of their power and independence
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