Abnormal Psych 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Impairment
function level
paranoid personality
(odd/eccentric) suspicious
empathy
emotional understanding. Putting yourself in someone's shoes and conveying your understanding of the person's feelings and perspectives
Excitement
Catatonic state of hyperactive, incoherent behavior
delirium
disturbance of consciousness, change in cognition, rapid onset and fluctuation during course of day, evidence that symptoms are caused by medical condition
transference
Process whereby patients transfer their feelings about some key figure in their life onto the shadowy figure of the analyst
ADHD
a disorder involving inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity. (Inattentiveness is characterized by such behaviors as carelessness, forgetfulness in daily activities, and other attentional problems.
Pattern of psychological abnormality that is different, extreme, unusual and bizarre
Deviance
Deviates
Behavior is considered abnormal when it _______ from cultural norms
Abnormal Psychology
Application of psychological science to study mental disorders.
maintenance treatment
Combination of continued psychosocial treatment, medication, or both designed to prevent relapse following therapy.
Depersonalization disorder
Dissociative disorder in which feelings of depersonalization are so sever they dominate the individual's life and prevent normal functioning.
insecure/anxious attachments
uncertain or ambivalent parent-child relationships that are a prodcut of inconsistent and unrepsonsive parents during the first few years of life.
Biopsychosocial
understanding abnormal behavior as a combination of biological psychological and social conditions.
Vulnerabilities
Factors that render a person susceptible to behaving abnormally.
Elimination Disorders
ex: Nocturnal enuresis (bed wetting)
fulfill this potential for goodness and growth
self-actualize
autism
childhood disorder marked by deficits in social interaction (such as a lack of interest in one's family or other children), communication, and activities and interests (such as engaging in bizarre, repetitive behaviors)
Maladaptive
When a person cannot assimilate into society, their behavior is _______
Relapse
Return of active symptoms in a recovered person.
HALLUCINATIONS
SENSORY PERCEPTIONS IN THE ABSENCE OF EXTERNAL STIMULI; USUALLY VISUAL BUT CAN OCCUR IN OTHER SENSORY MODALITIES
orgasmic reconditioning
Learning procedure to help clients strengthen appropriate patterns of sexual arousal by pairing appropriate stimuli with the pleasurable sensations of masturbation.
Blunted Affect
1. Reduction or absence in emotional response to enviormen
Genetic Influences
(Schizo)
Schizophrenia does "run in the family." In other words, schizophrenia has an important genetic component. Evidence for a genetic component comes from twin studies. Monozygotic twins (identical twins) are those with exactly the same genetic makeup; dizygotic twins (fraternal twins) are those who share only half of their genetic makeup. If genetics was the ONLY factor in developing schizophrenia, then both monozygotic twins should always develop this illness.
cocaine use disorder
Cognitive, biological, behavioral, and social problems associated with the use and abuse of cocaine.
identity
concept of who one thinks they are
personality disorder
disorder with personality that is highly inflexible and maladaptive
general understanding of the nature, causes and treatments of abnormality
nomothetic understanding
Counseling
Ph.D/Grad school + internship + post doctral work 
 --psychotherapy, vocational and clinical assessment, teaching, research
Paranoid Schizophrenia
-intact cognitive skills-do not show disorganized behavior-hallucinations and delusions -best form of Schizophrenia
Diathesis-Stress Models
Diathesis - A predisposition toward developing a disorder.
Stress - Activates the "underlying" manner
Protective factors - influences that modify a person's response to environmental stressors, like steeling and inoculation effects
Evolutionary Psychology
Apply principles of evolution to our understanding of the animal and human mind. 
course modifiers
Patterns of development in a disorder that help predict its future course. These include recurrence, timesequences, and seasonal patterns.
Reality principle
Principle on which the ego operates: mediates between reality and the id's demands for gratification.
placebo effect
improvement in a condition produced by a placebo (sometimes a subsititutional change).
unconscious
Part of the psychic makeup that is outside the awareness of the person.
psychoanalytic therapists
Sets concrete goals, works on the development of coping skills, and interpretations are directed towards present life circumstances and patient behavior.
Conduct Disorder
-3 or more criteria, 12months-9 years old when onsetA. A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules violated.1.Aggression to people and animals2. Destruction of property3. Deceitfulness or theft4. Serious violations of rulesB. The disturbance in behavior causes clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioningC. If the individual is age 18 years or older, criteria are not met for Antisocial Personality Disorder.**-Not all children with ODD develop Conduct Disorders-The pervasiveness of ODD and conduct disorders that develop into antisocial PD's or psychopathy.
list of feared objects or situations, starting with those that are less feared and ending with the ones most dreaded
fear hierarchy
mesolimbic pathway
subcortical part of the brain involved in cognition and emotion
sex-change surgery
a surgical procedure that changes a persons sex organs, features, and, in turn, sexual identity. also known as sexual reassignment surgery
Speed Balling
When heroin and cocaine are injected into the body together. It is deadly as it enters the body very quickly when injected into a vein.
criminal commitment
Legal procedure by which a person who is found not guilty of a crime by reason of insanity is confined in apsychiatric hospital.
Expressed Emotion Theory
i. How emotional or angry a family gets toward disturbed member.ii. Schizophrenics with families with more expressed emotion are more likely to relapse.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Description/Symptoms
Disregard for & violation of rights of others
Law-breaking (no remorse)
Lying
Agressiveness/Impulsivity
Symptoms occur outside of schizophrenia or manic episode
History of conduct disorder.
Treatment and Outcomes for Operational Defiant Disorderand Conduct Disorder
-Treatment is often ineffective, though family group oriented approach and bhavioral techniques can be effective- Teaching control techniques to parents- Difficulty carrying out treatment program
Most common sexual disorders in men
Secondary erectile disorder
Premature ejaculation
managed care program
an insurance program in which the insurance company decides the cost, method, provider, and length of the treatment
Major Depressive Disorder
At least 1 major episode lasting about 2 weeks; Depressed mood, loss of interest, significant weight gain/loss, Insomnia/hypersomnia, fatigue, worthlessness, suicidal ideation.
TREATMENTS FOR PTSD: Sociocultra Approaches
PTSD symptoms are understood and treated within the norms of people’s culture.
failure to thrive
a condition in which the child fails to grow physically and cognitively at a normal rate
What is tolerance?
state in which an organism no longer responds to a drug, so the dosage must be upped
Separation anxiety disorder is characterized by
extreme anxiety, often panic, when the sufferer is separated from home or a parent
how do neurotransmitters go to postsynaptic and presynaptic cells?
Receptors are configured so only specific neurotransmitters fit into them. Once a neurotransmitter fits on a receptor, a message can be sent to the postsynaptic cell. Once a presynaptic neuron has released its neurotransmitter, it returns to its normal state. Not all of the neurotransmitter was used so a process called reuptake- reabsorption of leftover neurotransmitter by presynaptic neuron, occurs.
characteristics of schizoid personality disorder
- rare, more in males
- no close relationships, no desire for relationships
- cold, aloof; not affected by praise/criticism, limited emotion
- do well in solitary jobs
Characteristic of Assessment Tools: Validity
  Is the diagnosis accurate?  Is it classifying what it says it’s classifying?
Type A vs Type B patterns
Type A:
1. Time Urgency
 
2. Easily aroused hostility
 
3. Competitiveness
 
4. Heart disease Twice that of Type B
unified personality
self
Suicide-attempters v.s completers
Attempters=usually females
Completers=usually men
passive-aggressive personality
(chronic fearfulness/avoidant) procrastination/stuborness designed to frustrate others
Hypothalamus
Houses biological drives. Hunger, thirst, sex.
Wernicke's encephalopathy
Mental confusion and imbalance
maladaptive
interfere's with individual's ability to functionor is harmful to others
Opioids
Depressants
Relieve pain and reduce tension by depressing the CNS and simulating endorphins
Natural - opium, heroin, morphine, and codeine
Synthetic - methadone
Treating Unipolar Disorders
(Medication)
Tricyclic Antidepressants, increases noneprinepine, serotonin, and dopamine
Melancholia
particularly sever form of depression but get a good response to antidepressants.
transvestic fetishism
Paraphilia in which individuals, usually males, are sexually aroused or receive gratification by wearing clothing of the opposite sex.
chromosomes
chainlike structures found in nucleus of cells. Humans normally have 23 pairs
Dissociative Disorder
 
Disorders involving disturbances in identity, memory and awarenes. Depersonalization Disorder, dissociative fuge, amnesia, indentity disorder.
schizophreniform disorder
Psychotic disorder featuring symptoms of both schizophrenia and major mood disorder.
Neurotic Behavior
Anxiety-driven, exaggerated use of avoidance behaviors and defense mechanisms
research procedure in which a variable is manipulated and the effect on another variable is observed
experiment
Cocaine
Stimulant that produces a euphoric sense of well-being, stimulates the CNS, and decreases appetite
Increases levels of dopamine by preventing reuptake, as well as norepinephrine and serotonin
Causes mania, hyper-sociability, paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions
adding a negative reinforcer or subtracting a positive reinforcer.
d) Extinction
Suicide-Statistics
Women-3-4 times more likely to attempt suicide
Men-4-5 times more likely to complete suicide
More common in white people than other races
Social Phobia
Persistent fear of social situations, scared of performing. (being embarrassed/humiliated)
generalized anxiety disorder
Anxiety disorder characterized by intense, uncontrollable, unfocused, chronic, and continuous worry aboutnumerous events and activities, accompanied by physical symptoms of tenseness, irritability, and restlessness.
Superego
A portion of the psyche: develops throughout childhood, functions as a conscience. Represents integration of parental/societal norms.
Body dysmorphic disorder symptoms
1. Obsessively preoccupied with defective parts of their body they believe is defective2. Spend hours looking at deformed body parts and go to extreme measures to fix.3. Some believe perceptions out of touch with reality4. Begins in teenage years, can be chronic if untreated
associative splitting
Separation among basic functions of human personality (for example, cognition, emotion, and perception) seen by some as the defining characteristic of schizophrenia.
Defense-coping Response
Behavior is directed primarily at protecting the self from hurt and disorganiztion rather than at resolving the situation. Prevails when a person's feelings of adequacy are seriously threatened by a stressor.
research procedure used to determine the corelationship between variables
correlational method
measures the severity of such emotions as anxiety, depression and anger
Affective inventories
affective flattening
negative symptom of schizophrenia that consists of a severe reduction or the complete absence of affective responses to the environment
ventromedial hypothalamus
brain region that depresses hunger when activated
Cognitive Theory
Negative Schema: Beck, depression is a result of cognitive distortion and biases, and negative perception on the world
separation anxiety disorder
Excessive, enduring fear in some children that harm will come to them or their parents while they are apart.
homosexual behavior
Sexual activity with members of the same gender.
Sleepwalking disorder
Repeated episodes of rising from bed during sleep and walking about; wakened only with much difficulty; amnesia for the episode; no impairment of mental activity or behavior
Paranoid Personality Disorder symptoms
1. Pervasive and unwarented mistrust of others2. Sensative to criticsism, harp on small details1. Pervasive and unwarented mistrust of others2. Sensative to criticsism, harp on small details
Persecutory Delusion
the type of delusion most often discussed.-people affected may believe they are being watched or tormented by people they know or by people/groups that they have never met.
Defense mechanism: Displacement
displaces hostility away from a dangerous object and onto a safer substitute
undiferentiated schizophrenia
patients that display several of the characteristic symptoms (no one symptom is more prominent)
Model that says we can best understand abnormal functioning by looking to cognition
cognitive model
delusion of reference
false belief that external events, such as people's actions or natural disasters, relate somehow to oneself
negative symptoms
symptoms of schizophrenia that seem to be deficits in normal thought, emotions, or behaviors
Case Study
in-depth look at the life of a person. 
Causes of Vascular dementia
- Stroke- Head injury- Head infection
Treatment for Cluster C
Alot of Social Phobia treatment, reassurance and possibly Exposure Response Prevention.
maturation hypothesis
a reduction of the traits of acting out, impulsivity, and extreme behaviors
Four types of Impulse Control Disorders (Not elsewhere classified)
Kleptomania, Pyromania, Pathological Gambling, Trichotillomania.
what is body dysmorphic disorder?
exaggerates or imagines body disformities
avoidant personality disorder vs. schizoid
- schizoid doesn't want relationships/social interactions
- avoidant does want these things but it's difficult
exposure and response prevention
The most widely used and accepted treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, in which the affected individual is prevented from engaging in compulsive ritual activity and instead faces the anxiety provoked by the stimulus, leading eventually to extinction of the conditioned response (anxiety).
Neurological Processes of Cognitive Disorders
 
neurotoxins: effect several places of brain (slcohol and PBB) Examples
(Protien fibers destroyed)
Sexual & Gender Identity Disorders
These disorders range from fetishes to arousal problems to gender discomfort. Anything sexual is considered under this category.
characteristics of Munchhausen's syndrome
- symptoms improve once at the hospital
- usually want drugs
- they try to keep doctors and family members separated
- extensive medical knowledge
Categories of sexual dysfunction
- Primary = one that's always existed- Secondary = one that has developed after a period of normal functioning- Situational = occurs in certain situations or with certain partners- Global = Occurs in every type of sexual encounter with every type of partner
Drugs and Gender
Men are 4 times more likely to be heavy drinkers
They are 1.3 times more likely to smoke cigarettes
The physiological effects of alcohol including chronic health effects
1. Effects pleasure centers (initial excitatory effect) the MCLP
2. Dopamine - emotions, memory, gratification
3. Then depresses brain function - which in turn impairs
4. Effects motor ability (at same time that judgment is impaired.

CHRONIC EFFECTS:
-Liver does heavy duty in processing - damage
-High caloric - weight gain
-Malnutrition do to above - lack B-12 in particular
-Social effects are significant - irritability, relationship damage, job loss, etc.
3 types of clinicians
- Ph.D - focus is on research, tests; can't prescribe meds
- Psy.D - doctor in psych; focus on counseling and clinical
- psychiatrist (M.D.) - can prescribe meds, medical training
Cause of fetishism and who does it mainly effect and why?
Cause is classical conditioning.

It mainly affects males because they are sexually fascinated.
Schizophrenia Subtypes
Paranoid
Disorganized
Catatonic
Undifferentiated
Residual
serotonin
Neurotransmitter involved in processing of information and coordination of movement, as well as inhibition and restraint. It also assists in the regulation of eating, sexual, and aggressive behaviors, all of which may be involved in different psychological disorders. Its interaction with dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia.
antisocial personality
(dramatic/emotionally probelem.) chronic pattern of self-centered, manipulative, destructive behavior towards others
Axis IV
Psychosocial and Environmental Problems; factors may affect the treatment and prognosis of mental disorder
Informal criterion for Normal BMI
18.5-24.9
free association
Psychoanalytic therapy technique intended to explore threatening material repressed into the unconscious. The patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind without censoring.
ECT
electroconvulsive therapy - electric shock therapy treatments that often relieve severe depression by triggering seizures in the brain
Dementia
Multiple cognitive impairments, such as memory problems, aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, and disturbances in executive functioning
Indicates substantial decline from previous mental state
Usually occurs late in life
Substance Abuse
Pathological use of a substance

Causes hazardous behaviorMay cause legal problemsDistress or impairment in social, psychological, health, or occupational functioningContinued use despite awareness of these problems
Remission
When symptoms are diminished or improved
gender nonconformity
Individuals expressing behavior and attitudes consistently characteristic of the opposite sex.
Developmental Psychopathology
Emphasizes the importance of developmental norms- age graded averages to understanding influences on abnormal behavior.
DID treatment
1. Integration of all personalities into one2. Identify each alters role and help confront roles and traumas3. Antidepressants anti anxiety drugs successful treatments for children
HPA axis
• HPA axis involved in stress• Hypothalamus triggers release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRF)• Pituitary gland releases adrenocorticotropic hormone• Adrenal cortex triggers release of cortisol, the stress hormone
Panic
A basic emotion that involves activation of the "fight-or-flight" response of the sympathetic nervous system and that is often characterized by an overwhelming sense of fear or terror.
View that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes
somatogenic perspective
nocturnal penile tumescence (npt)
erection during sleep
Helplessness (Abramson, Metalsky, Alloy)
 Depression
 ^^^
 nothing they can do to get out of situation
 ^^^
 global, state and cognitive factors
 ^^^
Aversive Events
Dysthymia
Depressive symptoms for 2 years. Low self-esteem, depressed mood, feelings of hopelessness, low energy/fatigue
frotteurism
Paraphilia in which the person gains sexual gratification by rubbing against non-consenting victims in crowdsfrom which they cannot escape.
Exorcism
The casting out of evil spirits through prayer and other rituals.
behaviorism
view that the appropriate focus of psychological study is the observeable behavior
Mood disorder brain abnormalities
1. Refrontal cortex, hippocampus, anterior amybigate cortex, amygdala
corpus callosum
• Major connection between the two hemispheres• Allows the two hemispheres to communicate
Diathesis-Stress Models
A relatively distal necessary or contributory cause, but is not sufficient enough to cause the disorder, so there must be a more proximal cause (the stressor) which may be the contributory or necessary cause but is not sufficient enough to cause the disorder. Involves three viewpoints: Biological, Psychoanalytic, and Cognitive-Behavioral
State run public mental institutions in the US, established by Dix
state hospitals
tests requiring subjects to interpret vague stimuli (inkblots, pictures, drawings)
projective tests
auditory hallucinations
auditory perception of a phenomenon that is not real, such as hearing a voice when one is alone
death initiator
a person who attempts suicide believing that the process of death is already underway and that he or she is simply hastening the process
Breathing-Related Sleep Disorders
(Dyssomnia)
During respitory system, relaxes and makes it hard to breathe
(common in people who are overweight or people with sinuses or deviated ceptums)
specific phobia
Unreasonable fear of a specific object or situation that markedly interferes with daily life functioning.
sexual sadism
Paraphilia in which sexual arousal is associated with inflicting pain or humiliation.
Treatments for PTSD: EMDR
Eye Movement Desensization and Reprocessing: For trama survivors experience series of movement, follow with eyes. Lateral eye movement helps with trauma.
Avoidant PD
Fear of social situtations where they could be rejected, disapproved, and have extreme sensativity to critism.
Equal in Male and Females and highly Comorbid with social phobias, dependant PD and Boderline PD. (Treatment like those for Social Phobias)
Avoidant Personality Disorder
1) Description
2) Causes
3) Treatment
1) Feel chronically rejected/unworthy, unwilling to get involved with others unless certain of being liked, negative self-view.
2) Difficult temperament may result in rejection by parents, which leads to low self-esteem & develop into APD
3) Techniques for managing anxiety and social skills, treatment similar to patients with social phobia. Relationship with therapist is important predictor of success. 
3 purposes of clinical assesment


Understanding the individual (idiographic strategy)

Diagnosing (nomothetic strategy)

Treatment planning (prognosis)
 
learned helplessness
a learned expectation that one cannot control important life outcomes, resulting in apathy and depression
when patients act and feel toward the therapist as they did or do twoard important persons in their life
transference
psychosis
state involving a loss of contact with reality as well as an inability to differentiate between reality and one's subjective state
positive symptoms
symptoms of schizophrenia that seem to be excesses of or bizarre additions to normal thoughts, emotions, or behaviors
Developmental Stages
periods of time marked by age and/or social tasks that children/adults face social/emotional changes.
Aversive conditioning
Form of behavior therapy in which an attractive stimulus is paired with an aversive event. Ex. alcohol is paired with a substance causing nausea.
adult antisocial behavior
 illegal or immoral behavior such as stealing, lying and cheating
Disorders classified under (6)"mood disorders"
Major depressive, dysthymic, and bipolar disorder.
The roles of stress in Schizophrenia
-may activate underlying vulnerability-may also increase risk of relapse-concept of "social (downward) drift"-unlikely single stress reaction will lead to Schizophrenia
Factors in Stress and Physical Health
Hopelessness and atherosclerosis, optimism and better surgery outcomes

Negative Affect - depressed people experience events as more stressful - depression seems to heighten the risk of heart disease in me and osteoporosis in women

Chronic anger and hostility - risk for heart disease and even death
hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Apparent lack of interest in sexual activity or fantasy that would not be expected considering the person's age and life situation.
Prevalence and course of depression
i. 16 percent, 15-24 year olds ii. Very old depression goes up and is severe and chroniciii. Women more likely, more willing to admit
do not follow a predetermined set of questions; allow for more exploration but decrease reliability
unstructured interview
characteristics of dissociative disorders
- loss of identity, awareness
- caused by extreme trauma, stress, abuse
- often problems with memory that is beyond normal forgetfulness
Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa
- Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height (15% below minimum healthy body weight)- Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, despite being underweight- Distortions in the perception of one's body weight or shape, undue influence of body on self-evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight- Amenorrhea = absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles
Behavioral Theory Model for Paraphilias
Pairing of stimulus and arousal (could be accidental or vicarious)
Lack of alternative sexual reinforcement activites
Inappropriate sexual fantasies coupled with masturbation
Attempts to inhibit fantasies and behaviors, which causes them to occur more frequently
Paraphilia results
Behavioral reinforcement is thought to be at the root of paraphilias
Casual issue and treatment issues for Narcotics
CASUAL:
-No single casual agent including genetics
-Serotonin deficits may be a risk factor
-Co-morbid with antisocial personality disorder
-Join drug culture

TREATMENT:
-Similar to alcohol treatment
-Like alcohol need detox first
-Craving is an issue
-Methadone is used conjunctively
-Wellbutrin used to increase well-being and serotonin lack
-Methadone and Wellbutrin work best with behavioral therapy
college students and psych disorder
- 44% of college students who visit counseling centers had a severe psych disorder
- 1/4 were on medication
Effects of binge drinking in rats and adolescents
Drink heavily but continue to function but can’t recall events; hippocampus unable to encode new memoriesLong-term effects: study in rats showed that those given large quantities during adolescence showed impaired learning and memory as adults.“Dings” in white matter of brain: longitudinal study of binge-drinking adolescent humans found dings in white matter (myelin sheath)
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