APUSH Vocab.# apstudent.com 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Carpetbaggers
A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their own fortunes by buying up land from desperate Southerners and by manipulating new black voters to obtain lucrative government contracts.
Forty-Niners
Easterners who flocked to California after the discovery of gold there. They established claims all over northern California and overwhelmed the existing government. Arrived in 1849.
Solid South
Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.
Factory girls
Lowell opened a chaperoned boarding house for the girls who worked in his factory. He hired girls because they could do the job as well as men (in textiles, sometimes better), and he didn't have to pay them as much. He hired only unmarried women because they needed the money and would not be distracted from their work by domestic duties.
Wilmot Proviso
When President Polk submitted his Appropriations Bill of 1846 requesting Congress' approval of the $2 million indemnity to be paid to Mexico under the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot attached a rider which would have barred slavery from the territory acquired. The South hated the Wilmot Proviso and a new Appropriations Bill was introduced in 1847 without the Proviso. It provoked one of the first debates on slavery at the federal level, and the principles of the Proviso became the core of the Free Soil, and later the Republican, Party.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)
Internationally recognized poet. Emphasized the value of tradition and the impact of the past on the present.
Internal improvements
The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
Conquered territory theory
Stated that conquered Southern states weren't part of the Union, but were instead conquered territory, which the North could deal with however they like.
Civil Rights Act
1866 - Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any other citizens.
Force Bill
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Walker Tariff
1846 - Sponsored by Polk's Secretary of Treasury, Robert J. Walker, it lowered the tariff. It introduced the warehouse system of storing goods until duty is paid.
Louisiana Purchase: reasons
Jefferson, loose construction, 1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
Radical Republicans
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
Calhoun splits with Jackson
1832 - Calhoun resigned as vice-president when his views on states' rights were disputed by Jackson. Calhoun wanted each section of the country to share federal power equally, and he wanted independence for the South if they were to be controlled by the majority.
"Corrupt Bargain"
The charge make by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes for an office.
Election 1844: Liberty Party
The first abolitionist party - believed in ending slavery.
Boston Associates
The Boston Associates were a group of Boston businessmen who built the first power loom. In 1814 in Waltham, Massachusetts, they opened a factory run by Lowell. Their factory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.
Samuel F.B. Morse, telegraph
Morse developed a working telegraph which improved communications.
Sojourner Truth
Name used by Isabelle Baumfree, one of the best-known abolitionists of her day. She was the first black woman orator to speak out against slavery.
Amana Community
A German religious sect set up this community with communist overtones. Still in existence.
Hamilton-Burr duel
After Burr lost to Jefferson as a Republican, he switched to the Federalist party and ran for governor of New York. When he lost, he blamed Hamilton (a successful Federalist politician) of making defamatory remarks that cost him the election. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, in which Hamilton was killed on July 11, 1804.
Purchase of Florida
1819 - Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas.
Freedmen's Bureau
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.
Fourteenth Amendment and its provisions
1866, ratified 1868. It fixed provision of the Civil Rights Bill: full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants.
Election of 1832; Anti-Masonic Party
Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank, which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won - 219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class men of the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.
Horace Greeley (1811-1873)
Founder and editor of the New York Tribune. He popularized the saying "Go west, young man." He said that people who were struggling in the East could make the fortunes by going west.
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus weakening the fugitive slave laws.
Catherine Beecher (1800-1878)
A writer and lecturer, she worked on behalf of household arts and education of the young. She established two schools for women and emphasized better teacher training. She opposed women's suffrage.
Sec. of Treasury Gallatin
Albert Gallatin was a Swiss immigrant who was a financial genius and served as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury from 1801 - 1814 under Presidents Jefferson and Madison. He advocated free trade and opposed the Federalists' economic policies. Gallatin was a member of the U.S. delegation that negotiated the Treaty of Ghent, and later served as Ambassador to France and to Britain.
West Florida; 1810
The U.S. wanted this region, which now forms the southern parts of the states of Alabama and Mississippi, because it bordered the Mississippi River. The U.S. seized West Florida after an uprising by American settlers in the region.
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish
A member of the Grant administration, he was an able diplomat who peacefully settled conflicts with Great Britain through the Treaty of Washington.
Election of 1840: candidates; characteristics
William Henry Harrison and V.P. John Tyler - Whig - 234 votes. Martin Van Buren - Democrat - 60 votes. James G. Birney - Liberty Party - 0 votes. Panic of 1837 and a coming depression kept Van Buren from being reelected. Whigs rejected Clay, nominated military hero Harrison with the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler too". They depicted Van Buren as living in luxury and Harrison as a "log cabin and hard cider" guy, which wasn't entirely true.
Compromise of 1850: provisions, impact
Called for the admission of California as a free state, organizing Utah and New Mexico with out restrictions on slavery, adjustment of the Texas/New Mexico border, abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia, and tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division.
Women's movement; like others; overshadowed by anti-slavery movement
In the 1800's, the women's movement was often overshadowed by the anti-slavery movement. Many men who had been working on behalf of the women's movement worked for the abolition of slavery once it became a major issue.
Bayard v. Singleton
1787 - First court decision in which a law was found unconstitutional based on a written constitution.
Causes of the War of 1812
These included: British impressment of sailors, British seizure of neutral American trading ships, and the reasons given by the War Hawks (the British were inciting the Indians on the frontier to attack the Americans, and the war would allow the U.S. to seize the northwest posts, Florida, and possibly Canada).
Election of 1824: popular vote; electoral vote; house vote: Jackson; Adams; Crawford; Clay
Popular vote: Jackson - 152,933 (42%), Adams - 115,626 (32%), Clay - 47,136 (13%), Crawford - 46,979 (13%). Electoral vote: Jackson - 99, Adams - 84, Crawford - 41, Clay - 37. House vote: Adams - 13, Jackson - 7, Crawford - 4, Clay - dropped. Jackson did not have a majority in the electoral vote, so the election went to the House of Representatives, where Adams won.
Election of 1844: Candidates
James K. Polk - Democrat. Henry Clay - Whig. James G. Birney - Liberty Party.
Prison reform: Auburn system; Pennsylvania system
Prison reform in the U.S. began with the Pennsylvania system in 1790, based on the concept that solitary confinement would induce meditation and moral reform. However, this led to many mental breakdowns. The Auburn system, adopted in 1816, allowed the congregation of prisoners during the day.
Was Jacksonianism an attack on privilege?
To some extent, it was. Jackson opposed monopolies and the privileged class of society; he attacked the national bank for this reason. He advocated increased popular participation in government and greater opportunity for the common man.
Why war against Britain rather than against France?
Britain practiced impressment and was believed to be supplying weapons to the Indians on the frontier and encouraging them to attack the U.S. Also, Britain held land near the U.S. which the Americans hoped to acquire, and a war with Britain would allow the U.S. to seize Florida from Britain's ally Spain. Although France had also seized American ships, France had agreed to lift its neutral trading restrictions, and the U.S. had resumed trade with France.
Dorothea Dix; treatment of the insane
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
Bank war: Veto message by Andrew Jackson
1832 - President Jackson vetoed the bill to recharter the national bank.
Naval engagements in the War of 1812
The U.S. navy won some important battles on the Great Lakes but failed to break the British blockade of the U.S.
Criminal Conspiracy Laws and early unions
For a time in the 1700's and 1800's, these laws were directed at early labor unions. The organized stoppage of work by a group of employees in a strike could be judged a criminal restraint of trade. This approach largely ended after Commonwealth v. Hunt.
Eli Whitney: cotton gin (short for "engine")
1798 - He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton form its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.
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