APUSH Vocab.- apstudent.com Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Orestes Brownson (1803-1876)
Presbyterian layman, Universalist minister, Unitarian preacher and founder of his own church in Boston. Spent his life searching for his place and supporting various causes. As an editor, he attacked organized Christianity and won a large intellectual New England following. Then turned Roman Catholic and became a strong defender of Catholicism in Brownson's Quarterly Review, from 1844 until his death.
John C. Calhoun
Formerly Jackson's vice-president, later a South Carolina senator. He said the North should grant the South's demands and keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace. He was a spokesman for the South and states' rights.
Scalawags
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842 - Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
"Transportation Revolution"
By the 1850s railroad transportation was fairly cheap and widespread. It allowed goods to be moved in large quantities over long distances, and it reduced travel time. This linked cities' economies together.
Nativism
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
War Hawks
Western settlers who advocated war with Britain because they hoped to aquire Britain's northwest posts (and also Florida or even Canada) and because they felt the British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack the Americans on the frontier. In Congress, the War Hawks were Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
Maximillian in Mexico
European prince appointed by Napoleon III of France to lead the new government set up in Mexico. After the Civil War, the U.S. invaded and he was executed, a demonstration of the enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine to European powers.
Peggy Eaton Affair
Social scandal (1829-1831) - John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
Mexican War: causes, results
Causes: annexation of Texas, diplomatic ineptness of U.S./Mexican relations in the 1840's and particularly the provocation of U.S. troops on the Rio Grande. The first half of the war was fought in northern Mexico near the Texas border, with the U.S. Army led by Zachary Taylor. The second half of the war was fought in central Mexico after U.S. troops seized the port of Veracruz, with the Army being led by Winfield Scott. Results: U.S. captured Mexico City, Zachary Taylor was elected president, Santa Ana abdicated, and Mexico ceded large parts of the West, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S.
John Sutter (1803-1880)
A German immigrant who was instrumental in the early settlement of Califonria by Americans, he had originally obtained his lands in Northern California through a Mexican grant. Gold was discovered by workmen excavating to build a sawmill on his land in the Sacramento Valley in 1848, touching off the California gold rush.
Brook Farm
An experiment in Utopian socialism, it lasted for six years (1841-1847) in New Roxbury, Massachusetts.
President Jefferson
He believed in a less aristocratic presidency. He wanted to reduce federal spending and government interference in everyday life. He was a Democratic-Republican (originally an Anti- Federalist), so he believed in strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan
Former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery. Not put into effect because Lincoln was assassinated.
National Republicans
After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.
Maysville Road Veto
1830 - The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
54º40' or Fight!
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk's slogan - the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54º40' latitude. Polk settled for the 49º latitude in 1846.
San Jacinto
A surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa Ana's camp on April 21, 1836. Santa Ana's men were surprised and overrun in twenty minutes. Santa Ana was taken prisoner and signed an armistice securing Texas independence. Mexicans - 1,500 dead, 1,000 captured. Texans - 4 dead.
Theodore Weld (1802-1895)
Weld was devoted to the abolitionism movement. He advised the breakaway anti-slavery Whigs in Congress and his anonymous tract "American Slavery as It Is" (1839) was the inspiration for Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Elijah Lovejoy (1802-1837)
An abolitionist and editor. The press he used was attacked four time and Lovejoy was killed defending it. His death was an example of violence against abolitionists.
National Trade Union
Unions formed by groups of skilled craftsmen.
Trevett v. Weeden; 1786-1787
Occurred under the Articles of Confederation, when each state had a different type of currency. Acts passed by the Rhode Island Legislature imposed heavy fines on those who refused to accept the state's depreciated currency at face value. Weeden was acquitted on the grounds that the acts were unconstitutional.
Non-Intercourse Act
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.
General Oliver O. Howard
Service as director of the Freedmen's Bureau.
Election of 1872: Liberal Republicans, Horace Greeley
Liberal Republicans sought honest government and nominated Greeley as their candidate. The Democratic Party had also chosen Greeley. Regular Republicans renominated Grant. The Republicans controlled enough Black votes to gain victory for Grant.
Franchise extended spoils system
Franchise extended - more people were given the right to vote, even men who owned no land. Spoils system - "To the victor go the spoils" - the winner of the election may do whatever they want with the staff. Jackson made more staff changes than any previous president, firing many people and replacing them with his own.
Martin Van Buren; the Albany Regency
Martin Van Buren, a Democratic-Republican Senator from New York, rallied the factory workers of the North in support of Jackson. He became Jackson's V.P. after Calhoun resigned. New York politics at that time was controlled by a clique of wealthy land-owners known as the Albany Regency, of which Van Buren became the leader.
General Zachary Taylor
Commander of the Army of Occupation on the Texas border. On President Polk's orders, he took the Army into the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grnade Rivers and built a fort on the north bank of the Rio Grande River. When the Mexican Army tried to capture the fort, Taylor's forces engaged in is a series of engagements that led to the Mexican War. His victories in the war and defeat of Santa Ana made him a national hero.
Cyrus McCormic, mechanical reaper
McCormic built the reaping machine in 1831, and it make farming more efficient. Part of the industrial revolution, it allowed farmers to substantially increase the acreage that could be worked by a single family, and also made corporate farming possible.
Irish and German immigration
Irish: arriving in immense waves in the 1800's, they were extremely poor peasants who later became the manpower for canal and railroad construction. German: also came because of economic distress, German immigration had a large impact on America, shaping many of its morals. Both groups of immigrants were heavy drinkers and supplied the labor force for the early industrial era.
Tripolitan War (1801-1805)
Also called the Barbary Wars, this was a series of naval engagements launched by President Jefferson in an effort to stop the attacks on American merchant ships by the Barbary pirates. The war was inconclusive, afterwards, the U.S. paid a tribute to the Barbary states to protect their ships from pirate attacks.
British seizure of American ships
France blocked English ports during the Napoleonic Wars of the early 1800s; England responded by blocking French ports. The British seized neutral American merchant ships which tried to trade at French ports.
Erskine Agreement
1809 - The U.S. offered to cease all trade with France and resume trade with Britain if the British would stop the impressment of American sailors. The British did not agree to this, so this proposal never went into effect.
Secretary of War Stanton
As Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton acted as a spy for the radicals in cabinet meetings. President Johnson asked him to resign in 1867. The dismissal of Stanton let to the impeachment of Johnson because Johnson had broken the Tenure of Office Law.
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. It passed because New England favored high tariffs.
Gabriel Prosser (1775-1800)
A slave, he planned a revolt to make Virginia a state for Blacks. He organized about 1,000 slaves who met outside Richmond the night of August 30, 1800. They had planned to attack the city, but the roads leading to it were flooded. The attack was delayed and a slave owner found out about it. Twenty-five men were hanged, including Gabriel.
Supreme Court: Chisholm v. Georgia
The heirs of Alexander Chisholm (a citizen of South Carolina) sued the state of Georgia. The Supreme Court upheld the right of citizens of one state to sue another state, and decided against Georgia.
Rush-Bagot Treaty; Great Lakes
1817 - This treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain (which controlled Canada) provided for the mutual disarmament of the Great Lakes. This was later expanded into an unarmed Canada/U.S. border.
Jackson's removal of deposits; Roger B. Taney; pet bank; Loco-Focos
Angry because Biddle used bank funds to support anti-Jacksonian candidates, Jackson removed federal deposits from the bank in 1833, firing the secretaries of treasury who wouldn't comply, and was charged with abuse of power. Roger B. Taney was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and helped Jackson crush the Bank of the U.S. Pet banks were state banks into which Jackson deposited federal funds in 1833, after he vetoed the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., so called because people thought they were chosen on political grounds. Loco Focos (1835) were Democrats who wanted reform and opposed tariffs, banks, monopolies, and other places of special privilege.
Election of 1848: Cass, Taylor
Zachary Taylor - Whig. Lewis Cass - Democrat. Martin Van Buren - Free Soil Party (Oregon issues). Taylor side-stepped the issue of slavery and allowed his military reputation to gain him victory. Cass advocated states' rights in the slavery issue. Free Soil Party wanted no slavery in Oregon.
Supreme Court: Darmouth College v. Woodward
1819 - This decision declared private corporation charters to be contracts and immune form impairment by states' legislative action. It freed corporations from the states which created them.
Treaty of Sam Ildefonso
1800 - In this treaty, Spain gave the Louisiana territory back to France (France had lost it to Spain in the Seven Years War).
Monroe Doctrine: origins; provisions; impact
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
Supreme Court: Gibbons v. Ogden
1824 - This case ruled that only the federal government has authority over interstate commerce.
Supreme Court: Ware v. Hylton 1796
A treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain required that all debts owed by the U.S. to Britain had to be paid in full. However, a Virginia statute said that American debts to Britain could be paid in depreciated currency. The Supreme Court upheld the treaty, proving that federal laws take precedence over state laws.
Supreme Court: River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
1837 - Supreme Court ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot work to the disadvantage of the public. The Charles River Bridge Company protested when the Warren Bridge Company was authorized in 1828 to build a free bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the Charles River Company was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the Warren Company could build its bridge.
Supreme Court: Martin v. Hunters Lessee
1816 - This case upheld the right of the Supreme Court to review the decisions of state courts.
War of 1812 increased nationalism and economic independence
The U.S.'s success in the War of 1812 gave Americans a feeling of national pride. The War of 1812 had cut off America's access to British manufactured goods and forced the U.S. to develop the means to produce those goods on its own.
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