Archaeology 18 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
1.
survey
Babylonia
Southern Mesopotamia
Organic
Was once living
artifact
a human made object
Cholula
2200 ya to today
Levallois
tool technique/tradition, prepared core, taking off 4-5 consistently shaped flakes
Homo heidelbergensis
Homo erectus in Europe
Clovis
The earliest well-established Native American culture, distributed throughout much of North America and dating 11,200 to 10,900 BC.
Matrix
the sediment enclosing the archaeological record
reciprocity
obligations between individuals or groups involving the expectation that the other party will respond when called on to do so
prehistory
history before development of writing
Iconography?
art forms/writing systems that symbolically represent ideas about religion or cosmology
arbitrary levels
measured strata by estimation. normally done by distance
Teotichuacan
Largest city 125,000 people. irrigated fields, avenue of the dead
totem
particular object that serves to identify a specific group such as a clan
cultural anthropology
nonbiological aspects; learned social, linguistic, tecnological & familial behaviors of humans
alta mira
Spain, 100 bison,
• conkey-information communication system
• Certain ground gather at certain time of the year
• To exchange gods, mates, for ritual
• Way to increase group identity and group solidarity
Excavation
how archaeologists gather data about the past
feature
the non portable evidence of technology, such as fire hearths, architectural elements, artifact clusters, garbage pits, and soil stains
Chavin Culture
SA characterized by feline deity
knapping
intentionally removing a series of flakes, working stone (a.k.a. flaking)
intensive agriculture
cultivation using draft animals, machinery or hand tools in which plots are used annually, often entails fertilizer, irrigation, and land reclimation
quantitative attributes
length, width, thickness, weight, numeric dimensions
Crop marks
Usually mark antiquities buried. Affects color, density, and height of crops!
faunal analysis
examine bones of animal killed. examine how they were cut, broken. used experimentally
acheulean
stone tool africa and western europe and asia. homo erectus found here..
Dendrochronology
the science or technique of dating events, environmental change, and archaeological artifacts by using the characteristic patterns of annual growth rings in timber and tree trunks
gravity model
a concept from geography whereby interaction among settlements is based on size, similar to interaction among planets based on gravity. Bigger communities have more interaction and influence on smaller communities
Stelae
Stone monuments erected by Maya rulers to record their history in rich images and hieroglyphic symbols. These symbols can be read and dated.
paleopathology
The branch of osteology that studies the evidence of disease and injury in human skeletal remains
Berdaches
Among Plains Indian societies, men who elected to live life as women; they were recognized by their group as a third gender.
Archaeofauna
The animal bones found at an archaeological site. Can tell us: Prehistoric diet: What types of animals? General or specialized diet? Hunting strategies, Seasonality of site occupation, Type of site, Food sharing, Social status
matrix-sorting
the hand sorting of processed bulk sooil for minute artifacts or ecofacts
ethnicity
the study of different ethnic groups within a society
Al Goodyear
University of South Carolina
- Topper Site
argon-argon dating
A high-precision method for estimating the relative quantities of argon-39 and argon-40 gas; used to date volcanic ashes that are between 500,000 and several million years old
Hemudu Culture
a widespread rice farming culture south of Shanghai, dating to as early as 7000 BC
Landscape Archaeology
Study of individual features including settlements seen as single components within the broader perspective of the patterning of human activity over a wide area.
Walter W. TAYLOR
didn't like culture history shitcriticized them in A Study of Archaeologywanted "conjunctive approach" (more interpretation)
Tall or Tells, are...?
Mounds covering archaeological sites.
Anthropologist
A person who studies the physical characteristics of human remains (bones)
A culturally homologous unit within a single site
component
predict future
early writing in Shang Civilization on turtle shells/goat scapulas which told possible events. they'd throw them in the fire and observe cracks in order to...
Folsom
Ohio River Valley (10,900 BC - 10,200 BC); grave sites, bison
secondary souce
an account of a historical event written by someone who did not witness the event
Half-life
The time required for half of the carbon-14 available in an organic sample to decay; originally set in 55688 years, it was later changed to 5730 years.
Nineveh Sculptures
ancient city in Assyria. Today the site is two large mounds and evidence of the city walls.
UP technology
change from flask based (in middle Paleolithic) to focus on blade technology (elongated flake)
• Explosion of diversity of tools
• Wide variety over wide geographic region
• 100 different tool types
• microlithics
• new- punch- struck technology, core, indirect percussion with antler
• very picky about raw materials, obsidian, flint
• composite tools- use wood with microlith tip to strike off precise blade
 bow and arrow
 Wooden spears
 using bone, antler, and ivory a lot
Which of the following is no longer considered to be a major state level system in Mesoamerica?
Toltec
mechanical solidarity
feature of society in which component subsystems are similar to each other and potentially independent in social, economic, and political terms
UNESCO Convention of 1970
Requires that signers create legislation and the administration to:
1) regulate the import and export of cultural objects
2) Forbid their nations' museums from acquiring illegally exported cultural objects
3) Establish ways to inform other nations when illegally exported objects are found within a country's borders
4) Return or otherwise provide restitution of cultural objects stolen from public institutions
5) Establish a register of art dealers and require them to register.
Hammerstone
An elongated stone that is used to knock flakes off a core in stone tool manufacture. It will be battered and worn on the ends.
Sample fraction
the percentage of the sample universe that is chosen. high variability areas require higher fractions.
Processual
how the component parts of a culture function as a system at one point in time and how cultures change over time; also called Cultural Process or "The New Archaeology"
Early state modules
Colin Renfrew's term to describe autonomous political units
#biological archaeology (bioarchaeology):
developed as a formal interface between biological anthropology (including human osteology) and archaeology.
30. Ethnographic analogy/ Ethnographic archaeology
Review articles on “Last Stone Ax Makers” and the pottery comparison in the Philippines
• Earliest examples
Technological studies in archaeology have been aided since the development of the processual approach by two particular methodologies: ethnoarchaeology and experimental archaeology
One of the earliest examples of this method was the use of traveler’s tales during the Age of Discovery, comparing stone tools from the Americas to those that had been found in Europe and previously explained as ‘elfshot’. This analogy, though unsystematic, nevertheless was instrumental in establishing the antiquity of mankind.
Black and white or color photos of excavation units that are meant to supplement plan views and profiles
photographs
bronze age
when people made tools out of the metal bronze
Plow Zone
The first layer of dirt usually around 1 ft. deep in a site.
Qualitative Attributes
Describe the presence or absence of a descriptive characteristic or trait
ground-penetrating radar (GPR)
a remote sensing technique in which radar pulses directed into the ground reflect back to the surface when they strike features or interfaces within the ground, showing the presence and depth of possible buried features
House of Vettii
Owned by ex-slave brothers. Known for beautiful gardens and wall paintings
appendicualr skeleton
all parts of an animal excluding the axial skeleton
Skeletal Remains & Stature
Homo erectus/ergaster: Turkana Boy 1.6 mya (million years ago)
Dramatic change from earlier hominins
- Human like post cranial skeleton
- Expanded brain
- Born to run
Tayacian (Recitation movie)
- Human bones found earlier than Neanderthals- So primitive that thwy could be broken rocks
relational analogy is justified by...
...close cultural continuity or cultural form
The Richard Beene site is ____________
a deeply buried, well-stratified site
carrying capacity
the number of people that a unit of land can support under a particular technology
Lord of Sipan Tomb
750 AD, Peru
Concurrent with the Maya, but in S America. Time overlaps with the Nasca Lines.
-In the 1980s and 90s a few unlooted tombs were found and the materials rivaled King Tut's (unexpected for New World)
-Golden peanuts among tons of other artifacts.. definite importance but significance unknown.
Huaca del Sol
A massive mound made of over 140 million mud bricks located at the site of Moche
Hard Hammer
stone on stone was used to make more irregular tools
Reduction of snout
Increased emphasis on vision
Brain expansion and complexity
What are the characteristics of a primates senses and brain?
Archaeology of SYZ
-Houses dating to ca 14 AD that were buried by massive flood
-Everything was frozen in place; leaves, footprints, etc.
-architecture associated with Han period
-beneath is another 8000 years of history; entire communities preserved by flood
-Plleistocene=12000 BP
-mulberry lead impression=used for silk production
Uruk & Urbanism [Sumerian Style]:
-Uruk was founded before 4600 B.C. (roughly contemporary with or just after Eridu)
-It is a major hallmark site for Summerian civilization.
-Between 4600-3800B.C., Uruk was a nascent city eventually surpassing Eridu in size.
-By ca. 3000B.C., 80% of the Sumerian population lived in 10 ha (25 acre) settlements, declining to 50% by 2000B.C.
-By 2800B.C. (much later), the city core was 250 ha (618 acres), with satellite villages extending 10 km into the countryside.
-The temple, or Ziggurat, was a place of worship & storehouse for redistribution of foodstuffs (theocracy = a religios based government)
-Craftsmen & artisans worked in specialized tasks forming distinct strata in a well-stratified society.
Native American Grave protection and repatriation act of 1900
had to inventory all artifacts, send them to original owners if they wanted them.
What are the major features of the mesolithic and archaic?
increased evidence for plant resources
more technology
burials with grade goods
more permanent structures
larger habitation sites
What is a symbol? How do archaeologists study and interpret the meanings of symbols?
An object or act (verbal or nonverbal) that, by cultural convention, stands for something else with which it has no necessary connection.
Mountain mummies
...
excavate
to hollow out.
Temple of Saturn
Stonehenge
Construction from 3000-1500 BC.
Ancient circles of large, upright stones that stand alone on a plain in British Isles- England. There is some controversy about who shaped, carried, and set up these huge stones, which perhaps had religious and astronomical uses.
-built in 3 phases
theory of evolution
natural selection
osteology
the study of bones
Purgatoris
earliest-known primate, which lived between ninety and sixty-five million years ago
midden
any substantial accumulation of garbage or waste at a place of human activity
Dynasty 0
3,100-2,890 BC, Narmar, Memphis
sites
location where significant human activity can be found; confirmed geographic space
humanism
rejected supernaturalism and stress the value of the individual
Stratigraphic analysis/geochronology governed by...
...law of superposition
Survey
Systematic recording of sites and archaeological features across a defined area
Late Neolithic Europe
Expansion of farming economy
Development of distinct regional traditions
Fast population growth
Development of field systems
Increased conflict over resources
Located in defensible positions
Great expansion in trade and exchange
Eolian Sediments
Materials transported and accumulated by wind.
Seriation
Percentage distribution of a typology at a site over time
Agriculture
cultivation of animals, plants and other life forms used to sustain life. It was the separation from the gatherers/hunters to the city
tamkarum
'merchant' of the second millennium who operated on both the external and internal circuits (A)
inorganic
material that has never been alive
paleoethnobotanist
an archaeologist who analyzes and interprets plant remains from archaeological sites in order to understand past interactions between human populations and plants
petrographic analysis
An analytical technique that identifies the mineral composition of a pot's temper and clay through microscopic observation of thin sections
Oligocene
34- 23 mya. Global cooling, anthropoids appears. Transition period between archaic ( Eocene) and more recognizable ( Miocene).
Anasazi
‘the ancient ones’ – ancestors of Pueblo Indians who lived throughout NW New Mexico and NE Arizona – lived in stone houses tucked in canyons or on mesa tops – expert farmers survived in marginal conditions – three major sites at Mesa Verde, Kayenta, Chaco Canyon
typology
the classification of materials based on morphology
balk
a strip of land left unplowed.
Howard Carter
King Tut's Tomb; drew, photographed, mapped out everything he found before he took it out
Law of superposition
in an undisturbed depositional sequence, each layer is younger than the layer beneath it
behavioral processes
Produce material remains in four consecutive stages
1)acquire the raw materials, 2) manufacture it , 3)use it, 4)discard it
doesn't have to go through ALL 4
Nomad
A person with no single, settled, home
Archaeology
study of objects, ruins, and other evidence of human life in the past
Material Culture
physical objects produced or modified by humans, including artifacts, ecofacts, and features
Ecofacts
organic, forned and created by the earth
Look at living tribe (pawnee Indians of plains)
remote sensing
reconnaissance and site survey methods using such devices as aerial photography satellite imagery to detect subsurface features and archaeological sites
Theatre of Balbus
Third permanent theatre in Rome
Harris Lines
Increased bone density from trauma, malnutrition or disease. Can tell at what age it occured.
oral tradition
legends, myths, beliefs passed from generation my mouth
Aerial Survey
1. remote sensing techniques
2. aeria photographs
3. Geographic Information System (GIS): Larger map tool
***really good for jungle locations****
Unilineal Cultural Evolution
anthropologicaly incorect idea that culture has evolved in a straight trajectory, depeicts western society as top
Cahokia
Cahokia: A large settlement dating to the Mississippian period and located just outside of St. Louis. Fairmount pit houses, Mound 72. Stirling Morehead plain wares. Monks Mound complete wit wall trench houses. palisade begun. Sand prairie- decline in mound construction. Vulcan- Oneota from the plains/northern midwest. pg. 309
Swidden Agriculture
slash and burn agriculture in Mesoamerica
Vertical excavation
Excavation undertaken to establish a chronological sequence, normally covering a limited area. Deep probe!

Step trenches, Kenyon-Wheeler Method, etc.
Special-Purpose Sites
- Places where people performed tasks not related to industrial production, military.
fossils
the remains or imprints of once living plants or animals.
context
the set of circumstances or facts that surround a particular event.
Secondary Context
Found artifacts are not in original positions they were last used/left (due to deranging/disturbing factors).
chinampas
low mounds that Aztec built by piling up sediments from the bottoms of shallow lakes and marshes to form islands of arable land; a form of intensive agriculture
microbotnicals
plant life that you need a microscope to see (phytoliths, palynology)
Palynology
The study of fossil pollen grains and spores to recontruct past climates and human behavior.
Formal Analogies
based on similarities in form between objects in the ethnographic and archaeological objects
chronometric dating
dating in calendar years before the present; absolute dating
Sedentism and Population Growth
Possible explanations: farmers are less mobile than hunter-gatherers, causing decrease in birth spacing due to availability of carbohydrates which encourages early weaning and the advantages of large families to assist in farming
Indian Ocean Trade
500-1000 AD
Sailing, seafaring hug the coast
Monsoon system control so direct path
Arabic/persian become linguafranca
Spice trade
Mesa, Alaska
Forager campsite in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska, occupied about 9700 BC.
Historical Archaeology
Study of ancient societies through aid of written texts
The mixture of gases that surrounds a planet.
atmosphere
Radiocarbon dating?
uses radioactive decay of 14C to estimate the time since the death of the organism.

(When living things die, they stop taking in Carbon)
Bluestones
a ring of standing stones at the center of Stonehenge. The source of the stones is over 240 km from Stonehenge
4 processing tools
flesher, antler tine pressure flaker, bison scapula hoe, awls
stratified random sample
divide into small units and sample inside the stratum
radiopotassium, potassium-argon dating
technique for old samples that is based on half-life decay of K into argon in new rock
fertile crescent
a broad arc of mountains in middle east where wild wheat, barley, and other domesticated plants are found today
Epiphyses
The ends of bones that fuse to the main shaft or portion of bone at various ages; most bones are fused by age 25. This fact can be used to age skeletons of younger individuals.
fossil
is a part or inprint of something that was once alive
Inter-tropical convergence zone
Driving force for the climate in China; belt of weather generated at the equator
Monsoon zone--very wet and very dry oscillating phases.
SYZ is influenced by monsoon; general climate trend influences the pattern of behavior
Site Significance
significant if it is eligible for the National Register of Historic places (can be event, person, unique design/construction). It also must have information potential (yields data that provides significant info about the sites' history).
Homo erectus (2)
Meat eater: scavenger, may have also huntedControlled fire: probably used and controlled fire
Post orbital constriction
behind eyes where skull is pulled in
What type of growth arrest evidence is permanent?
enamel hypoplasias
carbon 14 dating
dating used with a kind of carbon, used to determine the age up to 60,000 years.
energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
-traces obsidian to its geological source
long bone cross section
cross sections of the body's long bones used to analyze bone shape and reconstruct the mechanical stresses placed on the bone
In the 1960's. who was an influential person in American Archaeology?
Lewis R. Binford.
An estimate of what part of the year a particular archaeological site was occupied
seasonality
Lewis Binford explanation for change in Saint-Cesaire, France
Changing tool forms reflect different activities in different places
MP and UP: Inhabitants and Stone Tool Industries
MP: Neanderthals: MousterianUP: Neandertahls: ChatelperronianUP: Moderns: Aurignacian
NAGPRA (Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act)
enacted in order to provide for the protection of Native American Graves. Native American cultural items found on federal or tribe property shall be given to the lineal descendants of the tribe to which they belong or to the people with cultural affiliation to the remains. Due to vague legislation, it's difficult to determine whose cultural affiliation should be valued: the Native Americans' or the archaeologists
3. Bronze Age Mediterranean
Sphere of interaction
core vs. periphery: in Bronze Age Mediterranean there were three major cores: the Egyptians, the Hittites and the Minoans. Their need for resources led them to take over various peripheries, like Ugarit, a Canaanite city that became a Hittite protectorate. Peripheries included tropical Africa, Baltic Europe, and Mesopotamia
What is palynology, and what type of dating could it be a part of?
Study of pollen & Relative Dating
Four things to look at to get at ancient subsistence and diet
1) Environmental Data (what can be grown, what animals can eat, when a site was abandoned by how much grain is in siloh and what kind, irrigation/natural water, et.c)

2) Animal Bones

3) Plant remains

4) Human bones (know about vitamins and minerals that are injested, can tell certain diseases like Malaria or TB, body size, good or bad nutrition, types of wear on teeth, ripping and tearing or grinding)

5) Feces (coprolites)

6) Artifacts used for processing food, killing animals, etc.

7) Rock art, if they're being accurate.
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