Archaeology 42 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Obsidian
Volcanic glass
Chronology
temporally ordered sequence
Krapina
Neanderthals, in Croatia
horticulture
also called "slash-and-burn", "shifting cultivation", or "swidden agriculture".
Deals with problems of farming by:
1)Plant a variety of crops to mimic the natural ecosystem and increase stability.
2) When soil is depleted, clear new fields and temporarily abandon old ones. Field regenerates during fallow period.
Limited population density.
More sustainable.
Requires a lot of land per person.
habitation site
where we live
Mutagens-
Agents that cause mutations
Intrasite
within a single archaeological site
who was the last ruler
moctezuma
Strata
discrete layers of sedimentary rock
enamel hypolasia indicates:
sickness or malnutrition
Processual Archaeology
"New" Archaeology. "American Archaeology is Anthropology or it is nothing". With rigorous use of scientific method it was possible to get past the limits of archaeological record and learn something about how the people who used artifacts lived.
where are features documented?
on site
cultural dating
when archaeologists compare objects they find with information that they already know.
Natufian Culture
Paleolithic Community
Relied more on wild grains
Invented microlithic sickles
Could harvest all food needed for a family for a year in a few weeks
Built in-ground storage units
microwear
minute, often microscopic, evidence of use damage on the surface and working edge of a flake or artifact; can include striations, pitting, microflaking, and polish.
Type
Combination of form and decorative style
Uruk
super nova of ancient Mesopotamian cities. Began as a religious center with the ziggurats as a center spot in the city.
Social Evolution (passed through dif. Stages of culture) savagery (primitive hunting) to barbarism (early farming) to civilization. This was created by Edward Tayler and Lewis Henry Morgan
...
resistivity meter
used to measure electrical conductivity in soils, which may be due to the presence of bured disturbances such as fireplaces, burials, or other structures
element
in faunal analysis, a specific skeletal part of the body
Structural Method
procedures for translating
the meaning we encode in one area of sensory
experience into meaning we encode in another
area.
mass graves.
may indicate catastrophic death: plague or warfare. d.f.
Uniformitarianism
Geological principle or concept that if things happen in the past a certain way they’re probably happening now in the same wayCertain things are uniform through timeThe assumption that the natural processes operating in the past are the same as those that can be observed operating in the present
secondary burials
allow bodies to decompose/deflesh, relocation, sorting, ossuaries
Solutrean
of an Upper Paleolithic European culture c18,000?16,000 b.c., characterized by the making of stone projectile points and low-relief stone sculptures
Anthropology
Uses social theory and models to understand human cultures
Dendrochronology
the science or technique of dating events, environmental change, and archaeological artifacts by using the characteristic patterns of annual growth rings in timber and tree trunks
Subassemblage
Grouping of artifact classes based on form & function that is assumed to represent a single occupational group within an ancient community
ethnology
a cross-cultural study of aspects of various cultures, usually based on theory
How tall if El Gigante?
72 ft tall
Experimental archaeology
more technological, trying out ancient methods yourself
optimal foraging theory
evolutionary ecology perspective based on efficient foraging strategies
7.
It's about what made art beautiful, why they thought stuff was useful, praxis (role of human actions in shaping society)
ethnoarchaeology
The study of contemporary peoples to determine how human behavior is translated into the archaeological record
Temple of Hadrian
Now the roman stock exchange
Pueblo Bonito
Largest Great House complex
600 rooms, 1000 people
32 kivas
Renovated many times of 2000 years
T-shaped doors from rebuilding
Verkhene-Trotiskaya, Siberia
Earliest known Diuktai site in Siberia, dating to about 18,000 years ago.
SITE: Ohalo, Israel
Keberan Period
Shore, Sea of Galilee
20,000 years ago
Gathering (seeds - 100 wild species)
wild acorns, wheat, barley, legumes
Hunting
wild gazelle & fish
year-round occupation
6 brush huts
Hearths
success
something that turns out well after hard work and trying.
Nile
Nile: The valley was lush vegetation descending from the Ethiopian highlands and standing in sharp contrast to the surrounding desert. Helps for irrigation, brings fertile soil to the banks which can be used in agriculture. Helped to transport, goods along river.
Stepped Pyramid
building with basal construction with a room at the top.
o Has a roof comb that would be covered with stucco and painted with imagery
o Associated with a new ruler’s rise to power
Charles Lyell
Father of modern geology.

Expanded on Hutton's approach and proposed uniformitarianism as a counter to catastrphist theories like Cuvier's.
Paul Shackel
- Patterns of consumptions are related to patterns of class relations
dating
the process of determining the age of an object.
feature
a noticable changes in the soil color or texture indicating past human impact such as a dark circle left circle after a wooden post has deteriorated.
Features
stuff ppl made that can't be removed (house, fire pit) w/out destroying. 2 types: Constructive (ppl made) & Cumulative (ppl don't purposefully make, ex: trash deposits)
population pressure
the result of a population's reaching carrying capacity
palynology
- pollen
- shapes are different so can help ID plants and determine vegetation change, climate change, land use, shifts in farming etc.
Euphrates
one of the two rivers that runs through present day Iraq, ancient Mesopotamia. West River.
Kalkbank Case Study
•7,000 bones and teeth
•120 stone tools
•30,000 BP
-----> Lions and hyenas responsible for bone accumulationHumans scavenged from carnivore kills
sipapu
A Hopi word that loosely translates as "place of emergence." The original sipapu is the place where the Hopi are said to have emerged into this world from the underworld. Sipapus are also small pits in kivas through which communication with the supernatural world takes place.
seven years war
england and prussia against russia france and austria/ england gains control of french colonies
Hegemony
HOW a ruler establishes power over his people
HOW he stays in power
Common ideology that don't challenge state because rulership is best for the society
Yana RHS, Siberia
(RHS stands for "rhinoceros horn site.") 25,000-27,000 year old hunting site at latitude 70 degrees north, on the Yana River.
Accidental Discovery
1. sometimes sites are still visable, easy to find
2. others are more difficult to find exp.burial chamber
3. Survey needed
*HEAVY rainfall can uncover unknown sites
Ethnography and Division of Labor
Ethnographic research demonstrates that the sorts of patterns archaeologists are best at finding -- large temporal and spatial differences in material goods, especially technology -- can be related to different divisions of labor, which are a product of male and female decision making. Thus, knowing what men and women did is important to understanding larger social and economic patterns, but inferring what men and women actually did is difficult.
Historical Particularism
Franz Boas came up with this concept
Siad that cultures are too complex for general tehory, and they we need to emphasize data collection and organization.
DATA GATHERING IS VERY IMPORTANT TO RECONSTRUCT CULTURAL HISTORY AND CULTURAL AREAS. Believed that the only way to explain cultures is by GATHERING DATA.
excavation
the actual removal of materials at a site
4 types of organic artifacts
bone, shell, wood, plant
lab log
the paper trail of eahc bag of artifacts that comes in and out of lab
Grid
a site is divided into a pattern of five foot by five foot labeled squares to accurately record any artifacts found
general systems theory
An effort to describe the properties by which all systems, including human societies, allegedly operate.
Porotic Hyperostosis
A symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the skull takes on a porous appearance.
archaeology
the study of the human past using the surviving material remains of human behavior
Donkeys versus Camels?
Camels are a later domesticate than donkeys.
Donkeys are important for transport, collecting water.
AMS(accelerator mass spectrometry)
a method of radiocarbon dating that counts the proportion of carbon isotopes directly, dramatically reducsing the quantity of datable material required
Megaliths, Mounds
big rock (stone henge), marking it as theirs, religion seasons. Mounds trash heaps, burial, Cahokia
Prepared-core technologies
used to make stone tools during the Middle Paleolithic
3 methods to determine age
teeth, bone fusion, bone wear
Death Mask
solid gold mask that you put on your face (only for royalty)
New York's African Burial Ground
10,000 - 20,000 burials from 1712-1790; study of 400 burials
Geophysical sensing devices; Active
pass energy through soil and measure response
Cultural Meaning
This is one of the four groups of Archaeology
Also known as "cognitive archaeology"
A lot of times, you have data from the culture.
what is used to determine whether a chipped stone tool is manmade?
bulb of percussion
Life history stages for Durable artifacts
1. Procurement
2. Manufacture
3. Use
4. Discard
5. Refuse
What is terminus post quem?
The date after which something has been deposited (or the earliest possible date).
buried soils- ___ _____ that have been ____ by ___ ______
soil profiles, buried, later deposition
What happened to the Maya
All go away around 8900. Did they overexploit their environment?
Archaic Homo sapiens fossils show up in the fossil record about? What was their distribution?
600,000 years ago in Africa, 200,000 years ago in Asia, and 200,000 years ago in Europe.
* What were the independent centers of domestication and when did they emerge?
10000 and 4000 bp, SW asia, eastern woodlands, eastern asia, mesoamerica andean highlands, Sahel
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