temporally ordered sequence
Neanderthals, in Croatia
also called "slash-and-burn", "shifting cultivation", or "swidden agriculture".
Deals with problems of farming by:
1)Plant a variety of crops to mimic the natural ecosystem and increase stability.
2) When soil is depleted, clear new fields and temporarily abandon old ones. Field regenerates during fallow period.
Limited population density.
Requires a lot of land per person.
where we live
Agents that cause mutations
within a single archaeological site
|who was the last ruler||
discrete layers of sedimentary rock
|enamel hypolasia indicates:||
sickness or malnutrition
"New" Archaeology. "American Archaeology is Anthropology or it is nothing". With rigorous use of scientific method it was possible to get past the limits of archaeological record and learn something about how the people who used artifacts lived.
|where are features documented?||
when archaeologists compare objects they find with information that they already know.
Relied more on wild grains
Invented microlithic sickles
Could harvest all food needed for a family for a year in a few weeks
Built in-ground storage units
minute, often microscopic, evidence of use damage on the surface and working edge of a flake or artifact; can include striations, pitting, microflaking, and polish.
Combination of form and decorative style
super nova of ancient Mesopotamian cities. Began as a religious center with the ziggurats as a center spot in the city.
|Social Evolution (passed through dif. Stages of culture) savagery (primitive hunting) to barbarism (early farming) to civilization. This was created by Edward Tayler and Lewis Henry Morgan||
used to measure electrical conductivity in soils, which may be due to the presence of bured disturbances such as fireplaces, burials, or other structures
in faunal analysis, a specific skeletal part of the body
procedures for translating
the meaning we encode in one area of sensory
experience into meaning we encode in another
may indicate catastrophic death: plague or warfare. d.f.
Geological principle or concept that if things happen in the past a certain way they’re probably happening now in the same wayCertain things are uniform through timeThe assumption that the natural processes operating in the past are the same as those that can be observed operating in the present
allow bodies to decompose/deflesh, relocation, sorting, ossuaries
of an Upper Paleolithic European culture c18,000?16,000 b.c., characterized by the making of stone projectile points and low-relief stone sculptures
Uses social theory and models to understand human cultures
the science or technique of dating events, environmental change, and archaeological artifacts by using the characteristic patterns of annual growth rings in timber and tree trunks
Grouping of artifact classes based on form & function that is assumed to represent a single occupational group within an ancient community
a cross-cultural study of aspects of various cultures, usually based on theory
|How tall if El Gigante?||
72 ft tall
more technological, trying out ancient methods yourself
|optimal foraging theory||
evolutionary ecology perspective based on efficient foraging strategies
It's about what made art beautiful, why they thought stuff was useful, praxis (role of human actions in shaping society)
The study of contemporary peoples to determine how human behavior is translated into the archaeological record
|Temple of Hadrian||
Now the roman stock exchange
Largest Great House complex
600 rooms, 1000 people
Renovated many times of 2000 years
T-shaped doors from rebuilding
Earliest known Diuktai site in Siberia, dating to about 18,000 years ago.
|SITE: Ohalo, Israel||
Shore, Sea of Galilee
20,000 years ago
Gathering (seeds - 100 wild species)
wild acorns, wheat, barley, legumes
wild gazelle & fish
6 brush huts
something that turns out well after hard work and trying.
Nile: The valley was lush vegetation descending from the Ethiopian highlands and standing in sharp contrast to the surrounding desert. Helps for irrigation, brings fertile soil to the banks which can be used in agriculture. Helped to transport, goods along river.
building with basal construction with a room at the top.
o Has a roof comb that would be covered with stucco and painted with imagery
o Associated with a new ruler’s rise to power
Father of modern geology.
Expanded on Hutton's approach and proposed uniformitarianism as a counter to catastrphist theories like Cuvier's.
- Patterns of consumptions are related to patterns of class relations
the process of determining the age of an object.
a noticable changes in the soil color or texture indicating past human impact such as a dark circle left circle after a wooden post has deteriorated.
stuff ppl made that can't be removed (house, fire pit) w/out destroying. 2 types: Constructive (ppl made) & Cumulative (ppl don't purposefully make, ex: trash deposits)
the result of a population's reaching carrying capacity
- shapes are different so can help ID plants and determine vegetation change, climate change, land use, shifts in farming etc.
one of the two rivers that runs through present day Iraq, ancient Mesopotamia. West River.
|Kalkbank Case Study||
•7,000 bones and teeth
•120 stone tools
-----> Lions and hyenas responsible for bone accumulationHumans scavenged from carnivore kills
A Hopi word that loosely translates as "place of emergence." The original sipapu is the place where the Hopi are said to have emerged into this world from the underworld. Sipapus are also small pits in kivas through which communication with the supernatural world takes place.
|seven years war||
england and prussia against russia france and austria/ england gains control of french colonies
HOW a ruler establishes power over his people
HOW he stays in power
Common ideology that don't challenge state because rulership is best for the society
|Yana RHS, Siberia||
(RHS stands for "rhinoceros horn site.") 25,000-27,000 year old hunting site at latitude 70 degrees north, on the Yana River.
1. sometimes sites are still visable, easy to find
2. others are more difficult to find exp.burial chamber
3. Survey needed
*HEAVY rainfall can uncover unknown sites
|Ethnography and Division of Labor||
Ethnographic research demonstrates that the sorts of patterns archaeologists are best at finding -- large temporal and spatial differences in material goods, especially technology -- can be related to different divisions of labor, which are a product of male and female decision making. Thus, knowing what men and women did is important to understanding larger social and economic patterns, but inferring what men and women actually did is difficult.
Franz Boas came up with this concept
Siad that cultures are too complex for general tehory, and they we need to emphasize data collection and organization.
DATA GATHERING IS VERY IMPORTANT TO RECONSTRUCT CULTURAL HISTORY AND CULTURAL AREAS. Believed that the only way to explain cultures is by GATHERING DATA.
the actual removal of materials at a site
|4 types of organic artifacts||
bone, shell, wood, plant
the paper trail of eahc bag of artifacts that comes in and out of lab
a site is divided into a pattern of five foot by five foot labeled squares to accurately record any artifacts found
|general systems theory||
An effort to describe the properties by which all systems, including human societies, allegedly operate.
A symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the skull takes on a porous appearance.
the study of the human past using the surviving material remains of human behavior
|Donkeys versus Camels?||
Camels are a later domesticate than donkeys.
Donkeys are important for transport, collecting water.
|AMS(accelerator mass spectrometry)||
a method of radiocarbon dating that counts the proportion of carbon isotopes directly, dramatically reducsing the quantity of datable material required
big rock (stone henge), marking it as theirs, religion seasons. Mounds trash heaps, burial, Cahokia
used to make stone tools during the Middle Paleolithic
|3 methods to determine age||
teeth, bone fusion, bone wear
solid gold mask that you put on your face (only for royalty)
|New York's African Burial Ground||
10,000 - 20,000 burials from 1712-1790; study of 400 burials
|Geophysical sensing devices; Active||
pass energy through soil and measure response
This is one of the four groups of Archaeology
Also known as "cognitive archaeology"
A lot of times, you have data from the culture.
|what is used to determine whether a chipped stone tool is manmade?||
bulb of percussion
|Life history stages for Durable artifacts||
|What is terminus post quem?||
The date after which something has been deposited (or the earliest possible date).
|buried soils- ___ _____ that have been ____ by ___ ______||
soil profiles, buried, later deposition
|What happened to the Maya||
All go away around 8900. Did they overexploit their environment?
|Archaic Homo sapiens fossils show up in the fossil record about? What was their distribution?||
600,000 years ago in Africa, 200,000 years ago in Asia, and 200,000 years ago in Europe.
|* What were the independent centers of domestication and when did they emerge?||
10000 and 4000 bp, SW asia, eastern woodlands, eastern asia, mesoamerica andean highlands, Sahel