the knowlage,beleifs,customs,and values of a group of people
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Chronometric dating.
It takes a radiocarbon sample and turns it into gas. The gas is then accelerated very fast- as particles move faster, atoms of different weight sort themselves by degrees of weight. This allows the 14C to separate from other carbons so that it can then be counted.
Can detect much smaller amounts of present 14C. Smaller test samples are needed, can date back to about 70 BP.
critical theory from humanities
Recognizing ancient land formation.
comparisons look at differences between contexts within a single site
An individual characteristic that distinguishes one artifact from another on the basis of its size, surface texture, form, material, method of manufacture, or design pattern.
the systematic uncovering of archaeological remains through removal of the deposits of soil and other material covering and accompanying them
organic matter/particles of stone
|Principles of Seriation||
style = society
Cities with >10,000 people
Stratification, surplus, monumental public works,long-distance trade, army/police, state religion, writing/record keeping, science/math, distinctive art
UTM Universal Transverse Mercator, a grid system in which north and east coordinates provide a location anywhere in the world, precise to 1 meter.
18,000 year old archaeological site
things that are available for use
|Natural Formation Processes||
water, wind, natural disaster
a succession of discrete behaviors that must be performed in a particular order under particular circumstances
Political Complexity in South Africa
-Settled 2,200 years ago by farmers
-Long distance trade (iron ore,Roman beads)
-Wattle-and-daub huts along Niger River
mutually exclusion set of alternative attributes.
efforts to expose assumption behind alleged objective and systematic search for knowledge. A primary tool of post modernism.
-Father of processual archaeology
- Most important and influential archaeologist of his time
- Just died
|Surplus and storage||
pottery and storage pits
|classical archaeology, 13||
archaeology studying the "classic" states that form the roots of western culture, such as greece and rome.
|2 ways to count bones||
in charge of investigations from start to finish
Germany; LBK culture; crop rotation, long houses
comparatively placing events on a timeline without specific dates
(fusion of the epiphyses): in vertebrae, femur, humerus, pubic symphysis. Layer of cartilage fuses end of body-epiphysis. Happens when child.
(From the Greek word for "recent.") The era since the end of the Pleistocene (Ice Age), which occurred c. 10,000 BC.
a large wooden flared beaker usually used for drinking beer
|mean ceramic date||
statistical technique for combining the median age of manufacture for temporally significant pottery types to estimate the ave. age of a feature or site
historical name of the Biga Peninsula that contains the site of Tory
a chart showing the changing frequencies of different identified pollens through time from samples taken from archaeological or other sites
the sutody of projectiles; launched by hand or machine
Independent development of Iron in different parts of the world and its environmental impact
a pueblo ceremonial that is usually round and the semi-subterranean. They appear in early pueblo sited and perhaps even in the earlier pithouse villages
preserved plant remains recovered from an archaeological site.
Location in Tanzania where tracks of autralopithecine footprints were found showing that australopithecines walked upright
|Los pozos (the well)||
1700-1300bc-Tucson Basin Archaic site-not many pit houses, but lots of storage pits(as many as 200)
specific localities where people lived worked or visited
|2 categories of primary context||
use related, transposed
a type of prehistoric stone tower, found in Brazil and Peru, having living quarters over a burial chamber
The rise in usage of domesticate plants and animals for food which creates a surplus. Agricultural intensification is a cause for state level societies.
|Radiopotassium dating fixes the time of change from a ____ to a _____ in ________ rocks||
liquid, solid, igneous
Conducted under legal agreement with a government of private agency.
More of a product or thing than needed.
The vessel is not exposed to oxygen; vessel will have gray sooty look to it
Wendy Ashmore; Studies of how natural landscape affected the thinking of ancient peoples. Mostly focused on site layout and organization within the landscape
Finding a tree's age by count it's rings
a unique catalog number given to sites, it consists of a number (the state's position alphabetically), a letter abbreviation of the county, and the sites sequential number within the county
|Low- level theories||
the observations that emerge from basic archaeological fieldworks. The actual "data" or "facts" of archaeology.
|Social Status--who lived there?||
-dissolved mudd brick homes
-left stones, rood tiles, water jars, etc behind
-latrines were found; paved with tiles; advanced social status item
-same grinding stones found at site are still used today
-must be well to do farmers that invest a great amount of time into facilities and architecture
material added to clay to give a ceramic item strength
the presice determination of the age of an object.
The term applied to the changes in society and settlemement patters in the transition to an agricultural way of life.
|Tell es Sawwan||
Outside of fertile crescent rainfall area, required irrigation. Fortifications
plants that would grow in your backyard, usualy as a weed. Cabbages, dandelions, mustardgrass,etc. Consumed by users of jerusalem toilet. City was under siege, couldn't get out to grow wheat and barley!
|The Tower of Jericho||
First defensive tower EVER.
Two purposes: hole at bottom, you can go up top. Found wheat, barley in dirt in tower. Was also a siloh! You could harvest whole town's worth of grain for a year in one week.
a civilization on the southern Gulf of Mexico, characterized by agriculture, a calendar, long-distance trade networks, pyramids and jade work
The part of the soil profile where clays accumulate that are transported downward by water. Examples contain plant deposits, and minerals and nutrients that have seeped down from above.
|Olduvai Gorge site||
another early homo habilis site, 1st excavated. (in East Africa)
|What are the 5 Sources of Analogy__________||
ethnohistory, ethnography, ethnoarchaeology, experimental archaeology and taphonomic studies
Egypt and the Levant; narrow on ends, wider in the middle
|Scientific vs. Humanistic Archaeology (e.g., Dr. Jane Spector, Little Rapids Site, Mn (in your textbook) - be able to discuss this as an example.||
Humanistic stresses individuals lived experience. Ideational perspective.
Scientific - based on empirical evidence, demphasizes individual and emphasizes external conditions as a source for change.
Big difference between the two - objectivity. Scientific thinks archaeology is more objective. Humanistic thinks archaeology is mostly subjective.
Jane Spector - Little Rapids Site, inhabited by the Eastern Dakota. She involved Dakota people in the project to understand the culture and the people better. She learned the scientific side, but also the ideational side the Dakotas had to offer.
A symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the skull takes on a porous appearance
A Bronze age town on teh island of Thera that was buried by a catastrophic volcanic eruption
The zero point, a fixed reference used to keep control on a dig; usually controls both the vertical and horizontal dimensions of provenience.
|Skulls of Jericho||
Body goes into tomb without head
Has shells where eyes are, plastered with mud
Put heads in corner of living room
Probably ancestor worship
Not only place! Some from Catalhöyük, 8 other ancient near east sites
Could have been enemies?
this 400 BC empire in south africa had huge areas of stone construction
|What was learned from Otzi?||
MRI- discovery that he suffered arthritis
Skin showed each joint suffering arthritis had a tattoo
lungs black/filled with soot: indoors often with bad ventilation
A hand held hammer with big and small flat surfaces for pounding. Made using the grinding technique.
|Cochise Culture, West USA||
10,000 BC - laterGathered many plants foods; yucca seeds, cacti, and sunflower seeds. Used milling stones, basketry, nets, and spear-throwers.
(Paleoindians and Clovis)
Clovis kill sites (most likely clovis)-
-Murray Springs, AZ= mammoth & bison kill & butchery site.
-Naco, AZ= 8 points found in a mammoth carcass.
-Blackwater Draw, NM= Mammoth, bison, horse, camel & deer driven into a natural arroyo (gulley).
-Lehner, AZ= 13 Mammoths killed.
|Huaca del SolNazca||
The Huaca Del Sol
-130 ft. high, 1100 x 525 ft. (larger than a city block).
-Solid adobe (largest adobe structure in the world. Made of 130 million sun dried bricks.
|Mound s in North America||
1. Houses/temples of rulers often at the top
2. Ethogy Mounds
3. Permanence of Place
|Finding of the Dead sea Scrolls||
Guy following herd at Ras Fashka
Threw stone into cave, heard pottery shattering, thought "Gold!"
Found 10 scroll jars, one totally shattered
In one jar, found scrolls.
Sold scrolls in Bethlehem. Sold to Kando - leatherworker and antiquities dealer. Sold scrolls to Eliezer Sukenik
|Proposition 2: Christian community at Dura Europas intentionally used the symbol of the cross||
-base of cross was probably indistinct because it had been touched so often by congregants
-Hopkins bothered by "rays" coming out of corner of church but cross radiant is common in the Levant
-use of the cross as a christian symbol is earlier than thought
|Phases 3&4: Collect & Analyze Data: raw material economy and mobility||
Humans were much more mobile. The frequency of obscidien to flint was significantly larger. we can reject null hypothesis here. Neanderthals: intensive, long-term occupations. Modern Humans: ephemeral, short term occupations
|Characteristics of wild vs. domesticated wheat||
The wild wheat seed on the left has a brittle, un-fused rachis, which allows the seed to break away from the plant easily as part of its reproduction. In comparison, the domesticated seed on the right has a tough, fused rachis that stops it from breaking away from the plant, allowing it to be gathered more easily.