Archaeology First Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
forensic
Pequot War
1636-1637
culture
the knowlage,beleifs,customs,and values of a group of people
AMS
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Chronometric dating.
It takes a radiocarbon sample and turns it into gas. The gas is then accelerated very fast- as particles move faster, atoms of different weight sort themselves by degrees of weight. This allows the 14C to separate from other carbons so that it can then be counted.
Can detect much smaller amounts of present 14C. Smaller test samples are needed, can date back to about 70 BP.
3.
critical theory from humanities
Geoarchaeology
Recognizing ancient land formation.
intrasite
comparisons look at differences between contexts within a single site
attribute
An individual characteristic that distinguishes one artifact from another on the basis of its size, surface texture, form, material, method of manufacture, or design pattern.
excavation
the systematic uncovering of archaeological remains through removal of the deposits of soil and other material covering and accompanying them
soils contain:
organic matter/particles of stone
Principles of Seriation
style = society
State-Level societies
Cities with >10,000 people
Stratification, surplus, monumental public works,long-distance trade, army/police, state religion, writing/record keeping, science/math, distinctive art
UTM
UTM Universal Transverse Mercator, a grid system in which north and east coordinates provide a location anywhere in the world, precise to 1 meter.
Cactus Hill
18,000 year old archaeological site
Resources
things that are available for use
Natural Formation Processes
water, wind, natural disaster
ritual
a succession of discrete behaviors that must be performed in a particular order under particular circumstances
SITE: Jenne-Jeno
Political Complexity in South Africa
-Settled 2,200 years ago by farmers
-Long distance trade (iron ore,Roman beads)
-Wattle-and-daub huts along Niger River
dimension
mutually exclusion set of alternative attributes.
Deconstruction
efforts to expose assumption behind alleged objective and systematic search for knowledge. A primary tool of post modernism.
Lewis Binford
-Father of processual archaeology
- Ethnoarchaeology
- Most important and influential archaeologist of his time
- Just died
Surplus and storage
pottery and storage pits
classical archaeology, 13
archaeology studying the "classic" states that form the roots of western culture, such as greece and rome.
2 ways to count bones
NISP, MNI
archaeologist
in charge of investigations from start to finish
Danube Valley
Germany; LBK culture; crop rotation, long houses
Relative dating
comparatively placing events on a timeline without specific dates
bone fusion
(fusion of the epiphyses): in vertebrae, femur, humerus, pubic symphysis. Layer of cartilage fuses end of body-epiphysis. Happens when child.
Holocene
(From the Greek word for "recent.") The era since the end of the Pleistocene (Ice Age), which occurred c. 10,000 BC.
kero
a large wooden flared beaker usually used for drinking beer
mean ceramic date
statistical technique for combining the median age of manufacture for temporally significant pottery types to estimate the ave. age of a feature or site
Troad
historical name of the Biga Peninsula that contains the site of Tory
pollen diagram
a chart showing the changing frequencies of different identified pollens through time from samples taken from archaeological or other sites
ballistics
the sutody of projectiles; launched by hand or machine
Iron Age
Independent development of Iron in different parts of the world and its environmental impact
kiva
a pueblo ceremonial that is usually round and the semi-subterranean. They appear in early pueblo sited and perhaps even in the earlier pithouse villages
Floral Remains
preserved plant remains recovered from an archaeological site.
Laetoli
Location in Tanzania where tracks of autralopithecine footprints were found showing that australopithecines walked upright
Los pozos (the well)
1700-1300bc-Tucson Basin Archaic site-not many pit houses, but lots of storage pits(as many as 200)
sites, 17
specific localities where people lived worked or visited
2 categories of primary context
use related, transposed
chulpa
a type of prehistoric stone tower, found in Brazil and Peru, having living quarters over a burial chamber
agricultural intensification
The rise in usage of domesticate plants and animals for food which creates a surplus. Agricultural intensification is a cause for state level societies.
Radiopotassium dating fixes the time of change from a ____ to a _____ in ________ rocks
liquid, solid, igneous
Contract Archaeology
Conducted under legal agreement with a government of private agency.
Surplus
More of a product or thing than needed.
Reduction
The vessel is not exposed to oxygen; vessel will have gray sooty look to it
Landscape Archaeology
Wendy Ashmore; Studies of how natural landscape affected the thinking of ancient peoples. Mostly focused on site layout and organization within the landscape
Dendrochronology
Finding a tree's age by count it's rings
smithsonian number
a unique catalog number given to sites, it consists of a number (the state's position alphabetically), a letter abbreviation of the county, and the sites sequential number within the county
Low- level theories
the observations that emerge from basic archaeological fieldworks. The actual "data" or "facts" of archaeology.
Social Status--who lived there?
-dissolved mudd brick homes
-left stones, rood tiles, water jars, etc behind
-latrines were found; paved with tiles; advanced social status item
-same grinding stones found at site are still used today
-must be well to do farmers that invest a great amount of time into facilities and architecture
temper
material added to clay to give a ceramic item strength
absolute dating
the presice determination of the age of an object.
Community
The term applied to the changes in society and settlemement patters in the transition to an agricultural way of life.
Tell es Sawwan
Outside of fertile crescent rainfall area, required irrigation. Fortifications
"backyard plants"
plants that would grow in your backyard, usualy as a weed. Cabbages, dandelions, mustardgrass,etc. Consumed by users of jerusalem toilet. City was under siege, couldn't get out to grow wheat and barley!
The Tower of Jericho
First defensive tower EVER.

Two purposes: hole at bottom, you can go up top. Found wheat, barley in dirt in tower. Was also a siloh! You could harvest whole town's worth of grain for a year in one week.

Community effort!
Olmec
a civilization on the southern Gulf of Mexico, characterized by agriculture, a calendar, long-distance trade networks, pyramids and jade work
B Horizon
The part of the soil profile where clays accumulate that are transported downward by water. Examples contain plant deposits, and minerals and nutrients that have seeped down from above.
Olduvai Gorge site
another early homo habilis site, 1st excavated. (in East Africa)
What are the 5 Sources of Analogy__________
ethnohistory, ethnography, ethnoarchaeology, experimental archaeology and taphonomic studies
Fertile Crescent
Egypt and the Levant; narrow on ends, wider in the middle
Scientific vs. Humanistic Archaeology (e.g., Dr. Jane Spector, Little Rapids Site, Mn (in your textbook) - be able to discuss this as an example.
Humanistic stresses individuals lived experience. Ideational perspective.
Scientific - based on empirical evidence, demphasizes individual and emphasizes external conditions as a source for change.
Big difference between the two - objectivity. Scientific thinks archaeology is more objective. Humanistic thinks archaeology is mostly subjective.
Jane Spector - Little Rapids Site, inhabited by the Eastern Dakota. She involved Dakota people in the project to understand the culture and the people better. She learned the scientific side, but also the ideational side the Dakotas had to offer.
Porotic hyperostosis
A symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the skull takes on a porous appearance
Akrotiri
A Bronze age town on teh island of Thera that was buried by a catastrophic volcanic eruption
datum point
The zero point, a fixed reference used to keep control on a dig; usually controls both the vertical and horizontal dimensions of provenience.
Skulls of Jericho
Body goes into tomb without head

Has shells where eyes are, plastered with mud

Put heads in corner of living room

Probably ancestor worship

Not only place! Some from Catalhöyük, 8 other ancient near east sites

Could have been enemies?
Karanga Empire
this 400 BC empire in south africa had huge areas of stone construction
What was learned from Otzi?
MRI- discovery that he suffered arthritis
Skin showed each joint suffering arthritis had a tattoo
lungs black/filled with soot: indoors often with bad ventilation
Hand Maul
A hand held hammer with big and small flat surfaces for pounding. Made using the grinding technique.
Cochise Culture, West USA
10,000 BC - laterGathered many plants foods; yucca seeds, cacti, and sunflower seeds. Used milling stones, basketry, nets, and spear-throwers.
(Paleoindians and Clovis)
Clovis kill sites (most likely clovis)-
-Murray Springs, AZ= mammoth & bison kill & butchery site.
-Naco, AZ= 8 points found in a mammoth carcass.
-Blackwater Draw, NM= Mammoth, bison, horse, camel & deer driven into a natural arroyo (gulley).
-Lehner, AZ= 13 Mammoths killed.
Huaca del SolNazca
The Huaca Del Sol
-130 ft. high, 1100 x 525 ft. (larger than a city block).
-Solid adobe (largest adobe structure in the world. Made of 130 million sun dried bricks.
Mound s in North America
1. Houses/temples of rulers often at the top
2. Ethogy Mounds
3. Permanence of Place
Finding of the Dead sea Scrolls
Guy following herd at Ras Fashka

Threw stone into cave, heard pottery shattering, thought "Gold!"

Found 10 scroll jars, one totally shattered

In one jar, found scrolls.

Sold scrolls in Bethlehem. Sold to Kando - leatherworker and antiquities dealer. Sold scrolls to Eliezer Sukenik
Proposition 2: Christian community at Dura Europas intentionally used the symbol of the cross
-base of cross was probably indistinct because it had been touched so often by congregants
-Hopkins bothered by "rays" coming out of corner of church but cross radiant is common in the Levant
-use of the cross as a christian symbol is earlier than thought
Phases 3&4: Collect & Analyze Data: raw material economy and mobility
Humans were much more mobile. The frequency of obscidien to flint was significantly larger. we can reject null hypothesis here. Neanderthals: intensive, long-term occupations. Modern Humans: ephemeral, short term occupations
Characteristics of wild vs. domesticated wheat
The wild wheat seed on the left has a brittle, un-fused rachis, which allows the seed to break away from the plant easily as part of its reproduction. In comparison, the domesticated seed on the right has a tough, fused rachis that stops it from breaking away from the plant, allowing it to be gathered more easily.
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