Abnormal Psychology 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
nicotine
alcohol abuse
Compulsion
Repetitive, ritualistic, time-consuming behavior or mental act a person feels driven to perform.
Extroversion
Outgoing/Energetic vs. Shy/Withdrawn
 
-Energy, positive emotion, urgency, and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others.
AXIS I
Unipolar; Bipolar
OCPD requires
4 of 8
Histrioinic Personality Disorder:
-Attention seeking
-Emotional
-Dramatic, exaggerated
-Diagnosed more in women
-Biases?
-Frequently comorbid with depression and borderling personality disorder
Define BN
Binge eating+Compensatory behavior
Depersonalization
-perceptual experience of oneself becoming "detached" from the rest of the world
-feeling like a ghost, hazy, out of body experience
-feeling like your parents are not real people
Schizotypal characteristics
-ideas of reference
-magicial thinking
-bodily illusions
-suspicious/paranoid thinking
-inappropriate affect
-lack of close friends
-soical anxiety
 
 
Conversion Disorder
 
Physical Malfunctioning without any physical or organic pathology to account for the malfunction
 
 
 
 
Oppositional defiant disorder
Argumentativeness, negativity, irritability, defiance, but behaviors not as severe as in conduct disorder
Treatment
Began with prefrontal lobotomies thought to relieve madness. (1950s). In the Western world, antipsychotics (neuroleptics) are the first treatment.
Coined the term schizophrenia
Bleuler, E.
sexual dysfunctions (biological)
-physical disease-prescription meds-drugs and alcohol
Bipolar I
Manic episodes usually w/MDE
Voyeurism
"The peeping Tom"- Watching unsuspecting strangers naked or undressing
119) Of the following schizophrenia subtypes, which is characterized by only the presence of negative symptoms or previous positive symptoms that have lessened in severity or frequency?
Residual
personality disorders
antisocial or narcissitic personality disorder
Disorganized schizophrenia
highlights the thought disordered aspect of the disease.
effortful avoidance
-symptom with trauma
-avoidance of thoughts, feelings, activities conversations places or people associated with the stressor
-inability to recall, diminished interest, detachment from others, restricted affect, sense of foreshortened future
African Americans and Asian Americans have a _______ prevalence rate in eating disorders  than white women
lower
 
 
Compulsions 
 
 
Behaviors that make a person feel driven to do something
Encopresis & enuresis
inappropriately controlled defecation & urination; typically cause of psychological distress; use a bell & pad for treatment
Validity
degree to which the measurement procedure measures what is says it measures
 
3 Groups of Personality Disorders
 
Odd-Eccentric Disorders
 
Dramatic-Erratic Disorders
 
Anxious-Fearful Disorders
Culture
A people's common history, values, insitutions, habits, skills, and arts
High assertiveness, low agreeableness
Obsessive Compulsive PD
Psychosis
Several types of severe mental disorders in which the person is considered to be out of contact with reality
Agoraphobia without of Panic Disorder is:
Rare
ego psychology
"self-psychology" by Anne Freud; individual slowly accumulates adaptive capacities, skill reality testing, and defenses
2 types of AN
1. Restricting2. Binge-Purge
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Cluster BSpecial or unique***Preoccupied with fantasies(hero)Entitlement to whatever they wantConceitedInterpersonal exploitation (manipulativeArrogrant/haughty esp when challengedLack empathy for othersneed 5 for diagnosismostly men/advanced professionsRule don't apply to them bc they are above itwound that caused itBrought to therapy by others
hypomanic episodes are:
less severe manic episodes
Behavioral Perspective
examines how the environment influences behavior
Corticosteroids
A group of hormones including cortisol, released by the adrenal glands at times of stress.
What type of predispositions are associated with schizophrenia?
genetic
Medical Model
concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed and cured in most cases
People with schizophrenia may have difficulty with the FORM of thoughthorizontalin other words, their thoughts do not make sense. The observable sign of this is
disorganized speech.
prepared conditioning
-belief in a biological predisposition to acquire fears of certain types of objects or situations
-suggests that evolution favored the survival of human ancestors who were genetically predisposed to develop fears of potentially threatening objects such as large animals, snakes and spiders, heights, enclosed spaces, and even strangers
-this model can explain why we are more likely to develop fears of spiders or heights over objects that appeared much later on the evolutionary scene such as guns or knives, even though guns and knives pose a more direct threat to our survival today
Negative symptoms
-aspects of normal behavior andd social relationship that should be present but are absent
 
 
Dissociative Fugue
 
memory loss revoloves around a specific incident 
 
inappropriate affect
incongruity and lack of adaptability in emotional expression; content of speech is inconsistent with facial expressions
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
Negative, hostile, defiant behavior.Minor transgression refusal; refusing to obey adult request, arguing, acting angry. Requiring psychological treatment (psychotherapy)
limbic system
a group of forebrain structures involved in learning, memory and basic drives
 
 
 
 
competency vs. insanity
competency is a current state
 
 
insanity is a retrospective state. insanity is a legal term
Hormones
The chemicals released by glands into the bloodstream
Sexual Dysfunction
normal sex with abnormality in processcaused by patterns in relationships, performance pressure/anxiety regarding sex, environmental stresstreatment: Masters & Johnson's Sensate Focus, systematic desensitization
temporal lobe
processes sound and smell, regulates emotions, and is involved in some aspects of learning, memory, and language.
Neurotransmitters
a chemical substance that allow a nerve impulse to cross the synapse ex:dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin
Most effective medication for severe depression
Tricyclic antidepressants
Paraphilias Etiology
-sexual/ skill problems -early sexual experiences (may have been wrongly reinforced)-high sexual drive
self-actualizing
We all could reach our highest potential if we had room to grow
Last Supper Effect
Disinhibited eating triggered by upcoming diet
Bulimia comorbid with
depression, substance abuse, conduct disorder, personality disorders, anxiety disorder
catatonic features
lack of movement, disturbances in speech
Mass Madness
The widespred occurrence of group hebavior disorders that were apparently cases of hysteris.
Reinforcement
any event that, if contingent upon response by an organism, changes the probability that the response will be made again; may be positive or negative, and may be presented according to a prescribed schedule
Collective Unconscious
Jung's idea that each person's unconscious life concerns both a personal unconscious made up of past personal experiences that have been forgotten or repressed, and the collective unconscious, an inherited structure that is common to all humankind and that symbolizes universal situations (such as having parents, finding a mate, confronting death, and so on).
Biopsychosocial model
an integrated method of explaining mental disorders.
dangerousness
tendency to violence that, contrary to popular opinion, is not more likely among mental patients
What are psychogenic amnesia, fugue, and dissociative identity disorder classified as?
dissociative disorders
Middle Ages:
Demonological views of mental illness to flourished once again
- Many during this time saw human behavior and problems as a conflict between good and evil, God and Satan.
Agoraphobia
a fear of open, public spaces; people who suffer from this may be afraid to venture out of their homes at all
ENMESHED FAMILIES
families in which there is extreme interdependence in family interactions, so that the boundaries between the identities of individual members are weak and easily crossed
dissociative idenity disorder
-two or more distinct personality states in an individuals that take control over an individuals behavior at different times
 
 
Examples of:
PTSD

-She left university 2 years ago after being sexually assaulted while out on a date with a male student she met through class. Since being sexually assaulted she has experienced a variety of symptoms that have not gone away with time.

-John has been experiencing flashbacks of the accident that sometimes cause him to dissociate (he loses track of where he is and feels like he is back at the scene of the accident).
depersonalization disorder
a less dramatic form of dissociation whein people feel detached from themselves and their social or physical environment. Sensations as feeling as though you were in a dream or floating about your body and observing yourself act. They are persistent or recurrent, and they cause distress
Restricting type of Anorexia
Starves self, maintains significantly lower than healthy body weight
 
 
 
 
treatments for mental retardation

Behavioral: caregivers taught skills for enhancing positive behavior from child. rewards given to child as he/she masters skill.

Drug therapy: neuroepileptic to reduce aggressive/antisocial behavior. antipsychotics to reduce self-injury. antidepressants to help with sleep and depression

Social programs: early intervention, mainstreaming, group homes for adults, institutionalization
 
Dissociative Identity Disorder
 (Multiple Personality Disorder)

Sarah/Sultry Susan and Jonah and Kenneth
 
Sometimes the main character does not know about the others while the others know the main character intimately
Fixation
A condition in which the id,ego and superego do not mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development
Dementia Praecox
Premature loss of the mind. Delusion, Hallucinations and attention problems. Began in adolescence and led to irreversible metal breakdown (Kraepelin)
Three types of Medications prescribed for Anxiety Disorders
Anti-anxiety agentTricyclic anti-depressantsSSRIs
biological theory
deficits or defects in the structural or functional integrity of the nervous system lead to abnormal behavior
Anxiety at a physiological level includes:
Tension
Chronic over-arosal
Primed for F-O-F response
psychogenic amnesia
when a person cannot remember things with no physiological basis for the disruption
Problems w/treating Avoidant PD
*Start avoiding therapy sessions *Gaining trust is important
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Symptoms:
 
sudden
feels out of control
re-experiencing (nightmares, flashbacks)
avoidance: people avoid anything that is associated with the event
increased arousal and anxiety
 
most common: 
 
childhood maltreatment (sexual/physical abuse)
car accidents
natural disasters
unexpected death of relatives
terrorism 
war
 
Histrionic Personality Disorder: Treatment
Treatment- Modifying Attention Seeking Behavior - Relationship styles - give and take- Showing more appropriate behaviors
Repression
A defense mechanism in which the ego pushes anxiety-provoking material back into the unconscious.
Tertiary prevention
Occurs after the illness has been identified
According to Yalosm, ____ is the analogue of the client-therapist relationship in individual therapy and is a key curative factor in group therapy:
a. cohesivenesss
b. family reenactment
c. universality
d. identification
a. cohesiveness
What type of personality disorder shows people have little regard for the feelings of others?
antisocial personality disorder
Paranoid Personality Disorder
high levels of suspiciousness of the motives and intentions of other but without the outright paranoid delusions or hallucinations with paranoid schizophrenia
__ GAD is prevalent in the elderly and in females in our society.
True
Coursee of Substance abuse/ dependence
-vary form person to person
Identify the phobia:
Armando loves to eat fish, but is terrified of choking on a bone!
Specific Phobia
Partially situational (eating fish)
Controversial issues regarding treatment
many argue that abstinence from drinking is only acceptable goal, but others say taht moderate use is ok
Legal definition of Paraphilias
Interferes with the rights of others
 
 
 
 
Moderate retardation

IQ of 35-40 to 50-55
Hard to test with Wechsler Test (lowest score is in 40’s)
Self-care by adolescence, can carry on simple conversations, read a little, do simple tasks, but usually unable to hold competitive employment or live independently
 
A lack of concern about a physical disability is characteristic of individuals with
conversion disorder.
fight-or-flight reaction
the inborn tendency to respond to a threat by either fighting or fleeing
non-medicinal treatment for schizophrenia
-Work with families on stress management, communjication, medication management.-Work with patient on social skills-Help patients learn how to realize when their symptoms are starting-Help them learn how to recognize that their delusions and hallucinations are not real.
Personality Disorder Cluster C
Dependent
Dependent: difficult in separating in relationships; discomfort at being alone; subordination of needs in order to keep others involved in a relationship; indecisiveness
 
Repeated purging leads to:
- Damaged heart tissue
-Damaged tooth enamel
- Tooth decay
-Oral ulcers
-Small red dots around eyes (from pressure)
- Swollen salivary glands (puffy cheeks)
 
3 ways substance abuse may develop
1. Unintentionally: Environmental exposure2. Medicinal effects3. Intentional use
tricyclic antidepressants problems
-bad side effects-takes 3-4 weeks to work-fatal overdoes of only 3-4x prescribed
Diagnosis -
The method or process by which the nature or category of an individual's disorder is determined.
Construct Validity
The extent to which a test measures the construct it claims to measure
33) If a psychologist wanted to test the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention for test anxiety, she would most likely choose what sort of assessment?
A symptom-specific test
The DSM III:
Published in 1980, and it demonstrated a paradigm shift to the disease-centered perspective
Dimmensional Model Definition
-looks at a continuum of normal to abnormal psychology
-all individuals have some form of these traits, but people with PDs have it in maladaptive levels
Goals of Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
Focuses on difficulties in close relationships, but doesnt address eating disorders directly
Treatment of childhood disorders: Adolescents
Behavioral family therapy - teaches parents to be very clear and specific about expectations for children's behavior and reward positively for good actions while mildly punishing misbehavior.Multisystemic therapy - combines family therapy and behavioral interventionsResidential programs - adolescents with serious conduct problems or especially troubled families are put in a group home and treated
electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback
a form of BFT that involves relaying information about muscle tension in the forehead, heightens awareness of muscle tension in this region and provides cues that people can use to learn to reduce it
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
network of fibers connects organs to body
-regulates involuntary actions (heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, perspiration)
-you'll get physically ill if this goes on too long
-norepinephrine, seratonin, dopamine
ex. trauma related ques can activate this. brain responds as if trauma if happening again
Mood or Affective Disorders
Someone with a mood or affective disorder experiences extreme or inappropriate emotions.
Major depression- is the most common mood disorder. Symptoms: the length of depressive episode, loss of appetite, fatigue, change in sleeping patterns, lack of interest, feelings of worthlessness
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)- when there is less sunlight, is the resulting dianosis. Can be treated with light therapy 
Bipolar Disorder (manic depression)- involves both depressed and maniac episodes. Involes all symtpoms of major depressions. People feel high energy, anxious, irritable, confience and power
Cigarettes and Health
Lung cancer is the most common cancer Emphysema, cancer of: larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, cervix, stomach; SIDS, CHF
Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS)
vagus nerve- part of the autonomic nervous system carries information from the head, neck, thorax and abdomen to the brain
Concurrent Validity -
A type of validity that is concerned with factors associated with the presence of a particular disorder.
and the _____, or the ratio of job openings to total applicants (for instance, if 100 people are applying for 5 positions, the selection ratios is 5/100, or .05)
selection ratio
what does the cognitive triad state?
that depression results from unreasonably negative ideas that people have about themselves, the world, and their futures
PURGING TYPE OF
BULIMIA NERVOSA 
type of bulimia nervosa in which bingeing is followed by the use of self induced vomiting or purgeing mediacations to control weight  gain
What are the prevalence rates for substance dependence among the elderly?
they have the lowest rates
How long must intense sadness last in order to be diagnosed as a major depressive episode?
More than two months
People that have been through chronically traumatic events and have so many different symptoms and problems its hard to really give a diagnosis.
DESNOSDisorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified
Lifetime prevalence of Eating Disorders
AN: 0.9% women, 0.3% men
BN: 1.5% women, 0.5% men
depression levels
women are about 2x as likely as men to experience mild and severe depression
Organismic point of view
Pertaining to the organism as a whole rather than to particular parts. Behavior is considerred an interrelated and interactive function of the integrated organism
120) Except for the length of the disorder and the degree of functional impairment, schizophrenia and
schizophreniform have the same symptomatology
Which of the following best explains the current trend in the prevalence of obesity?
the adoption of unhealthy life styles
biological factors for somatoform disorders
no organic cause of symptom can be identified; identifcation of somatoform disorders involves a process called diagnosis by exclusion
People with body dysmorphic disorder are similar to people with hypochondriasis in that
both ask for reassurance about their symptoms but don't feel relief when they get it.
in client-centered therapy, the therapist is
# the therapist us warm, attentive and receptive (unconditional positive regard)# the therapist fosters growth on the part of the client# empathy is crucial to therapy
DA Theory of Schizophrenia Revised
Excess # of DA receptors or increased sensitivity of DA receptorsComplex neural pathways mean that underactivity in some areas leads to overactivity in others (Thats why meds only work for some sxs some of the time)
11. A person with Korsakoff's Syndrome will exhibit:
a. retrograde amnesia without anterograde amnesia
b. anterograde amnesia without retrograde amnesia
c. both anterograde and retrograde amnesia with better recall for ermote events
d. both anterograde an
c. both anterograde and retrograde amnesia with better recall for remote events
 
 
 
 
Shizotypal PD

 
Evidence of odd speech, behavior, thinking and/or perception (magical thinking, rambling speech, illusions)
they may mishear/misunderstand things but never actually have delusions
Tend to be isolative and have little interest in interpersonal relationships (they don’t have a lot of conflict, just uninterested. Negative symptom)
May be biologically related to schizophrenia (more common in first degree relatives who have schizophrenia)

 
What are some risk factors for Social Phobia?
Lack of close relationship with parents
Conflict between parents
Frequent family moves
Involvement with the juvenile and child welfare systems, physical and sexual abuse in childhood, violent behaviors, school difficulties, and running away from home. 
Evidence for/against Freud's Theory of Depression (3)
1. Tend to show more anger (against)2. Triggered by stress (might support)3. High dependency=more susceptible (support)
What does the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia state?
high levels of dopamine are associated with schizophrenia
Eating Disorder NOS (not otherwise specified)
I think the person has a problem, but it doesnt quite fit the categories
The F scale on the MMPI indicates:
if the person is answering in a deviant way or isperhaps actually deviant
What is the difference between fear and anxiety?
Fear refers to an innate reponse to a dangerous or life-threatening situation, while those with anxiety disorders experience "false alarms" in which harmless stimuli or situations are regarded as dangerous.
Why is it not wise to treat an individual who has a bipolar disorder with an antidepressant?
the drug may trigger rapid cycling by inducing a manic episode
13. The biological brother of a person who has received a dx of Schizophrenia is ____ times more likely to develop the disorder than a member of the general population.
a. two
b. five
c. ten
d. twenty
c. ten - one percent of the gen pop develops Schizophrenia
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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