-Offerings-Double burials-Elaborate burials
different materialistic observations made about a found object. Ex: color, surface, paint, firing core, curvature, material, thickness
with fixed number
|Observations made on objects||
the earliest well characterized archaeological industry dating between 19 and 1.15 million years ago, its charcteristic tool being the chopper
Long, parallel-sided flakes produced from preshaped cores with the aid of a punch; characteristic of many Uppeer Paleolithic peoples.
- core process, less waste and therefore more efficient
- allows ppl to make same shape over and over again- "macroliths" (usually very small)
- come with agriculture in middle east, asia and europe and get tapered into arrowheads
the digging, recording and interpreting the physical remains of the people who lived in an area.
Earliest urbanism in West Africa
Before gold trade (not connected)
100 km site, converted to Islam
oldest adobe structures in the world
Study and Validation of stratification. The analysis in the vertical, time dimension of a series of layers in the horizontal space dimension. Relative dating technique to assess the temporal sequence of artifact deposition.
|phases are defined by...||
Maximizes recovery of stratigraphic information. Creates grid of 5mx5m squares, leaving stratigraphic profiles for all the squares
Growing marshelder and goosefoot
Wide trade network
Elaborate burial customs
Organized as "Big Man" society - achieved
sometimes referred to as conjoining, this entails attempting to put stone tools and flakes back together again, and provides important information on the process involved in the knapper's craft
a related set of different things
grinding tool used by ancient people
Collecting in Herculaneum (1710) and Pompeii (1748) More looting/ bring back to the king and queen. Excavation at Pompeii began in 1860. They would insert plaster of paris to preserve in bodies
an optical surveying instrument used for making contour maps
an archaeologist who specializes in the study of the animal remains recovered from archaeological sites
systematic recovery and study of remains of past life and culture
the study of archaeological plant remains
|39) Define Etic/ Emic.||
Emic- Culturaly specific
tools used primarily for grinding, smashing, or crushing various plant, animal, and mineral resources
an upright monumental stone standing either alone or with others, as in an alignment, found chiefly in Cornwall and Brittany
an unwritten acount of an event
location in Tanzania where many hominin fossils and archaeological sites have been discovered
gives information on changes in activity through time
-along Nile in central Egypt
early transition to farming: grindstones, microlithic tools, buried dead in shallow pits covered w/ stone slabs
Comes from part of the vessel somewhere between the rim and base; least diagnostic
survey technique using a detector that measures differences in the conductivity or electrical current and thus may identify archaeological features
where an artifact came from (country, site, layer, context, association)
processual = process by which cultures changed over time
contagious area of the earth's surface recongnized by distinct soils,land forms, bodies of water, and other features
The early Sumerian cities were religious centers, focused on a temple precinct and surrounded by workers and craft specialists who traded wares and services for their livelihoods
Sumer, in Southern Iraq, was unified under a single government just after 3000 B.C.
Writing, large urban centers, imposing temples, codified laws, a standing army, wide trade networks, a complex irrigation system, and a high degree of craft specialization
during Renaissance, people began to wonder more about their past and in 18th century first excavations began of places like Pompeii
classification of an element to a category - species, genus, family ect.
Leader of New Archaeology (Processual Archaeology)
Believed in an Etic approach to knowing the past
Believed that culture is an adaptation to the environment
|Which mountain range stretches from north of New Mexico past Montana?||
(Theories of State Formation)/
(Ecology & Irrigation Theories)
C. Irrigation Agriculture:
-Witfogel's (1957) "Hydraulic Civilization" Model
-Arid regions require irrigation.
-In order for irrigation to work successfully, there must be some centralized authority to regulate it.
-Irrigation leads to the rise of a state bureacratic apparatus (mediation, adjudication of disputes over riparian rights [water rights])
something made to look like something else
|When divisions in a phase are recognized, initial phase is divided into ____||
- 19th century women's prisons in Tasmania
Narrow trench that cuts through many sediment layers to get a sample from all of them.
three rooms in the center of a palace
thinking up new ways of doing things by using existing methods
the basic vertical subdivision of an excavation square; used only when easily recognizable "natural" strata are lacking and when natural strata are more than 10 cm thick
|Burials can be a combination of____||
Single and Multiple
700 years of cycles of conquest in Spain that ended in 1492
|Later Stone Age—Upper Palaeolithic||
40~5 kya, Microblade, Impala Rockshelter, Zimbabwe
a scholar who studies and writes about history, and is regarted as an authority on it
|major change in miocene?||
age of apes
forest -> grassland
practice of viewing the world from a European perspective and with an implied belief, either consciously or subconsciously, in the preeminence of European culture
a date expressed in specific units. such as days, years, ect.
|Stable Isotope Analysis||
Measures the light (stable) elements of hydrogen,
carbon, nitrogen, oxygen & sulfur in organic samples
to determine composition
|Modern cognitive archaeology||
Aims to study the perception, description, and classification of the universe; the nature of the supernatural; the principles, philosophies, and values by which uman societies are governed; and the ways in which aspects of the world, the supernatural, or human values are conveyed in art.
Influential guy for the early 20th century.
He subdivides Tylor'c categories using materials.
|Egyptian Chronology: General Periods of Egyptian Culture:||
-Archaic Period (2920-2575 B.C.)(Solidification of Empire).
-Old Kingdom (2575-2180 B.C.)(Pyrimid Building; Capital at Memphis near Cairo).
-First Intermediate Period (2180-2134 B.C.)(Drought & Political Instability)
-Middle Kingdom (2134-1640 B.C.)(Capital at Thebes; Rulers Less Despotic; the Classic Period of Egyptian Civilization).
-Second Intermediate Period (1640-1530 B.C.)(Political Instability & Foreign Invaders: The Hyksos)
-New Kingdom (1530-1070 B.C.)(Tombs in Valley of the Kings; King Tutankhamun; Capital at Thebes)
-Late Period (1070-332 B.C.)(Period of Foreign Influence: Nubians, Assyrians, Greeks, Romans).
|(a) A machine where soil samples from features are placed. Water comes up from beneath and floral remains are separated from the dirt and flow out into some sort of receptacle (screen or filter)||
|Two Types of Cultural Dating||
1. Absolute Dating: when archaeologists decide exactly how old an object is 2. Relative Dating: when archaeologists can't decide exactly how old an object is, just whether it is older or newer than other objects
big rectangle dug in the ground lined with stones
the view that each culture is the product of a unique sequence of developments in which chance plays a major role in bringing about change
a group of people living as nomadic invaders in areas of the fertile crescent from northeastern Mesopotamia and Iran to the borders of Egypt in Canaan. Described as nomadic or semi-nomadic, rebels, outlaws, raiders, mercenaries, and bowmen, servants, slaves, migrant laborers.
|Types of plant remains:||
1. macro -botanical (seeds, tubers, fruits, wood)
-visible to the naked eye
2. micro-botanical (pollen, phytoliths, starch grains)
A chip of stone knocked off a core, using a hammerstone, in order to make a stone tool. have a striking platform and a bulb of percussion.
|HoD: Western S. America||
quinoa, potato, llama, alpaca, guinea pig
only comes from the Pichuca source in central Mexico
|Measure ratio of ____ in bone collagen to determine dietary importance of classes of plants||
|weathering- ____ and ____ processes that affect _____ artifacts, ____ them _____||
chemical, physical, all, wearing, down
|important first step in archaeology||
Must address when and where questions
before we ask why questions, Identifying variation in material culture
|Nelson Bay Cave||
South Africa, 18ka to present - Shows sea level at last glacial maximum
methods in how people in the past got food in settlements.
|Archaeologists used projectile point typology at Gatecliff because they wanted to...||
classify projectile points to make temporal types (time-markers) to test against radiocarbon dates
|how does culutural importence help?||
if it is culturaly important theft won't be a problem
|Roof fall (eboulis)?||
rock that falls from the ceiling of a cave due to FROST ACTION.
|What are the 4 reasons Stonehenge was constructed?||
Alien landing pad, astronomical observatory, sacred burial ground, temple
|Smaller statues of Memnon||
Only 10 feet tall
All we have is the feet. Only five have been found.
Carved names on each. List, different parts of the world. Put them together, get the world as Egyptians knew it.
|Debate: How to interpret Neanderthal findings?||
1) Taxonomy Issue: same as H. sapiens or different?2) Behavior Question: did they act like us? Brutish? Fearsome?
|Why do people build cities on top of one another?||
It's a good location
They get higher and higher
Sometimes it's accidental
Don't see so much in the New World