measure released light
made by a Cyclopes
Ethiopia 3.5-3 mya
|James A. Ford||
Establishing contemporary culture group interactions
emphasizes technology, ecology, demography and economics in the definition of human behavior
measures modification in earth's magnetic field
divergent (normal) faulting
|Most Common Subsurfae Technique||
not interntionally prepared/preserved, arid regions--body dries naturally, moist areas--chemical alterations tan the flesh
circular, rectangular, or triangular pyramid
cut-stone facings held together by mortar
build in constructive episodes which changed the pyramids appearance drastically
A scientific investigation of the cultral remains of people in the past.
a recognized and defended area utilized by a group or society, often associated with agricultural societies
less Antilles and Orinoco, late migration 1,400 AD, warlike, maritime economy, raid Taino for wives, long hair, ritual cannibalism, delay European settlement, French alliance: keep British out of St. Vincents, chatoyer
Decline: warfare, disease, cultural change, suicide, reservations
an empty grave, without a body
usually located away from habitations
the third stage of behavioral processes in which artifacts are utilized
Middle phase of Ancient Egypt
in the year of the lord
placing artifacts in chronological order based on the assumption that the POPULARITY of an artifact, peaks at a specific moment in time
1980s to presentno universal lawsemphases: gender, class, symbols, power, individualsMarxist, feminist, interpretivemore involvement from descendant communities
transition industry in Eastern Europe characterized by bifacial points
|2 parts of hide processing||
agriculture began here around 8,000 BC, with more than 400 different kinds of potatoes.which they'd mash, dry, freeze, store. oh and they had llamas to carry ****
Luxury culture and products, walled towns, warfare, divination and prophecy
location in Kenya with stone tools dating back to 2.3 million years ago
A relative dating method that orders artifacts based on the assumption that one cultural style slowly replaces on earlier style over time; with a master seriation diagram, sites can be dated based on their frequency of several artifact styles.
800-400 BC, island settlement in swamp, replaces San Lorenzo as center of Olmec civilization, platform mounds and ridges with a central plaza, long rectangular mound (Stirling Acropolis), artisans produced jade and serpentine objects, destroyed in 400 BC by rival chiefdoms, conqueors defaced monuments and heads
• Oasis theory (propinquity theory) V Gordon Childe
o Some areas being arid, plants focus themselves in oasis where there are underground water source
o Animals drawn by water
o Humans drawn by water, plants, and animals
o Mere proximity lends itself to human becoming more familiar to charasteristics of plants and animals, tending them, selecting them for our needs→ domestication
a proposed explanation made on the basis of evidence as a starting point for further investigation
technological advance, tools now made from iron; small, relatively isolated villages (continued habitation in Athens and Argos); reincorporation of Greece into wider Mediterranean world, emergence of new polis
400+ signs (half simple, half composite)
Many animal figures
Tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, bull, unicorn
May = families, clans, merchants
No bilingual text (e.g. no Rosetta)
Short inscriptions (26 or less signs)
Language family unknown
object made by human beings, either hand-made or mass-produced
The delineation of patterns in material culture through time and over space. These patterns are what the archaeologist will eventually try to explain or account for.
|Handaxes could mean:||
Sexy handaxe theory, communication, mental template
a natural formation process in which trees and other plants affect the distribution of artifacts within an archaeological site
|The Pleistocene is characterized by/as?||
Age of Man
Bought many things from Golan. Pretended to lose his memory on the witness stand
Etrustan Tomb, frequently has all of the stuff, but air pressure turns everything to dust. Colonoscopy for a tomb! As camera goes into wall of tomb, self-sealing so no air gets in .
archaeologists decide the age in years of an object
|Augustus Pitt Rivers||
Excavated Roman sites, recorded and noted everything found --> established true basis of modern fieldwork technique.
located in the cell nucleus, combines DNA from each parent
|Natural transformational processes||
caused by natural forces (Animal burrowing, erosion, rain, rusting,-->decomposition
dates for phases can absolutely be specified--fancy, scientific technology used
a particular period in time and space where an assemblage occurs
hat is found together, as opposed to separately
Just because objects are found together, though, doesn't mean they
were made by the same people or used together
All it means is that they were deposited at the same time
May have been mixed together in a recent disturbance of the sediment
Objects may have been dislodged from their original matrix`
Provide aid in documentation and help to find what messes with the artifacts.
The study of how organisms become part of the fossil record; the study of how natural processes produce patterning in archaeological data
the remains (or an impression) of a plant or animal that existed in a past geological age and that has been excavated from the soil NOUN
rodents that build nests of organic materials and thus preserve a record, often for thousands of years, of changing plant species within the local area of the nest
Both a specific central location for exchange to occur
|index fossil concept||
William Strata Smith- 19th century- different fossils characterize different layers- fossil directeurs (time markers)
a living behavioral system in which artifacts are part of the ongoing system of manufacture, use, reuse, and discard
Tool with a concave section taken out (very easy to make)Can have multiple notches on one tool but they cannot touch each other (aren't called notches)
the geological era that began 1.8 mya and is characterized by the frequent buildup and retreat of continental ice sheets
|Book of Samuel||
Late 3rd century BCE
Deutoronoy 32:8, "sons of God"
Passage left out of modern bible, in translation, scribe wrote first paragraph, got distracted, thought he had written second paragraph because starts out the same way.
|All of the following are examples of remote sensing EXCEPT||
What are the methods of Absolute Dating?
|Law of Superposition||
The geological principle that in any pile of sedimentary rocks that have not been disturbed by folding or overturning, each bed is older than the layers above and younger than the layers below; also known as Steno's law.
40s, 50s, and 60s, trying to cut legal recognition of domestic dependent nations. assimilate natives into american society. Sparks red power movement.
|Hunter's Sympathetic Magic||
idea that by drawing these animals, we are in some way capturing them and gaining power over them, ethnographic evidence from Australian hunter gatherers, explanation as why human beings are not drawn in natural ways
A ritual in which an individual seeks visions through starvation, dehydration, and exposure; considered in some cultures to be a way to communicate with the supernatural world.
|Le Tuc d'Audoubert, France||
Magdalenian ceremonial site famous for its clay bison figures.
|the scientific method||
procedures for the systematic gain of knowledge
changes in styles in a series of related types of artifacts (similar in function or manufacture)
• distinct types become cultural markers in time and space
• By adding several typologies (pottery, stone tools, etc.) together, you can build cultural assemblages.
• cultural assemblages are collections of different but contemporaneous objects
• Cell phone example
|Total stations theodolite||
Very new, expensive. Tellsyou how far away you are, the angle, etc.
|Sir William Flinders Petrie||
Pioneered ways of digging sites, dug in Israel and Egypt, willed his head be displayed in oxford after his death.
|thermal infrared multispectral scanner||
A remote sensing technique that uses equipment mounted on aircraft or satellites to measure infrared thermal radiation given off by the ground.
Crops do not grow tall when planted on soil covering remains of buildings because there is less nutrients.
all processes that in one way or the other affected or transformed the formation of the site as we know it todaytwo types: cultural and natural
|created a map of the seasonal round of the Western Shoshone people||
|mound (borrows, tumuli)||
built pile or heap of earth or stones, resembling a very small hill, usually a burial monument
# of people that a unit of land can support under a particular technology
|feature "fill" is||
a form of matrix that is within the confines of a feature
|How can we determine the sex of an individual?||
Pelvic and skull bones
|The Collapse of the Classic Maya||
After about A.D. 750, the large states appear to have broken into a series of smaller polities .
The population in the southern lowlands Maya sites had declined by at least two-thirds.
One possible factor is the increasing instability between a growing population and the available agricultural resources
A number of Maya urban centers appeared in the northern Yucatan during the Postclassic period (A.D. 930 to 1519), evidencing the survival of the Maya people.
|End of first phase of palace at Knossos||
In 1700, earthquake? Palace rebuilt in same spot, same pottery, same culture
|Early Agricultural Period||
|Temple of Castor||
focusing devices- provide understanding. ppl confuse them as absolute truths. individually, every theory is incomplete
ties to anthropology.
-Preceded pyramids & were used for lesser personages.
-mastaba = "bench" in Arabic.
the earliest well characterized archaeological industry dating between 19 and 1.15 million years ago, its charcteristic tool being the chopper
disturbance of the archaeological record from plant and animal activities such as root growth or animal digging
1,305-1,375 BC, dendrochronology, Turkey
desiccated feces, often containing macrobotanical remains, pollen, and the remains of small animals
shells of microscopic marine organisms
|2 types of describing||
Portable object used, modified, or made by people...sometimes used to describe ideas. Example: stone tools, pottery, metal weapons, etc
No outside features
Built in single episode
Built 4-5 kya
A semi-subterranean structure with a heavy log roof covered with sod.
Something in its original position
ancient writing system of Ancient Egypt. Phonetic-meaning that the symbols were representative of distinct sounds (like the English alphabet) not full of words or phrases.
studies rock levels and layering; helps show the progression of settlements. Different layers of rocks represent different time periods
an egalitarian association of families knit together by close social ties
Microscopic starch bodies. Produced throughout plant but concentrated in storage organs. Unknown how long they can survive. Found in sediments, artifact residues, and dental calculus. Can illustrate damage.
Operation of some central controlling organization
Breeding and managing migratory herds of domesticated grazing animals, such as goats, sheep, cattle, llamas, or camels.
to banish from ones native country
the materials, both artifacts and ecofacts, collected from a site and representing all of th eevidence of the activities at a site... classified for purposes of site-to-site comparison, reveals general similarities and differences
a Middle Paleolithic industry of northwestern Africa characterized by the production of tanged points and leaf-shaped points of varying sizes
|Binford and Flannery||
Marginal Habitat Hypothesis; most societies have strategies for maintaining their populations below carrying capacity; they liv in equilibrium with the environment; climatic changes at the end of Pleistocene lead to concentrations of resources and increased sedentism; increased populations mean that people overshot their carrying capacities and were forced to marginal environments leading to domestication
the period when hominins began producing stone tools, roughly 2.5 million to 200 000 years ago
people who have no permanent homes, but move according to seasons, or food or water sources
Name applied to a stone tool technology associated with Neanderthal peoples of Europe, Eurasia, and the Near East after about 100,000 years ago, based on carefully prepared disk cores; named after the French village of Le Moustier.
traditional story about the origin and history of a people & their culture
Rights, duties, and obligations that accrue to a person by virtue of what they accomplished in their life.
Similar to California. Rocky mountains or hilly land. Rocky coastline. Bright blue sky
hallow, clay ball that holds tokens used in selling or trading; creative designs on outside used to distinguish what was on the inside.
metereils found in the earth that people need and value
Enamel not deposited properly, in episodes of stress during development= disease or nutritional problems.
|Code of Hammurabi||
United all of Mesopotamia
One of the oldest long works
Written on a stela
two groups of clans that perform reciprocal ceremonial obligations for one another; moieties often intermarry
|Levels of Stratigraphy at Sites Can BE||
social formations that lie between egalitarian and ranked societies (chiefdoms) normally horticulturalists and sedentary w/ a higher level of competition than seen in hunter/gatherer society
involves illuminating a sample with x-rays and measuring the amount of light given off as a function of wavelength. Suitable analysis of this light spectrum (which can be fully automated) reveals the concentration of the various elements in the sample. This approach allows for the rapid assessment of elemental abundances in sediment cores that have been split down the middle, producing records that are far more detailed than what could be expected from extracting and measuring individual samples.
|Kebaran & Geometric Kebaran||
Small Hunter-gatherer camps characterized by the appearance of stone bladelets and no domestication of plants/animals
Type of salt that basically removes all water.
Created the Georgian Mindset such as Headstones, Architecture, and ceramics
legions, myths and beliefs passed down by word of mouth from generation to generation.
the context or location within a grid system-where artifacts were located spatially.
Plant & animal remains from a site (food, seeds, bones, impressions, soil).
An approach to archaeology that arose in the 1960's emphasizing the understanding of underlying cultural processes and the use of the scientific method; today's version of the "new archaeology" is sometimes called processual archaeology
a method of dating wood. tree ring counting. it is the oldest method of scientific dating.
A unilineal descent system in which ancestry is traced through the female line.
created by William libby. dated by "half life", which is the amount of time half of the C14 will have decayed. Organics,
student of language, 1st to conduct systematic survey of ancient sites in Iran, Suria, Iraq
|The Decline and Collapse of States||
Human behavior may have increased the incidence of disease
A spiritual way of artwork expressed on cave walls.
Chisel-like stone tool made on a blade used for grooving stone, antler, bone, and wood and for making rock engravings.
important for uncovering WIDE AREAS of a site
1. settlement plans
2. can use earthmoving equipment
3. information gained on a particular culture
large ornamental pin worn on a blouse or dress.
when high ranked preys are exhausted. exploited from foraging behavior.
Feature in Chaco Canyon that shows early manipulating of the natural world
|4 types of ecofacts||
floral, faunal, humal remains, soils
keeps track of where materal came from in a site. used to record the location of materials and location
|uranium series dating||
an isotopic dating method based on radioactive decay of uranium
a mound consisting of shells of edible molluck or other refuse, marking the site of a prehistoruc human habitation
A symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the bone of the upper eye sockets takes on a spongy appearance.
ocean floor cores are used as evidence for continental glaciation, direct measure going back tens of millions of years, when glaciers melt salinity decreases and the reverse
|What is some ethnoarchaeological evidence?||
Tuareg women (mobile pastorialists) still use donkeys for transport
-Allow camps to move as one unit to follow pasture
-fertility in women increases when they have p ack animals to carry water
an account of an event created by someone who took part in or witnessed the event
|New strategies for environmental archaeology||
Raw material sourcing, paleobotany, zooarchaeology, geophysical analysis, geomorphic analysis, paleoenvironmental reconstruction, isotope analysis
|University of Arizona's Garbage Project||
-carefully controlled study of household waste
-one aim was to test validity of interview and survey techniques
-test clearly shows significant difference between hwat people say they do and what garbage analysis shows they actually do
-peoples' garbage indicative of their social class
|an analysis of ratios of isotopes drawn through bone collagen||
stable isotope analysis
|Jacques Boucher de Perthe||
Somme River, stone artifacts found in association with extinct animals 1841 (long history of mankind)
|Sir Thomas Browne||
1643, created idea of time depth based on the bible
|terminus post quem||
"date after which" the deposit can be no earlier than
|Six primary or pristine civilizations:||
1. Mesopotamia (ca.4500 B.C.)
2. Egypt (ca.3500 B.C.)
3. Indus Valley (ca.2600 B.C.)
4. Shang China (ca. 2000 B.C.)
5. Peru (ca. 200 B.C. / 2600-1970 B.C.)
6. Mesoamerica (ca. A.D. 100 / 500 B.C. for Zapotec)
|The date before which an artifact or feature must have been deposited||
Terminus ante quem
|Hopewell Interaction Sphere||
the common set of symbols found in the mid-western U.S. between 2200 and 1600 BP
|Foraminifera (Ice Age)Two important things to look at||
shell plankton used to look at climate in different periods of time1) Number per Layer2) Comparing O16 and Radioactive O18 isotopes to find out amount of water in glacier at the time
|trees add ___ ring annually, made of a ____ band and ____ band. Annual growth is ____ controlled||
1, dark, light, climate
|Transition of wild to “culturally managed landscapes”||
changing the landscape to fit a certain type of subsistence strategy and mostly applies to the domestication of wild plants and animals.
|Are Historical Documents good or bad for an archaeologist?||
Historical documents are both good and bad. They are good because we are able to learn from a first-hand account of what was going on during the time period. However, it is also bad because it is very one-sided and limits what we are able to know.
|Charles Darwin. How does he relate to Archaeology?||
He is one of the influences of Archaeology because he says that the earth is older that 4004 BC. Has the theory of natural selection. Little by little, new species are going to develop. For new species to develop... you need time, and a lot of it.