Abnormal Psychology final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
wernicke's encephalopathy
covert sensitization therapy
Low blood pressure
consistency of measurements
Example of DM
Five Factor
Heritability of Schizotypal PD
Antisocial disorder
Development-Oppositional Defiant Disorder age 3 to 11, then conduct disorder age 11-18, then AntisocialSigns:Sociopathic triad-wetting/soiling, fire-starting, cruelty to animals
Fictitious Disorders
producing faking exaggerating symptoms; examples include Maunchausen's Syndrome
Treating Anorexia
-weight gain
-inpatient forced feeding
-address difficulties
-theraputic alliance is a challenge
-health prof a threat
-psychological apects
used to help people sleep
the unconscious psychic structure, present at birth, that contains primitive instincts and is regulated by the pleasure principle
Sexual Sadism
6+ months, urges/fantasies psychological/physical suffering or humiliation of victim is sexually exciting
DSM-IV Axis I and II
subjective feeling at situation, short-lived; ex: fear-->terror
Unipolar Depression
Mood d/o only w/depression
independent variable
the factor being manipulated
61) According to your text, environmental factors that may precipitate major depression include all of the following except
major depression
characterized by unhappiness, fatigue, and low self-esteem
Dependence does not develop of caffeine.
are tolerance and withdrawl needed ?
What are the different types of
specific phobias?



Natural Enviornment

peer sociometrics
evaluate children's relationships by obtaining info on who is "liked most" and who is "liked least"
Inter rater
different judges independently agree on hoe to score & interpret
is extremely common and not necessarily pathological
According to Freud, the psychological force that employs reason and operates in accordance with the reality principle
Dimension 2 of Psychopathy
-Impulsivity and irresponsibility
-Socially deviant lifestyle
-High need for stimulation
-Poor behavioral controls
-Parasitic lifestyle
Personality Disorder Cluster C
Obsessive-compulsive: excessive concern with order, rules, and trivial details; perfectionistic (more males than females 2:1)
Panic disorder without Agoraphobia is:
more common
substances that decrease or block neurotransmitters
Choosing coping styles from earlier psychosexual stages (fixation)Manifestation is often symbolic
Disorder where the underlying etiology is known
Originally used to control mild depression and appetite - Today used to treat hyperactive children- Examples: Benzedrine, Dexedrine, and Methedrine-- Produce effects by the release of norepinephrine and dopamine and blocking the re-uptake of these neurotransmitters
Object Relations
the psychoanalytic approach that focuses attention on the emotional bonds between persons rather than on a person's view of him or herself
Some neurotransmitters act as ______ that increase or decrease the sensitivity of neurons to the efefects of other neurotransmitters.
cultural relativism
deviancy is defined by culture
Disorganized Schizophrenic
Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion
After her last episode of schizophrenia, Jill continued to behave a bit eccentrically and she showed little emotion. Which of the following diagnoses should she be given?
residual schizophrenia
How do you distinguish between the binge-eating/purging type of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, purging type?
EE defintion
family members negative and critical hostile attitudes and behaviors towards the patient and or emotional over involvement and intrusiveness of family
Mood state marked with negative affect and bodily symptoms of tension.
Anticipates future dangers or misfortune.
Feelings, behaviors and physiological responses
the meaning or importance of a measurement
Expressed Emotion
family environment does have a significant impact on course of schizo; ex: high EE family
Psychodynamic Model
emphasizes internal mental processes & role of early childhood experiences, Freud
the small branching structures at the tips of axons
Herbert awakens early in the morning and feels more depressed in the morning than the evening. He has lost all interest in activities and derives no pleasure from things that used to please him. If he is suffering from major depression, Herbert's symptoms
Tertiary Prevention
Provides effective treatment as soon as it is needed so that moderate or severe disorders do not become long term problems
A sensory stimulation in the absence of things actually happening
a group of symptoms that appear together and are assumed to represent a specific type of disorder.
Individual Psychology
Adler's belief that fulfillment was found in doing things for the social good. Used ideas similar to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
- Antidepressant
-Increase both norepinephrine and serotonin activity
-Potentially dangerous/fatal side effects from interaction with foods rich in tyramine (amino acid - beer, wine, aged cheese)
Male erectile d/o
not maintaining an erection **Arousal
"window to the stomach"- production of acid due to stress that works on lesions on stomach, causes a sore (Brady's executive monkeys experiment)-caused by Heliobacter pylora
Refusal to believe an event took placeManipulation of external perceptions Keeps anxiety down, but requires a lot of psych. energyNot the best cost-benefit
Analytical Psychology (Jung)
Incorporates Freudian and humanistic psychology
Involuntary spasms in outer 1/3rd of vagina during attempted penetration
Case Study
When an individual situation or behavior is being observed and described
term Frankl used to descrive his existential, humanistic approach to treatment
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
Inducing seizure by passing electricity through the brain
96) An extreme dislike to and avoidance of all (or almost all) genital contact with a partner is termed
sexual aversion.
false beliefs often of persecution or grandeur that may accompany psychotic disorders
dissociative disorders
includes amnesia, loss of memory of identity, and multiple personality
Catatonic Schizophrenia
engage in odd movements; may remain motionless in strange postures for hours at a time, move jerkily and quickly for no apparent reason, or alternate between the two; when motionless, these type of schizophrenics usually evidence waxy flexibility; they allow their body to be moved into any alternative shape and will then hold hat new pose; an increasingly rare form of schizophrenia in the US
Moral Management
a wide ranging method of treatment that focused on a patients social, individual, and occupational needs
Traumatic Stressor are a ___ part of human experience
Avoidant PD
afraid of critcism, so avoid all situations in which it may occur
depressed and lonely
Cognitive-behavioral therapy = helpful
negative symptoms
something that appears to be missing from the person's behavior
Etiology of Bulimia: Psychoanalytic
Birth control, afraid of sex
Severe retardation

IQ of 20-25 to 35-40
Can learn some self-care, work in sheltered workshop, difficulty speaking, reading, using numbers, need supervision
Causes of Schizotypal Disorder
Enlarged Ventricles
High levels of DA
Genetic relationship between schizophrenia and schizotypal
Physical and behavioral abnormalities
Cognitive Functions and Brain Structures
Positive Psychology
The study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abillities
Abnormal Psychology = ?
Psychopathology (scientific study of psychological disorders:
Mild cognitive impairments of Schizotypal PD
-Poor sustained attention
-Poor working memory
(normal responses)
(after trauma it's normal to develop disaster syndrome)
1. shock-stunned, dazed
2. suggestive stage-passive and willing to take orders from professionals
3. recovery-tense, anxiety, slowly gain equilibrium (some ppl can develop PTSD here)
3 Physiological changes associated with Anorexia Nervosa
- Hypotension
- Lanugo
- Amenorrhea
brain circuits
groups of neurons that are sensitive to specific neurotransmitters
Schizoid PD Characterized By:
Persistent avoidance of social relationships w/limited emotional expressionFlat, cold, anhedonia, low sex drive
Panic D/O WITHOUT Agoraphobia
panic attacks experienced without development of agoraphobia
Emotion -
A subjective feeling that is usually accompanied by physiological changes.
Nature vs. Nurture
Debate over the causes of psychological disorders (are disorders cause by something in the biology of the person or in the history of events to which the person was exposed?); debate implies that the cause of the disorder has to be either biological or psychological and that it cannot be both.
Dimensional Approach to Classification
describes the objects of classification in terms of continuous dimensions
Loss of declarative memory is associated with:
a. Alzheimer's Dementia
b. Parkinson's Disease
a. Alzheimer's Dementia
what is behaviorism?
stresses the importance of learning and behavior in explanations of normal and abnormal development
(4) Personality Disorders in Cluster B (dramatic, emotional, erratic)
-Antisocial Personality Disorder
-Borderline Personality Disorder
-Histrionic Personality Disorder
-Narcissistic Personality Disorder
what is a panic disorder?
-characterized by often immobilizing, repeated panic attacks, which involve intense physical features, notably cardiovascular symptoms, that may be accompanied by sheer terror or fears of losing contro, losing one's mind, or dying
-panic attack sufferer's often limit their outside activity in fear of recurrent attacks
-this can lead to agoraphobia, the fear of venturing into public places
major goal for treatment of DID
-intergration of different personalities and memories as a whole persona
-no scientific research about how this is done
What is second feature?
The person does not have schizoaffective disorder or a mood disorder with psychotic features.
typical onset of schizophrenia
during adolescence or early adulthood; between ages 15-35
Etiology of Childhood disorders: Social factors
Socialization: process of shaping children's behavior to conform with expectations of society.Parenting styles: discipline, authoritative parentingCoercion: positively reinforcing a child's misbehavior by giving into child's demands. Child then negatively reinforces parents by ending behavior upon capitulation
parasympathetic nervous system
pertaining to the division of the autonomic nervous system whose activity reduces states of arousal and regulates bodily processes that replensish energy reserves
Somatization disorder and hypochondriasis differ because
in somatization disorder, people are concerned about multiple different physical symptoms, in hypochondriasis, people are concerned about having an organic disease.
Eugen Blueuler
2nd major figure in the history of schizophrenia. Coined the term schizophrenia meaning "split mind." He believed there was an associative splitting of the basic function of personality.
Negative Schizophrenic Symptoms
-Avolition - loss of energy-Alogia - Poverty of speech-Absence of interest-Anagdolia - loss of pleasure-Affect - Facial impression is flat or inappropriate-Asociality
Same dose of drug produces less of an effect & a greater amount of the drug is needed to achieve the same level of intoxication
Major Depressive Disorder
-Prescence of a MDE
-No history of maniac, hypomanic, or mixed episode
Technical Neutrality/Therapeutic neutrality
Efforts by the therapist to allow patient's transference to dev. w/o interference from therapist
Psychological Effects of Opium
- Euphoria, drowsiness, daydream, and lack of coordination
lifetime prevelance
The number of people who have suffered from a particular disorder in thier lifetime.
Mental Status Exam
A set of interview questions and observations designed to reveal the degree and nature of a person's abnormal functioning.
57) Individuals experiencing a manic episode usually experience all of the following except
??? (symptoms include: grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, more talkative, racing thoughts/ideas, distractibility, increase in goal-directed activity, high-risk pleasurable activities)
What is the current version of the DSM?
Why do people engage in parasucidal behavior?
affect regulation, self punishment
Endorphins and the psychological processes assoicated with them?
Closely related to morphine, control emotion, pain, stress, and reward.
What is bipolar disorder?
A mood disorder which involves an intense and very disruptive experience of extreme elation, or euphoria, possibly alternating with major depression episodes.
Paranoid Type of Schizophrenia
People with the paranoid type of schizophrenia stand out because of their delusions or hallucinations but at the same time their cognitive skills and affect are relatively intact. There is an absence of disorganized behavior and they have the best prognosis of al types of schizophrenia
DSM-IV 5 Aves of Diagnosis

Axis I: clinical disorders, including major mental disorders, as well as developmental and learning disorders

Axis II: underlying pervasive or personality conditions, as well as mental retardation

Axis III: Acute medical conditions and physical disorders.

Axis IV: psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to the disorder

Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning or Children’s Global Assessment Scale for children and teens under the age of 18.
substance use disorder
when the use of a substance regularly negatively affects a person's life
Schizophrenia and SES Sociogenic hypothesis
Most common amongst urban poorStress of poverty causes the d/o via poor nutrition during pregnancy etc.
Comorbidity of anorexia nervosa (6)
- Depression- OCD- Phobias- Panic disorder- Alcoholism - Personality disorders
1 year prevelance
the number of people who suffered from a disorder in one year
clinical efficacy axis
one of a proposed set of guidelines for evaluating clinical interventions on the evidence of their effectiveness
Generalized Anxiety Disorders
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
Family Therapy with Schzo
-most effective if family is high in EE
-family coping skills
-eliminating unrealistic expectations
-improving communication and problem solving
Psychological Factors of somatoform disorders
Onset of somatization is triggered by traumatic stress; exposure to dead bodies
What are the characteristics of Schizophrenia, residual type?
Individuals with this type of schizophrenia may no longer have prominent psychotic symptoms but might still show some lingering signs of the disorder.
What are the four forms of dissociative amnesia?
Localized amnesia- the individual forgets all events that occured during a specific time interval.
Selective amnesia- the individual fails to recall some, but not all, details of events that have occurred during a given period of time.
Generalized amnesia- a syndrome in which a person cannot remember anything at all from his or her life.
Continuous amnesia-a failure to recall events from a particular date up to and including the present time. 
Effect of CBT vs. Pharmacology for mood disoders
Similarly effective
CBT has lower relapse rate
Name the 2 sub types of anorexia nervosa
1. Restricting type2. Binge-eating-purging type
A psycho undertaking a research project in a high security prison on the effects of certain food addives on bx. The prison pop is surveyed, informed, and volunteers are sought. The volunteers are again explained the purpose of the study and asked to give
shouldn't be undertaken as the subjects are not allowed to freely withdraw
58) The difference between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder is the presence of
hypomanic disorder in the latter instead of a full-blown manic episode.
Treatemtn for Substance Abuse and Dependence
-most do not seek treatment because they do not think they have a problem
-compliance with low dropout in highschool
-comorbid with personality disorders so it makes it hard
-all treatments are equally efective
-abstinence vs. moderation
-relapse is not uncommon
-12 step program works well (AA)
if individuals have a lot of social support, coping resources, and stress situations
Depression differs among children and adolescents
In children, there are lower prev rates, equal freq among girls and boys, stronger relation with family dysfunction, and less persistent course
Clark Study of Panic Provocation
* proposed that there is a cognitive reaction to these physical symptoms that would contribute to panic attacks (they interpret their body's wrong)* gave people with panic a shot that would increase fear response and told half what to expect and half not* the uniformed group's response was greatly increased
Effects of CBT treatment vs. Pharmacology in treating Generalized Anxiety Disorder
-Both CBT and Pharmacology are equally effective
-CBT has longer lasting treatment effects
Dysthymic D/O
- have no Major Depressive Episodes during the first 2 yrs and no Mixed,Manic, or Hypomanic episodes.- Criteria: must have 2Poor appetite/overeatingInsomnia/HypersomniaLow Energy/FatigueLow Self-EsteemPoor Concentration/Decision-makingFeelings of Hopelessness

49) The anxiety sensitivity model of fear acquisition holds that some people
have more negative perceptions of what anxiety means – personality trait.
Why does the definition of binge eating rely on clinical judgment rather than quantity of calories consumed during a binge?
What is considered a high calorie intake for one individual may not be high for someone else
One of the most consistent findings of the research on suicide is that older adults have the highest rates of completed suicide, with the highest rate being for white males aged 70 and over. In contrast, the highest rate of attempted - but not c
With one exception, whites have higher rates of suicide than members of other ethnic/racial groups at all ages. The exception is that some Native American tribes have the highest rates among 15- to 24-year-olds. Suicide is less common among the married than among the single, divorced, or widowed. Loss of a spouse through death or divorce increases the risk for suicide, especially during the first year after the loss.
What class of antidepressants is most prevalent?How long should antidepressants be used for?What is the best treatment for mood d/o?
*SSRIs (less side effects)*6 mo. after Sx reduction*Psychotherapy+Drugs
Which of the following is an example of a negative symptom of schizophrenia?
Karen no longer socialized with her friends.
What are some of the symptoms of a Major Depressive Episode?
Depressed mood
Diminished interest or pleasure in all or most daily activities
Significant unintentional weight loss or appetite decrease or increase
Insomnia or hypersomnia
Psychomotor agitation or retardation
Fatigue or energy loss
Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt
Concentration difficulty or indecisiveness
Recurrent thoughts of death or suicidality
To remember pairs of unrelated words, the best method would be to:
a. create an acronym
b. repeat the word pairs over and over again
c. create a visual image that links each word pair
d. use chunking
c. create a visual image that links each word pair
according the freud the mind is composed of three parts
# id- is the raw energy that powers the mind# id seeks gratification of basic urges for food, water, warmth, affection, and sex# id processes are unconscious# ego is a conscious part of the mind that deals with reality# superego- is the final part of the mind to emerge and is similar to the conscience
Depressants *Effects *Examples *Regular use leads to: *Discontinuation can lead to:
*Slow the body down, decrease behavioral activity/level of awareness*Alcohol, opiates, barbiturates, benzos*Tolerance*Withdrawal
2 Orientations to toilet training and outcomes
1. Praise for doing a good job *Value in producing things by w/e means possible *Adult productivity/creativity2. Punitive *Anal expulsive (Rebels): Messy, cruel, hostile *Anal retentive (W/holding): Rigid, obsessive, stingy, orderly
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