Abnormal Psychology, Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cannabis
 
 
 
Elimination disorders
(2)
Enuresis
Encopresis
Track of Schizophrenia
Prodromal
Active
Residual
pedophilia
attraction towards children
Depression
common cold in psychology
 
 
Fugue
 
 
A flight or loss
Id
basic urges of food,sex,warmth,love.
Translated from "The it" the something else that motivated his patient
GAD Etiology
Psychodynamic: ego/id
Cognitive: avoidance of fears adds to the anxiety
Biological: GABA receptors
Axis IV
Psychosocial and Environmental Factors
-events in a person's life
-divorce, marriage, lost job
-may explain cause
Dimensional Model
+
-theoretical basis
-retention of information
-leads to less sterotyping
-adaptive traits are also highlighted
-flexible
-resolution of a variety of classification dilemmas
-avoids arbitrary assignment decisions
-addresses problems with comorbidity
-high inter- rater reliablity
Hyperactivity
involves squirming, fidgeting, and restless behavior; they're in constant motion. Much more noticeable in the classroom or in structured seetings
 
4 Types of Dramatic-Erratic Disorders
Antisocial
 
Histrionic
 
Narcissistic
 
Borderline
 
Dementia
development of multiple cognitive defects, memory impairment, 1+ of: aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, disturbance in executive functioning (planning, organizing, etc.)gradual onset, continuing cognitive decline
2 Types of OCD Treatment
-benzodiazepines
-antidepressants
extinction
presentation of conditioned stimulus without "reward" (food in exp with dog), behavior is eliminated
Disorganized schizophrenic (hebaphrenic)
disorganized thought/speech/behavior, inappropriate affect, but not catatonic, most likely to hurt you
Shaman
in traditional cultures, inspired priest of medium who can summon up and communicate with good and evil spirits
112) Psychotic disorders are characterized by unusual thinking, distorted perceptions, and
odd behaviors.
Dissociative Disorders
conscious awareness becomes separated (disassociated) from previous memories, thoughts, feelings, and/or identities
Anxiety
Mood state characterized by marked negative affect and bodily symptoms of tension in which a person apprehensively anticipates future danger or misfortune. Anxiety may involve feelings, behaviors, and physiological responses. 
Extraversion
interest in interacting iwth other people; positive emotions
Narassistic PD requires DSM
5 of 9
Native Americans have a _______ prevalence rate in eating disorder compared ot whtie women
higher
 
 
 
 
Borderline PD

Identity problems, reliance on others (difficulty with break ups)
Ambivalence, splitting of others
Impulsive and self-destructive behavior (parasuicidal behaviors-cutting, burning. Not actually trying to kill themselves, but using it as a way to manage emotions or to “feel real”)
Often acting like adolescents

*Difficulty in controlling anger and other emotions* (Mood swings that shift often)

 
resilence
ability to "bounce back" from adversity
moral treatment
A nineteenth-century approach to treating people with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful treatment.
Bulimia Nervosa:
Bulimia involves recurrent binge eating with inappropriate compensatory behavior (excessive exercise, purging, use of diuretics) for at least three months. Research has linked bulimia to low levels of serotonin; and the SSRIs (especially Prozac) have been found useful for alleviating the symptoms of this disorder.
Psycological Etiological theory:
-Family: EE (expressed emotion)
-hostile, critical, emotionally overinvolved
-relapse: 70% (high EE) vs. 31% (low EE)
-stress?
flooding
involves helping clients to confront their fears at full intensity.
Alcohol Detoxification
alchohol withdrawal includes insomnia, anziety, nausea, headaches, alcohol withrdawal delierium, alcohol-amnestic disorder
 
medications used are benzodiazepines
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
-Increase serotonin activity
 
-examples: Prozac(fluoxetine), Zoloft (sertraline), Paxil (paroxetine), Celexa (citalopram), Lexapro (escitalopram)
inverse agonist
substances that produce opposite effect to those produced by neurotransmitter
Structural MRIFunctional MRI
*Abnormalities in anatomy *Abnormalities in activity
Dimensional
Rank on a continuous, quantitative scale
Reliability -
The consistency of measurements, including diagnostic decisions. Agreement amongst clinicians is one index of the reliability of a measure.
Shaping
basic process of operant conditioning that involves the reinforcement of successively closer approximations to a desired behavior
74) The diagnosis of dissociate identity disorder may depend on the
therapist beliefs.
Abnormality
A psychological condition or behaviour that departs from the norm or is harmful and distressing to the individual or those around them. Abnormal behaviours are usually those that violate society's ideas of what is an appropriate level of functioning.
_________ has been found in abundance in manic individuals and scarce in those who are depressed
norepinephrine
Malnutrition
may occur in alcoholics as alcohol provides calories and interferes with the body's ability to use nutrients.
Nancy School
Physicians that accepted that hysteria was a form of self hypnosis
Narcissistic PD has a link with
poor parenting
Social Phobia
Extreme, enduring, irrational fear and avoidance of social or performance situations
cannabinoids
produce a euphoria and an altered sense of time, such as marijuana
Tourette's disorder
rare problem and involves repeated motor and verbal tics
deinstitutionalization
The discharge of large numbers of patients from long-term institutional care so that they might be treated in community programs.
psychoanalytic theory
the theoretical model of personality developed by Sigmund Freud; also called psychoanalysis
Although Charlie remembered most of the main issues of the meeting, he had no recollection of the decision to eliminate the department that he headed. Which form of psychogenic amnesia would this be characteristic of?
selective amnesia
Negative emotions
-frequent emotional distress in the form of anger, anxiety, and depression can have damaging efects on the cardiovascular system
-chronic anger can effect the heart*
-
Symptoms of Mania
-Elevated mood-Grandiose image of one's own abilities-Energy level is high with reduced need for sleep-Pressured Speech-Outlandish behavior and Delusions-Drug use
Abnormal Psychology
the study of abnormal behavior, including theories and research about causes, assessment, and treatment
Behavior Therapy
Shaped behavior using operant and classical conditioning 
Undifferentiated schizophrenia
exhibit disorderd thinking but no symptoms of one of the other types of schizophrenia
fight-or-flight response
initial reaction of life threatening stimulus/situation
Dissociative Identity Disorder
-aka Multiple Personality Disorder: presence of two or more distinct identities-common in kids, majority women pts-usually a result from severe abuse-personalities show physical difference when tested (GSR, visual acuity, etc)-Tx: est raport with each alter, contract for safety, meds to reduce symptoms, gather history, face traumatic past, integrate alters, develop alternative coping skills
Hallucinations
Sensory experiences in the absence of sensory stimuli
Hypomanic Episode
(definition)
less severe and less disruptive version of a manic episode that is one of the criteria for several mood d/o
Opidates
sedatives that relieve pain and induce sleep
Degradation
Process in which a receiving neuron releases an enzyme into the synapse, breaking down neurotransmitters into other biochemicals.
Measures of Variability
measures of spread; SD, range
Syndrome
a group of symptoms that appear together and are assumed to represent a specific type of disorder
Biofeedback
A treatment technique in which a client is given information about physiological reactions and learns to control the reactions voluntarily.
77) One way to discriminate a factitious disorder from malingering would be to look for
personal gain.
Psychogenic perspective
causes of abnormal functioning are psychological
Anxiety Disorder
A condition in which an individual experiences either:
-feels of distressing, persistent anxiety OR
-maladaptive, irrational behaviors that reduce anxiety
A ___________ is an abrupt experience of an intense fear or acute discomfort accompanied by physical symptoms, such as chest pain and shortness of breath. 
Panic Attack
Hippocrates
often referred to as the father of modern medicine. He classified all mental disorders into 3 general categories-mania, melancholia, and phrenitis-and gave detailed clinical descriptions of the specific disorders included in each category. He also considered dreams to be important in understanding a patients personality.
Etiology of Schizophrenia during development
brain abnormalitives, enlarged ventricles
Information Transmission
Being told constantly about a fear (such as snakes)
And eventually you develop a phobia of it
 
"Wear high boots in the grass!"
Turns into: Even wearing in city
What psychological disorders are often comorbid with anorexia?
OCD & Depression
Separation Anxiety Disorder
Persistent and excessive worry for safety of an attachment figure, fears of getting lost or being kidnapped, nightmare with separation themes, and refusal to be alone. Children must exhibit 3 or more of these symptoms for at least 4 weeks
School refusal
Refusal to go to school, accompanied by stomachaches or headaches (can be traced to separation anxiety)
reticular activating system
brain structure involved in processes of attention, sleep, and arousal
All of the following are somatoform disorders EXCEPT
fugue disorder
Eccentricity
An unusual pattern that others have no right to interfer with.
Cognitive Distortions: Magnification/Minimization
exaggerating negative or devaluing the positive
premorbid history
a pattern of behavior that precedes the onset of the disorder.
biological approach includes
-drugs alter synaptic levels of neurotransmitters-surgery to remove brain tissue-induction of seizures to alter brain function
CBT treatment for Mood Disorders
-Effective for unipolar depression
-Brief 10-20 sessions
-Focus on present
-Evaluate, challenge and change
cognitive science
how we acquire and process information and how we store and retrieve it (memory)
Delusional d/o
Delusions, but they aren't as severe as w/Schizophrenia Usually about persecution, jealousness, grandiosity, somatic issues
Avoidant personality disorder
Cluster CCertainty of being liked before socialRejection/criticism dom social situationIntimate relationships strained (shame)New interpersonal relationship inhibitedGet around any occupational activitiesEmbarrassment(potential) prevents risksSelf viewed as inept, inadequate, ect4 of them-female dominatedvery appreciative, loyal, won't make decisionsTreat with SSRI's, cog or behavioral therapy, anti-anxiety/depression medication
unipolar disorders involve:
major depressive episodes and NO manic, mixed or hypomanic
Inclusion Criteria -
Symptoms or characteristics that must be present in order for an individual to meet the diagnostic criteria for a particular mental disorder.
Trephination
process of making a circular hole in the skull. In early times this was done to allow evil spirits to escape.
Psychopharmacology
the study of the use of medications to treat psychological disturbances
2) The etiology of a disorder refers to
its origin.
Cultural Relativism
The view that behaviour cannot be judged properly unless it is viewed in the context of the culture in which it originates.
Dopamine Hypothesis
high levels of dopamine seem to be associated with schizophrenia
cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic attacks
-coping skills, breathing retraining, relaxation training used to reduce states of heightened bodily arousal
-therapist helps patient think differently about changes in bodily cues(such as dizziness of heart palpitations)...help them realize they are fleeting snesations rather than signs of a heart attack, client can cope with them without panicking
Etiology of Schizophrenia During Birth
-Complications during delivery, oxygen deprivation
predictive validity
concerned with the future and with the stability of the problem over time
State depedent learning
a process documented in lab reasearch wherein learning that takes place in one state of affect or consciousness is best recalled within the same state of consciousness
Etiology of Anorexia: Behavioral
Phobia of food: conditioned learning (learns to avoid becoming fat by not eating)Avoid things they are afraid of (avoid food at all costs)
unconscious
to freud, the part of the mind that lies outside the range of awareness and contains instinctual images
Major Depressive Disorder: Among adults and adolescents, Major Depressive Disorder is twice as common in females than males. However, in prepubertal children, it is about equally common in males and females.
The reformulated learned helplessness model of depression views it as the result of prior exposure to uncontrollable negative events coupled with an attribution style that views negative events as due to internal, stable, and global factors. More recently, the impact of feelings of hopelessness has been added to the theory.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
CBT is a psychosocial treatment that focuses on restructuring thought process and solving problems. like all psychosocial treatments, this is has been effective as an adjunct with medication.
Equifinality
the view that there are many routes to the same destination (or disorder).
describe the Neuroscience Paradigm
Neuroscience Paradigm - holds that mental disorders are linked to aberrant processes
antisocial personality disorder
-type of disorder when people have little regard for other people's feelings
-look out for themselves
Antabuse
If you drink you vomitLots of ppl quit taking it
Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia (3)
1. Delusions2. Visual Hallucinations 3. Auditory Hallucinations
Reality Principle
Idea that the ego seeks to satisfy our needs within the realities of society's rules, rather than following the abandon of the pleasure principle.
What are the two somatoform disorders?
hypochondriasis and conversion disorder
Suicide rates are higher among
the rice, non-religious and substance abusers
Schizophrenia with mood symptoms
(Schizoprhenia vs. mood disorders with psychotic symptoms)
-if depression nad mania symptoms are present their duration must be brief in relation to hte duration of active and residual schizoprehnia symptoms
Why are birth complications harmful?
children have increased risk for schizo; chidren from famine also at higher reisk for birth defects
What is Schizophreniform disorder?
Disorder in which an individual has the same psychotic symptoms as those found in schizophrenia but the active symptoms last only 1-6 months while those with Schizophrenia have the symptoms for a longer duration.
The first to come up with a system of describing mental illness.
Freud
classic psychoanalytic therapy included what? what were treatment methods?
- treatment and the importance of early experiences, the notion that we can do things without conscious awareness, and the point that causes of behavior are not always obvious.- the goal of psychoanalysis is insight (understanding) of the basis for anxiety- techniques of psychoanalytic therapy- Free association- person says whatever comes to mind; the content is examined by the therapist for resistances (areas the person does not like to talk about )- Dream Analysis- unconscious impulses are expressed during dreams
Binge Eating D/O
Not a DSM d/o...yetLots of out of control bingeing w/o compensation
Mania (including age of onset)
Emotional state of intense elation accompanied by irritability, hyperactivity, talkativeness, flight of ideas- Age of onset: mid to late 20s
Family History Study
The study of the heritability of a disorder involving identifying people with the disorder and people without the disorder and then determining the disorder's frequency within each person's family.
5) The concept of “developmental trajectory” expresses the notion that
behaviors considered abnormal at some ages are developmentally appropriate at others.
Bipolar I Disorder:
A type of bipolar disorder marked by full manic and major depressive episodes
Symptoms:
1. The presence of a manic, hypomanic or major depressive episode
2. If currently in a hypomanic or major depressive episode, history of a manic episode
course of schizophrenia is varied
1/3 improve
1/3 stay the same or relapse
1/3 have significatn chronic distress
Environmental factors associated with externalizing disorders
Family Adversity Index with 6 family predictors of behavior problems among children
Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of cyclothymia?
clinically significant distress or impairment
to be empirical means to
Rely heavily upon hard evidence gained from the systematic observation of and experimentation with reality.  Questions can be answered through scientific investigation
Disorganized Sxs of Schizophrenia: *AKA *General description
*Behavioral Distortions*Obs. distortions of normal human behavior (weird)
Prevention treatment for drug abuse (6)
- Peer pressure resistance- Correction of normative expectations- Inoculation against mass-media messages- Information about parental and other adult influences- Peer leadership- Affective education, self-image enhancement
5. From the perspective of Gestalt therapy, transference:
a. represents confusion between fantasy and reality
b. represents projection of disowned parts of the self
c. is an attempt to avoid strong feelings
d. is a manifestation of a boundary disturbance
a. represents confusion between fantasy and reality - to get the client back in the here and now, helps her disginguish between fantasy and reality - I'm your therapist, not your mother!
What are clang associations?
the stringing together of a series of nonsense words that rhyme
What is the main difference between Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)?
People with OCD are more perfectionistic than people with OCPD.
What can be inferred about genetic rates for ADHD?
Genetic factors strong contribute to ADHD; linked ADHD with separate dopamine receptor (DRD4) and transporter (DAT1) genes. ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder with multiple causes and presentations
how are life changes related to physical health problems?
-evidence shows that people who experience more life stress in the form of life changes and daily hassles are at an increased risk of developing physical health problems
-links are correlational*
Learning Theory About the Cause of Mood Disorders
Learning Theorists- view the mood disorder as bringing about some kind of reinforcement such as attention or sympathy
Cognitive Triad- proposed by Aaron Beck, believes that depressions fromj unreasonably negative ideas that people have about themselves, their world, and their futures
Name some health consequences of anorexia (5)
- Decrease in blood pressure- Decrease in bone mass- Hair loss- Laguna hair - yellowish fine hair all over body - Decrease in brain size
What is narcissistic personality disorder?
where a person sees oneself as the center of the universe. intense egoism
Patterns of gender differences in alcohol abuse/dependence? Biological differences?
60% of women drink alcohol, but few develop alcoholism. Men outweigh women 5:1. Much higher prevalence seen in men. Women are more likely to drink in private due to social disapproval
What are characteristics of Body Dysmorphic Disorder?
A preoccupation with the idea that a part of the body is ugly or defective
Work, social life, and/or relationships areimpaired because of being consumed with the distress about their body
Getting recurring plastic surgery to correct their imagined defect
Name the 2 subtypes of bulimia nervosa
1. Purging - someone who induces vomiting and uses laxatives2. Non-purging - Someone who uses exercise or fasting after bingeing
Which of the following best explains why cognitive-behavioral therapy is a logical approach to the treatment of eating disorders?
Both thoughts and behaviors need to be altered to achieve a lasting outcome.
Which of the following is a good clue that a person has a conversion disorder rather than a true physical disorder?
Their symptoms don't match the symptoms of the particular disease.
The parents of a 6mo old complains that he whines constantly and that he will only stop when they pick him up. The psychologist tells them to stop picking him up when he whines. From the bx perspective, what is most likely to occur:
a. whining will gradua
b. whining will first increase, then decrease - use of extinction to eliminate a previously reinforced response often results in a temporary extinction burst
Histrionic PD *Characterized by:
Extremely emotional and NEED to be the center of attnVain, self-centered, demanding
In your research study on retroactive interference, subjects in the control group will:
a. learn a list of ten words and then count backwards from 10 over and over again before being asked to recell the list of words
b. learn a list of ten words and then
a. lean a list of ten words and then count backwards from ten over and over again before being asked to recal the list of words - retroactive interference occurs when newly acq info inhibits the ability to recall previously acquired info.
IPT *Focuses on *Believes *Borrows techniques from
*Helping patient resolve interpersonal problems *One's life/psychopathologies improve simultaneously*Psychodynamic and CBT
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Term:
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