Art History 36 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
incan tunic
world soul
La peinture
The Two Fridas
3 paneled altarpiece
a nude
un nu
Akkadian Ruler
2,300 BC
Sistine Chapel Ceiling
understanding, appreciating the valuation of art based on consideration of form
Sandro Chi
Painter Schlptor, 1982
Athena Parthenos. 438. classical.
Donatello, John the Baptist
Gothic/Early Renaissance / 1200-1400GiottoLamentationArena Chapelfresco
Warhol, Green Coca-Cola Bottles, 1962
Conversion of St. Paul
Caravaggio. 1601
Nanni di Banco
Quattro Santi Coronati
Hadrian's Villa, 125-128 C.E.,Roman Art
Woman of Willendorf
28,000-25,000 BC, Austria
The Pancake Mill
Renoir France Impressionism
That hue's lightness or darkness
In Greek architecture, the stone foundation on which a temple colonnade stands.
symbolic hand gesture in Buddhist art
purists, object representation is more important to reveal true meaning. suprematist composition, malevich
his style was considered genre painting but focused on shades of dark and light.painted knight watch in 1640
PARMIGIANINO, Madonna with the Long Neck, ca. 1535. Oil on wood, approx. 7' 1" x 4' 4". Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
Rogier van der Weyden; Deposition; 1435
A funerary monument commemorating an individual or group buried elsewhere.
Kritios Boy
Earliest known classical statue, contrapposto, found on the athenian acropolis
Brunelleschi, Pazzi Chapel
quiet, intellectual, geometric humility, gift to the franciscan church, 1423
russian, loved music and art, compositions, abstract painter, colors
barrel vault
tunneled arch, semicircular ceiling, thick walls
porgie and bess; all black cast, "rhapsody in blue", "american in paris"
Braccio, Braccia
Unit of measurement used during Italian Renaissance art, Approx. 1.9 ft
Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 BC)
triangular section of top of a building framed by a cornice, along with a sloping member called a raking cornice
In the Roman Republic, two chief magistrates.
"The Oath of the Horatii" David (Neoclassicism)
horror vacui
(latin, meaning "fear of empty spaces") a type of artwork in which the entire surface is filled with objects, people, designs, and ornaments in crowded, sometimes congested ways
Grand Tour
Popular during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, an extended tour of cultural sites in southern Europe intended to finish the education of a younger upper-class person form Britain or North America.
A screened enclosure, reserved for the ruler, often located before the mihrab in certain important royal Islamic mosques.
Original artwork is the "idea", which can be documented in many ways.
ideals of science 1642-1727 gravity and natural law. Before it was divine law. Nature is not chaotic. You don't have to look to the bible for knowledge. Proceeding from personally collected data dn observation, not myth or religion and applying info in rational fashion.
a large burial chamber, usually above ground
Lacoon and his sons
hellenistic, emotion,facial expression of fear,movement-trying to avoid snakes
day 14 of art history 

the sculptor pheidas perhaps designed and certainly directed the parthenon’s sculptural program. the sculptural program originally included, in order of production: 92 metopes around the facade, a continuous Ionic-style frieze on the exterior walls of the cella approx 524 feet in length, and the above life-size sculptures of the 2 pediments. the most important (rest)

Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, High Classical Period, 447-432 BCE. 

Centaur and Lapith, metope, south side, Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, High Classical Period, 447-432 BCE. marble 4’8’’ high. Best preserved metope reliefs. the panel with its choice of a perfect moment of pause within a fluid action, its reduction of forms to their most characteristic essentials, and its choice of a single, timeless image to stand for an entire historical episode-captures the essence of high classical art. so dramatic is the X-shaped composition that we easily accept its visual contradictions. the lapith is caught at an instant of total equilibrium. what should be a grueling tug-of-war between man and a man-beast appears instead as an athletic ballet choreographed to show off the lapith warrior's muscles and graceful movements against the implausible backdrop of his carefully draped cloak. like greek sculptors of earlier periods, those of the high classical style were masters of representing hard muscles but soft flesh. 

Athena, Herakles, and Atlas, metope from the Temple of Zeus, olympia, greece, early classical period, 460 bce, marble, 5’3’’ high. The body of he temple consists of a cella, opening to the east, 
and unconnected auxiliary space opening to the west. short colonnades in
 front of each entrance support an entablature with an ionic order 
frieze in relief that extends along the four sides of the cella, for a 
total frieze length of 525 feet. the subject of this frieze is a 
procession celebrating the festival that took place in athens every four
 years, when the women of the city wove a new wool peplos and carried it
 to the acropolis to clothe an ancient wooden cult statue of athena. the east facade presents a totally integrated program of images-the birth of the goddess in the pediment, her honoring by the citizens who present her with the newly woven peplos, and-seen through the doors-the glorious figure of athena herself. 

Cavalcade, panathenaic procession frieze, north side, block 38, parthenon, acropolis, athens, high classical period, 447-432. marble 3’5 3/4” high. profile view. continues against flat background surface. background was painted red thus making the figures jump out at you. marshals and young women, panathenaic procession frieze, east side, parthenon, acropolis, athens, high classical period, 447-432 bce. marble 3’ 3/4’’ high. the fabric of the robes helps define the figures. the arms recede back into the slabs. continue as 3d forms. communicate a sense 3d form and space on a 2d surface. in pheidias's portrayal of this major event, the figures of the skilled riders managing powerful steeds or graceful but physically sturdy young walkers seem to be representative types, ideal inhabitants of a successful city-state. the underlying message is that the athenians are a healthy, vigorous people, united in a democratic civic body looked upon with favor by the gods. the people are inseparable from and symbolic of the city itself. Viewers accept its disproportions, spatial incogruities, and such implausible compositional features as all the animal and human figures standing on the same groundline, and men and women standing as tall as the rearing horses. carefully planned rhythmic variation-changes in speed of the participants in the procession as it winds around the walls-contribute to the effectiveness of the frieze: horses plunge ahead at full gallop; women proceed with a slow stately step; parade marshals pause to look back at the progress of those behind them; and human-looking deities rest on conveniently placed benches as they await the arrival of the marchers. the sculptor took into account the spectator's low viewpoint and the dim lighting inside the peristyle. they carved the top of the frieze band in higher relief than the lower part, thus tilting the figures out to catch the reflected light from the pavement, permitting a clearer reading of the action. the subtleties in the sculpture may not have been as evident to athenians in the 5th century bce as they are now, because the frieze, seen at the top of the wall and between columns, originally was completely painted. the background was dark blue and the figures were in contrasting red and ocher, accented with glittering gold and real metal details such as bronze bridles and bits on the horses. 

poseidon, apollo, and artemis, panathenaic procession frieze, east side, block 6, parthenon, acropolis, athens, high classical period, 447-432 bce. marble 3’5 3/4’’ high. definite procession so you can tell who is following who. 

gods and goddesses, east pediment, south (at left) and north (at right) ends, parthenon, acropolis, athens, greece, high classical period, 447-432 bce. marble, pediment approx 90’ long. the birth of athens. not completed but destroyed. athena came out of zeus’s head fully armed. complicated uses of the body. the best preserved of the two groups. flanking the missing central figures--probably zeus seated on a throne with the new-born adult athena standing at his side--were groups of three goddesses followed by a single reclining male figures. in the left corner was the sun god Helios in his horse-drawn chariot rising from the sea. in the right corner was the moon goddess selene descending in her chariot to the sea. the head of her tired horse hangs over the cornice. the reclining male nude, who fits so easily into the left pediment, has been identified as both herakles with his lion's skin, or Dionysos (god of wine) lying on a panther skin. his easy pose conforms to the slope of the pediment without a hint of awkwardness. the two seated women may be the earth and grain goddesses demeter and persephone. the running female figure just to the left of the center is iris, the messenger of the gods, already spreading the news of athena's birth. the 3 female figures on the right side, two sitting upright and one reclining were once thought to be the three fates, whom the greeks believed appeared at the birth of a child and determined its destiny. most art historians now think that they are goddesses, perhaps hestia (a sister of zeus and the goddess of the hearth), dione (one of many zeus's consorts), and her daughter aphrodite. these monumental interlocked figures seem to be awakening from a deep sleep. the sculptor, whether pheidias or someone working in hist style, expertly rendered the female form beneath the fall of draperies. the clinging fabric both covers and reveals, creating circular patterns rippling with life of their own torso, breasts, and knees and uniting the the three figures into a single mass. 

iris, west pediment, parthenon, acropolis, athens, greece, high classical period, 447-432 bce. marble, pediment approc 90’ long. wet drapery.

model of athena parthenon, original chryselephantine statue by pheidias, in the cella of the parthenon, acropolis, athens, greece, high classical period, 438 bce. 

varvakeion athena parthenon, 2nd or 3rd century ce marble copy of pheidias’ chryselephantine original, from athens, greece, approx 3’ high. story of pandora. 

erechtheion, view from the southwest, acropolis, athens, greece, high classical period, 421-406 bce. north end. not leveled. statue of the athena is housed. covers the spot where poseidon hit the rock and sprouted water. also covers the spot where the olive tree sprouted from athena. south porch is over the archaic foundations of the temple. the designer of the second important temple erected on the acropolis is unknown. work began in 421 bce and ended in 405 bce just before the fall of athens to sparta. the asymmetrical plan on several levels reflects the building's multiple functions, for it housed many different shrines, and it also conformed to the sharply sloping terrain on which it was located. the building stands on the site of of the mythical contest between the sea god poseidon and athena for patronage over athens. during this contest, poseidon struck a rock with his trident bringing forth a spout of water, but athena gave the olive tree to athens and won the contest for the city. the athenians enclosed what they believe to be this sacred rock, bearing the marks of the trident, in the erechtheion's north porch. the erechteion also housed the venerable wooden cult statue of athena that was the center of the panathenic festival. it had porches on the north, east, and south sides. later architects agreed that the north porch was the most perfect interpretation of the ionic order and they have copied the columns and capitals, the carved moldings, and the proportions and details of the door ever since the 18th century. 

carayatid, from the south porch of the erechtheion (now in british museum, london), acropolis, athens, high classical period, 421-406 bce. marble 7’7’’. women statue as a column. the porch is on the south side facing the parthenon, and is even more famous. raised on a high base, its 6 stately caryatids support simple doric capitals and an ionic entablature made up of bands of carved molding. in a pose characteristic of classical figures, each caryatid's weight is supported on one engaged leg, while the free leg, bent at the knee, rests on the ball of the foot. the 3 caryatids on the left have their right legs engaged, and the 3 on the right have their left legs engaged, creating a sense of closure, symmetry, and rhythm. the vertical fall of the drapery on the engaged side resembles the fluting of a column shaft and provides the sense of stability, whereas the bent leg gives an impression of relaxed grace and effortless support. the hair of each caryatid falls in a loose but massive knot behind its neck, a device that strengthens the weakest point in the sculpture while appearing entirely normal. 

proplyaia, (designed by mnesikles) acropolis, athens, greece, high classical period, 437-432, bce. left: nike adjusting her sandal, from the south parapet, temple of athena nike, acropolis, athens, 410-405 bce. marble 3’6’’ high. flying drapery. perikles commissioned an architect named mnesikles to design a monumental gatehouse, the propylaia. work began on it in 437 and then stopped in 432 bce with the structure still incomplete. the propylaia had no sculptural decoration, but its north wing was originally a dining hall and late became the earliest known museum (meaning home of the muses), the pinakotheke mentioned pausanius which became the gallery built specifically to a house a collection of paintings for public view. temple of athena nike (designed by kallikrates), nike (victory) adjusting her sandal, fragment from relief decoration from the parapet, temple of athena nike, acropolis, athens. 410-405 bce. marble height 3'6\". the temple of athena (victory of war), located south of the propylaia, was designed and built about 425 bce, probably by kallikrates. it is an ionic temple build on an amphiprostyle plan, that is, with a porch at each end. reduced to rubble during the turkish occupation of greece in the 17 century ce, the temple has since been rebuilt. its diminutive size abotu 27 by 19 ft and refined ionic decoration are in marked contrast to the massive doric propylaia adjacent to it. between 410-405 bce, the temple was surrounded by a parapet or low wall, faced with sculptured panels depicting athena presiding over her winged attendants, called nike (victory) figures, as they prepared for a celebration. the parapet no longer exists but some of the panels from it have survived. one of the most admired is one of nike (victory) adjusting her sandal. the figure bends forward gracefully causing her chiton to slip off one shoulder. her large wings, one open and one closed, effectively balance this unstable pose. unlike the decorative swirls of heavy fabric covering the parthenon goddesses, or the weighty pleats of the robes of erechtheion caryatids, the textile covering this nike appears delicate and light clinging to her body like wet silk one of the most discreetly erotic images in ancient art. 
praxiteles (artist of the original), aphrodite of knidos, front and back views, roman marble copy of a late classical greek marble original 350-340 bce. marble 6’8’’ high. first fully nude woman statue on greek tradition. go around the whole statue. praxiteles created a statue of aphrodite for the city of knidos in asia minor. although the artists of the 5th century bce had begun to hint boldly at the naked female body beneath tissue-thin drapery, this aphrodite was apparently the first statue by a well-known greek sculptor to depict a fully nude woman, and it set a new standard. although nudity among athletic young men was admired in greek society among women it had been considered a sign of low character. the eventual wide acceptance of female nudes in large statuary may be related to the gradual merging of the greek's concept of their goddess aphrodite with some of the characteristics of the phoenician goddess astarte (the babylonian ishtar), who was nearly always shown nude in near eastern art. the version of the statue here, the goddess is preparing to take a bath, with a water jug and her discarded clothing at her side. her right arm and hand extend in what appears at first glance to be a gesture of modesty but in fact only emphasizes her nudity. the bracelet on her left arm has a similar effect. her well-toned body with its square shoulders, thick waist, and slim hips, conveys a sense of athletic strength. she leans forward slightly with one knee in front of the other in a seductive pose that emphasizes the swelling forms of her thighs and abdomen. according to an old legend, the sculpture was so realistic that aphrodite herself made a journey to knidos to see it and cried out in shock, \"where did praxiteles see me naked?\" the knidians were so proud of their aphrodite that they placed it in an open shrine where people could view it from every side. hellenistic and roman copies probably numbered in the hundreds, and nearly 50 survive in various collections today.
the subtle and minute gradation of tone and color used to blur or veil the contours of a form in painting.
Temple of Portumus
75 BC Fortuna Virilis. combine etruscan plans and greek elevations. ionic order, has staircase and frestanding columns only at the front
a small cabicle or bedroom that opened onto the atrium of a roman house
Pilotis or piers, are supports such as columns, pillars, stilts, by which a building is lifted above what is underneath, whether it is ground or water. They are traditionally found in stilt and pole dwellings such as fishermen's huts in Asia and Sweden[1] using wood and in elevated houses such as Old Queenslanders in Australia's tropical Northern state, though they are in this case classified as "stumps".
Horizon line
reference to the eyelevel of the viewer
International Gothic Style
14 - 15th centuries; grounded religious subjects in the real world; first use of oil paints; "god's eye view" - depicting people, animals and architecture in daily life; elongated figures, rich, colorful detail; realistic plants and animals; S-shaped figures show graceful, swaying movement
Ludovisi Sarcophagus
Period: Late Empire - Made for: General - Shows: No clear setting - Shows battle with barbarians - God Mithras - Covered with Gold - Borrows from Hellenism
the space reserved for the clergy and singers in the church, usually east of the transept but, in some instances, extending in to the nave
The fourteenth emperor of Rome from AD 117 to 138; rebuilt the Pantheon and constrcuted Hadrian's Wall in England. Owned multicultural villa.
Artist who did Calling of Saint Mathew and Entombment
an image so natural that it creates the illusion of being real
Step pyramid of King Djoser
Culture: Ancient Egyptian
Style Period: Old Kingdom
3,100- 2,200 BCE
Illusionistic Space
This illusion is used is murals and mosaics to make them look 3D while still staying 2D.
flying buttress
an arched bridge above the aisle roof that extends from the upper nave wall
Axis mundi
axis of the world joining the earth and cosmos.
Hypostyle Hall
A hall with a roof supported by columns.
In 1517, Martin Luther initiated what would later be known as the Reformation. At this time, many local dukes saw it as a chance to oppose the hegemony of Emperor Charles V. The empire then became fatally divided along religious lines, with the North, the
Holy Roman Empire
frederick ii
Holy Roman Emperor who fought in Italy and let Germany deteriorate
Statue of Queen Napir-Asu
Susa, Iran 1350-1300 BCE , Elamite
Abraham Lincoln
"Most folks are about as happy as they make up their minds to be."
ACHILLES PAINTER, "Warrior Leaving his wife"
Classical Greece. Master of White-Ground Painting. Lekythos (perfume flask). Funerary purpose. Archaic habit of frontal eyes on profile faces abandoned. Foreshortening.
crook and whip
the symbol of power that is usually depicted being held in the hands of the pharaoh in his sarcophagus
a book of hours
gives reader prayers for the time of day
Cycladic: "Figurine of a Woman", Cycladic, 2500-2300 bc, marble. Similar to the art of __ because of the arms folded across their abdomen. This piece's form is dominated by __ . This piece is either a __ offering or __ piece.
Cycladic: "figurine of a woman", Cycladic, 2500-2300 bc, marble. Similar to the art of the stone age because of the arms folded across their abdomen. This piece's form is dominated by triangles. This piece is either a funerary offering or fertility piece.
What were the Pyramids made of
Pyramids made of stone, were basically tombs for the mummified bodies of Pharaohs and their family.
The Pyramids were coated with white limestone, which caused a tremendous reflection, when the sun hit them, which would have certainly reinforced the idea that a God-King was buried inside.
Roman. 81 CE. Shows depth of space because of the contrast between high and low relief.
Relief Panels from the Triumphal Arch of Titus
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