Art History 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
picture symbols
In twos
brown fryers
The Sleeping Gypsy
Color plus black
the tribute money
Study of images
David\"Oath of Horatii\"Neoclassicism1780Louvre, Paris
noia de la perla
David, Death of Marat
Vincent Van Gogh
Post Impressionism
Public Services Building
Michael Graves
Gattamelata, DONATELLO, Early Renaissance Period, 1450, bronze.
A decorative metalwork technique employing cloisons; also, decorative brickwork in later Byzantine architecture.
Rogier van der Weyden 1442
became the first gothic church
Good Shepherd, 4th Century, fresco,Early Christian Art
writing studio of a monastery
engaged columns
columns attached to walls
tesserae - pieces in mosaics
The Night CafeVincent Van GoghPost-ImpressionismLate 19th Century 
archaic greek sculpture of standing male. nude. free standing. female version if Kore.
Brancusi, Bird in Space, 1927, Modernism
Baldacchino (Canopy at St. Peter's) (Rome), Scala Regia (Staircase at St. Peter's) (Rome), David (marble), Ecstasy of St. Theresa
Henri Matisse
"Le Bonheur de vivre (The Joy of Life)"
le placitre
between the church and wall
A symbolic representation or story where the meaning is not immediately clear.
a smokelike haziness that subtly softens outlines in painting
Bronze Doors of St. Michaels location
Italian term meaning "smoky," soft, and mellow. In painting, the effect of haze in an image. Resembling the color of the atmosphere at dusk, sfumato gives a smoky effect.
Lions and Old Testament prophet (Jeremiah or Isaiah?), from the trumeau of the south portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac
Panels in Door
Depth w/ perspective
richer, 3D relief in foreground
Giotto di Bionde. Arena Chapel, (Expulsion of Joachim, Nativity, Lamentation), c. 1303-1305. Italian, Early Renaissance. Fresco. Padua, Italy. Commissioned by Enrico Scrovegni.
Technique using lights and darks to create 3D shapes
vanitas painting
paintings with many references to death
a three-petaled iris which was the symbol of the French royal family
Female and Male Figures
6,000 BCE Pre Historic
being or characterized by concepts or their formation
Jan van Eyck; Dresden Triptych open; 1437
In ancient Egypt, the immortal human life force.
relief sculptures
the subjects project from the backround but remain part of it
A stepped pyramid structure, with a temple or shrine on top; Sumerian, Marble; Uruk, 3200-3000 BCE, Stone
Baldovinetti, Portrait of a Woman in Yellow
Entrance point or porch of a church.
Blind Arch
An arch applied to a wall
uses diagonal lines to convey recession, but parallel lines do not converge.
isometric perspective
Japanese influence
influence of late 18th century Japanese art on illusionism; van Gogh portraits
Marilyn Diptych
Andy Warhol, 1962. Oil, acrylic, and silk-screen enamel on canvas, each panel, 6' 8" x 4' 9".
Seer, East pediment of Zeus, Ca. 500 BCE
Jonah Cast Up
Early Christian, marble
from the Old Testament in the bible
Calyx Krater
used for diluting wine (bell shaped with handles near base)- ch.5
Mannerist style
a style in art and architecture (c.1520-1600), originating in Italy as a reaction against the equilibrium of form and proportions characteristic of the High Renaissance. In Florence, Pontormo and Bronzino, and in Rome, Il Rosso, Parmigianino, and Beccafumi created elegant figures elongated and contorted into uncomfortable postures. Mannerists devised compositions in which they deliberately confused scale and spatial relationships between figures, crowding them into the picture plane. Often strange tunnellike spaces were created, as in the works of Tintoretto and El Greco. Lighting became harsh, and coloring tended to be acrimonious. The mannerists devised sophisticated and obscure allegories.
two columns with a rock laying on top
Virgin of the Rocks- da Vinci
1485 High Renaissance
Da Vinci, Vitruvian man
self portrait, complexity of renaissance art, secular thinking, man is the measure of all things, connection between the universal, hidden, and divine with human beings, looking for the underlying message to life's existence, everything is naturally mathematically proportional, the more you study, the more you find
large room in a monastery dedicated to the copying and maintaining of texts
T. Gericault
"The Raft of the Medusa" (Romanticism, Early 19th Century)
stained glass window
transmit light. glow. \"God is light\"
Name, Artist, "-ism"
The Sleeping Gypsy, Henri Rousseau, Symbolism
A design produced by laying a piece of paper over a textured surface and rubbing with charcoal or other soft medium.
Pantheon, Rome, Rome
temple to the Olympian gods, giant rotunda (circular room) surmounted w/ bowl shaped dome; often seen as climax of spatial experimentation, is formed of brick arches & concrete, oculces (eye) in center/top of dome (27ft hole)
Boulevard des Capuncines 1873
By: Claude Monet
Pans from above, looking onto the streets. The snow brings the tones together. It is a bottomless picture, the ground line is left out.
Tree of Jesse
depicts Lineage of Christ- Jesse is father of King David- simple geometry- seven used- intricate lacing- tracery on side that frames window -Lancet shape
Aegean is divided into three geographic eras: __ art, __ art, and __ art.
Cycladic, minoan, and mycenaean
Woman from Brassempouy
From Grotte du Pape in Brassempouy, France. A tiny ivory head of a woman. Figure is abstract giving the basic essence of the details in the woman's head.
Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux
1320 CE (gothic) drolleries, s curve, shoebox perspective, grissaille-painting in shades of gray/cult of the virgin
Lunchoen on Grass 1863
By: Edward Manet
This was the "1st Modern Painting". The lady closest to the viewer is a flat white, the objects below her are rich in color and full of shadows. The woman have a "so-what expression" on their faces.
"curtain walls"
not a load bearing wall, falls like a curtain, and supported by an internal steel of concrete structure.
Frontal Eye (almond-shaped eye)
eye shown in frontal view despite the perspective
Question about Etruscans
1. Etruria was the name of the land which comprised the area north of Rome and south of the PO valley in northern Italy.
2. There were 12 city-states; Veii, Chiusi, Perusia, Faesulae, Vulci and Tarquini
3.The burial concept is similar to Egyptians
4. The Etruscans were very good at creating metal(Bronze) objects, including Mirrors with engraved images on the back which they traded with the Greeks
5. The Etruscans were the most superstitious people of the ancient world with their belief in omens.
the poses of adam and eve are similar to the figures of
contrapposto kourai and koroi
Where does the term monk come from?
the greek word monachos which is commonly translated as a solitary person
Michelangelo. 1500
Netherlandish Proverbs
textural illusionism
Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece
titian. the annunciation
Violin and Pitcher
The Dying Gaul
Bhuddist site
-longer inscriptions that tell why
-gain merit.
Cave 19:intrusive and disorderly images=last minute patronage. turmoil
Toulouse-Lautrec, Moulin Rouge-La Goulue, 1891
Untitled #90
Cindy Sherman, 1981
St. Sernin, Toulouse
France, 1080-1120
Guitar. Picasso
1900's. Cubism. Spanish
Venus of Willendorf
Willendorf, Austria
28,000 - 25,000 BCE
~ 4-½" tall
purpose unknown - small statues of women common - possibly for luck in fertility
carved "in the round"
nomadic tribe, small to carry
rational, political, social, econ, italian renaissance
type of hard glossy varnish
Improvisation 28
Kandinsky, Modernism in Europe
Self-Portrait, Judith Leyster, 1633, National Gallery, Washington,Dutch Baroque Art
Cabaret nightlife. Art posters. Hectic. Cutoff figures at edges. Caricatures. Lithography.
Three Musicians
Picasso, Synthetic Cubism, 1908-1935
depicting scenes of everyday life
PONT DU GARDEarly EmpireRomeaquaduct: carries water (sloped)voussierkey stone
Figure 2-5 Presentation of offerings to Inanna (Warka Vase), from Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq, ca. 3200-3000 BCE. Alabaster, 3' 1/4" high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad. (Sumerian)
Café l'Aubette, Strasbourg, 1928
Theo van Doesburg
-Giotto, The Annunciation to Anna, 1303-05
-Fresco in the Arena Chapel in Padua, Italy.
-Architecture of house related to frame of painting
-Visual Cues that help to tell the story
Napoleon Crossing the Alps
David, 1802-3, Neoclassicism
Vermeer- The Letter (Dutch Baroque Holland)
the subject matter, ideas contained, the artist's intention
Prehistoric Religion
Animism/ Shamans/ Sympathetic Magic/ Noisemaking objects
Schroder House. Rietveld.
1900's. de stijl. Netherlands.
florentine banking family. they were humanist thinkers and great patron arts and plated a key role in popularizing humanist philosophy and art.
sarcophagus -A coffin, usually of stone; from the Latin for "consumer of flesh."
The Canon of all human porportions (Classical Sculpture) also known as the spear-bearer
Eka Showing Severed Arm to Daruma Sesshu 1496
Exekias, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game, Ca. 600 BCE
The Rocky Mountains: Landers Peak
albert bierstadt. 3q19th.
Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden
oil painting
A painting technique using oil-based pigments that rose to prominence in northern Europe in the 15th century and is now the standard medium for painting on canvas.
The Great Pyramids of Giza
Old Kingdom Period
Giza, Egypt (Lower)
A portrait or image; especially in Byzantine churches, a panel with a painting of sacred personages that are objects of veneration. In the visual arts, a painting, a piece of sculpture, or even a building regarded as an object of veneration.
Ernst, is a surrealist technique in painting in which (usually dry) paint is scraped off the canvas.
Early 20th century art movement that rejected naturalistic depictions, preferring compositions of shapes and forms abstracted from the conventionally perceived world
A bishop's church. The word derives from cathedra, referring to the bishop's seat.
A pose or gesture in artistic representations of Buddha figures. Different mudras have conventionalized symbolic meanings
Mesopotamia- From the Greek for 'land between two rivers,' the two rivers are the Tigris and the Euphrates.
Dutch Baroque in the 17th CenturyFrans HalsArchers of St. Hadrianoil on canvas
flying buttress
a segmental arch transmitting an outward and downward thrust to a solid buttress that through its inertia transforms the thrust into a vertical one.
Mies van der rohe & Philip Johnson, Seagram building, 1956, moderism
a phenomenon in the west where eastern art began to grow in amount and spread through out europe and the united states influencing the art styles of the west.
trompe l'oeil
French for "fool the eye." A two-dimensional representation that is so naturalistic that it looks actual or real (or three-dimensional).
central aisle of a Roman basilica. In a Christian church, extends from the entrance to the apse or transept.
Cathedral, Salisbury
Facade is wider than church behind it
Small piers and small flying buttresses
Second transept
Three part elevation
Squared off east end - not ambulatory
Extra bay a separate chapel often dedicated to Mary
Greek, "ruler of all." Christ as ruler and judge of heaven and earth.
a system of writing used in ancient Mesootamia, in which wedge-shaped characters were produced b pressing a stylus into a soft clay tablet, which was then baked or otherwise hardened
cornice (geison)
The uppermost section of a Classical entablature. More generally, a horizontally projecting element found at the top of a building wall or pedestal. A raking ___________ is formed by the junction of two slanted _________s, most often found in pediments.
true fresco
finely ground pigmets are suspended in water and are applied to a damp lime-plaster surface
Assyrian guardian in the form of a man-headed winged bull
Birth of Venus
Sandro Botticelli
Italian Proto-Renaissance
The Dome of Florence Cathedral
Filippo Brunelleschi
Italian Proto-Renaissance
Name/Time Period/Artist (if applicable) {pg.94}
Death Mask of Agamemnon/Mycenaean (Aegean)/ [none]
A hall or other large space over which the roof is supported by rows of columns like a forest.
Maqsura: small area defined by a screen, next to the mihrab. Generally reserved for the caliph and his immediate family.
Louis Philippe
the king during the time of the uprising in 1848 in france. Republicans, liberals, and socialists who wanted a classesless society united that year to demand a voice in the government. The king abdicated and the provisional government was replaced by the constituent assembly. but the working class was still not represented and stormed the parliament.
an archaic greek statue of a young boy or man.
Any work of art, usually a painting or wood carving, in which a final composition is comprised of three separate panels, in some cases hinged together.
Portrait of a young Flavian lady

90 A.D.
2 ft. tall
colossal (or giant) order
an architectural design in which the columns or pilasters are two or more stories tall. Though giant columns were used in antiquity, they were first applied to building facades in Renaissance Italy. (Any of the orders—Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite—could be treated in this manner.)
Glass and Bottle of Suze
Artist: Picasso, Period: Early 20th Century Modernism, Movement: Synthetic Cubism
What are 2 examples of Gothic solutions of intertwining between celestial and terrestrial powers?
St. Denis and Chartes
storytelling, myths, athletic events, geometric designs
what was illustrated on greek vases after the geometric period?
Wanted to get rid of studio inventions (painting clods and trees). Removed these things and wanted to touch into the sense of childhood immediacy with nature. Children were seen as ones with greater abilty to tap into old life.
Epic of Gilgamesh
This lyre from a royal grave at Ur is adorned with a bearded bull's head of gold leaf and lapis lazuli, and inlaid figures of a Gilgameshlike hero and animals acting out scenes of uncertain significance.
altar of augustan peace (ara pacis), 13-9 BCE
a room of peace, corinthian capitals, friezes of actual people who lived during the time, political gathering, roman values, favors the familiar, contemporary culture, low to high reliefs
Autumn Rhythm
Edward Hopper
main room
un chef-d'oeuvre
a masterpiece
Votive Figures
2900-2600 BCE
Ancient Near East
Royal Pavilion,
Brighton: style
A monumental tomb
name of a color
The Scream, 1893, Munch
The Sleeping Gypsy (1897)
painting in a series
Buon fresco
Wet or true fresco
815CE. Viking
Detail of Osburg ship
Lost Wax Process
Bronzing something- ch.5
Portinari Altarpiece (open - center)
Hugo van der Goes
~ 1476
tempera & oil on wood
Sant'Egidio, Florence, Italy
center panel: 8'3.5" x 10'
Lacoon Group
Marble height is 7ft
Hermes and the Young Dionysis
lion-human (ivory)=never before seen, imagination; paleolithic
temple @ Khajuraho--> Chandalla rulers

999 ce. shiva and emerald linga
Julio Gonzalez, Woman combing her hair, 1936, Cubism
Horta, Stairwell of Interior: Tassel House,1892-93
Lincoln Cathedral
-Purbeck marble: darker stone used in Nave Arcade
-multiplied ribs (like in rib vaulting)
-ridge ribs: multiple ridges that meet in center
-Angel choir: built for bishop of Lincoln. Carved with decorative angels
Social Darwinism
Christian beliefs are questioned. Darwin's theory of evolution is manipulated to defend "social darwinism". This provided rationalization for less advanced groups of people (Asia, Americas, Africa) to be colonized by bigger countries (Europe).
the second story of a church
Art created from undisguised but often modified objects that are not normally considered art. Often because they already have a non art function. Meant to be an everyday, ordinary object
Latin for "first citizen;" title Augustus and his successors used to distinguish themselves from Hellenistic monarchs
The Sacrament of the Last Supper
Robert Campin, The Merode Altarpiece, (1425-1428) Early Northern Renaissance
Doors of Bishop Bernward, Germany, Ottonian Period, 1015, bronze.
a Roman writer, architect and engineer; his thoughts on geometry and human proportions inspired the Vitruvian Man
El Greco
true combined Byzantine style, Italian mannerism, and the religious fervor of Catholic Spain
Dutch graphical artist, did illusions, impossible buildings, woodcutting, yet he didn't consider himself and artist.
M.C. Escher
Water Carrier of Seville, Surrender of Breda, King Philip IV, Las Meninas
Italian movement that embraced war as cleansing agent that celebrated modern technology
a shallow drinking cup with two handles- Ch.5
The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, Francisco de Goya, 1799,Spanish Romanticism
mood more closely reflects our own pyschology
French expression which means "in the open air", and is particularly used to describe the act of painting outdoors. in the mid-19th century working in natural light became particularly important. Monet and Renoir advocated plein-air.
The Death of Marat
Jaques Louis David, 1800
Electronic Superhighway
Nam June Paik, video installation 1996
Warka Head
Uruk, (Ancient Near East, 3500-500 BCE-Sumerian), white marble.
an audience hall in a Persian palace
Temple of Ramses II
Why: Guard Ramses tomb

Burial of Phocion
French Baroque, 1648

-Does not represent place or time
-"Nature subordinate to rational plan"
byzantine art
also known as the Eastern Roman Empire, in Constantinople, now Istanbul, the early church developed Eastern Orthodoxy and iconic Christian images proliferated
Abstract Expression
composition with yellow, blue and red era
Agustus as General, early 1st century copy of bronze original
Ancient Rome
the social class between the lower and upper classes.
Camera Obscura
a darkened enclosure in which images of outside objects are projected through a small aperture or lens onto a facing surface
Epitaph for Yuan An, Yanshi, Henan, 92 CE
Archaic. Statue of Goddess. Clothed. Arm gestured in prayer. More naturalistic. Yet geometric shapes can still be seen. Deadelic.
What is a triptych?
A painting with three panels.
an acutely pointed Gothic arch, like a lance
Greek "she who bore god". The Virgin Mary
a semicircular wall area, framed by an arch over a door or window. Can be either plain or decorated.
Sunken relief
where the outlines of the figures have been carved into the surface of the stone, instead of being formed by cutting away the background
Things far away seem to recede in the distance
a molded projection at the bottom of a wall or a pier, or beneath a pedestal or a column base.
Napoléon I
A french conqueror of Egypt he also brought a team of archelolgist and other specialist
Brunelleschi, Dome, Florence Cathedral
started in 1420, finished in 1436
Hypostyle Hall
A hall with a roof supported by columns
the art or technique of painting on a moist, plaster surface with colors ground up in water or a limewater mixture.
Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash
Balla, Modernism in Europe
The most powerful patrons of art work during the rococo period were the state, the aristocracy and
the Catholic Church
Augustus of PrimaportaStockstad figure 6-20
Roman ArtEarly 1st Century CE (Reign of Ceaser Augustus)
tenebrism (from the Italian tenebroso, "shadowy")
painting in the "shadowy manner," using violent contrasts of light and dark, as in the work of Caravaggio.
barrel vault
a vault having the form of a very deep arch.
Geometric krater, from the Dipylon cemetry, Athens, Greece, ca. 740 BCEAncient Greece
-Drained rain water away from the grave, geometric shapes, maze looking shape-Death scene
Describe the Great Mosque of Samara.
Had lots of poles to hold up roof. Minarets. Expande to hold 100,000 people. Shows that needs of Islam had changed.
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