Art History Midterm Vocab 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
michelangelo. david
propaganda, praise
to paint
Arc de Triomphe*
St. Peter's Piazza
a model
un modèle
semicircular wall area
Pisa Baptistery Pulpit
Basic Unit of Construction
Eric Fischl
Bad Boy, 1981
bull leaping. 1450-1400. Minoan.
Donatello, Feast of Herod
Gothic/Early Renaissance / 1200-1400Ambrogio LorenzettiPeaceful Country from Effects of Good Government in the Countryfresco
Gericault, Raft of Medusa, 1818
Arnolfini Betrothal
jan van Eyck. 1434
pose where body is turned
Death of the Virgin,1230,Strasbourg Cathedral,Gothic Art
Old Babylonian Dynasty
circa 1800-1600 BCE
Insane Woman (Envy)
Gericault France Romanticism
A method for representing three-dimensional objects on a two dimensional surface
In Greek Architecture, an ornament from Ionic capital resembling a rolled scroll
artists depicts objects in actual, visual reality
distorting it radically to create emotionally effect
starry night
abtract painted by van gogh
CARAVAGGIO, Conversion of Saint Paul, Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, Italy, ca. 1601. Oil on canvas, approx. 7' 6" x 5' 9".
Piero della Francesca; Battista Sforza and Frederico da Montafeltro; 1474
Grand Manner
paintings adopting the poses, compositions, and attitudes of the Renaissance and antique models.
what artists influenced dali?
picasso and miro
Giorgione, The Tempest
mysterious, poesia, symbolism, sensuality, light, lush landscape, uncertainty, 1510
An artistic movement that displayed vivid dream worlds and fantastic unreal images
in Mosque architecture, small tower added to churches
irish, ulysses, leon bloom, stream of consciousness, june 16-bloomsday
Section of plaster that a fresco painter expects to complete in one session
twisted perspective
a convention of representation in which part of a figure is shown in profile and another part of the same figure is shown frontally
The arrangement of dramatic light and shadow
Barrel Vaults
(tunnel vaults) extension of the simple arch creating a semicylindrical ceiling over parallel walls
"Symphony in White, No. 1" Whistler (Impressionism/ Aestheticism)
the east end of a gothic church
A style of painting which makes two-dimensional objects appear to be three-dimensional.
The underground burial places of the early Christians, consisting of passages with niches for tombs and small chapels for commemorative services.
Avant Garde
Those who espouse innovative & experimental ideas, forms & techniques in art.
Lord Byron
"death of sardanapalus" 1826 by DELACROIX based on Byron's poem. Sardanapalus last Assyrian king was overthrown by rebels and he was too lethargic to fight or flee. voluptuous nudes. Distressed. Zigzag composition and unified color red. Using colors to reinforce context of painting. Play written by BYRON. Rich man brings all his belongings to his room. ROMANTIC EGOTISM. Self centered, he brings all his belongings into a room, women, horses, to kill himself. Claustrophobic and chaotic composition. Ignores classical space and volume. Fascinating horror.
a Roman building used for public administration
a supporting column carved in the shape of a person
day 20 of art history 

Aerial View of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, High Imperial Period, 118-128 CE. third building on this spot by this name. 27 bce is the original. it was destroyed by fire. 80 ce is the 2nd. then it destroyed by lightening. hadrian built this one. he was the most dedicated to greek culture and greek art. don’t know if it was a temple or not. means all the gods. finest roman building and most influential. copied 1000’s of times. thomas jefferson used this monument as his rotunda and his memorial. it is round. great dome. rather complicated. the fisad is old temple with pediment, corithian capitals, mentions agrippa, columns. doesn’t look like what you will see inside. great rotunda made up of round drum topped with a great dome. interior has greatly colored marble. dome made of concrete. exterior is simple brick. becomes standard for christian buildings. perfect circle. 150 ft to oculus which 30 ft. it is the only source of light. diamater is 150 ft. structure is made up of concrete and faced with brick. covered with bronze. coppered the dome (cut out in little coppers to lighten the load). concrete is made up of heavy agregate to help it become stronger (on the bottom and becomes lighter as you move up). within concrete there are arches built up of brick. this is done to distribute the weight evenly. part of a complex. didn’t stand by itself originally. there were colonnades leading up to the temple. imperial forum on smaller scale. walk down through enclosed area towards the temple fasad. coudn’t see the dome. used as burial place for very distinguish italians. perhaps the most remarkable ancient building surviving in rome and one of the marvels of the architecture in any age is a temple to the olympian gods called the pantheon (literally all the gods). originally the pantheon stood on a podium and was approached by stairs from a colonnaded square. although this magnificent monument was designed and constructed entirely during the reign of the emperor hadrian, the long inscription on the architrave states that it was built by marcus agrippa, son of lucius, who was the consul 3 times. agrippa, the son-in-law and valued adviser of augustus, was responsible for building on this site in 27-25 bce. after a fire in 80 ce, domitian built a new temple which hadrian then replaced in 118-128 ce with then pantheon. hadrian who must have had a strong sense of history, placed agrippa's name on the facade in a grand gesture to the memory of the illustrious consul rather than using the new building to memorialize himself. septimius severus restored the pantheon in 202 ce. the approach to the temple gives little suggestion of its original appearance. centuries of dirt and street construction hide its podium and stairs. attachment holes in the pediment indicate the placement of sculpture perhaps an eagle within a wreath, the imperial jupiter. nor is there any hint of what lies beyond the entrance porch, which resembles the facade of a typical roman temple. behind this porch is a giant rotunda with a 20ft thick walls that rise nearly 75 ft. the walls support a bowl-shaped dome that is 143 in diameter and 143 ft from the floor at its summit. standing at the center of this hemispherical temple the visitors feel isolated from the outside world and intensely aware of the shape and tangibility of the space itself. the eye is drawn upward over the circular patterns made by the sunken panels or coffers in the dome's ceiling to the light entering the 29ft wide oculus or central opening. the sun pours through this opening on clear days; rain falls on wet ones, then drains off as planned by the original engineer; and the occasional bird flies in. the empty, luminous space gives the feeling that one could rise buoyantly upward and escape the spherical hollow of the building to commune with the gods. the simple shape of the pantheon's dome belies its sophisticated design and engineering marble veneer disguises the internal brick arches and concrete structure. the interior walls, which form the drum that both supports and buttresses the dome, are disguised by 2 tiers of archictectural detail and richly colored marble. more than half of the original decoration-a wealth of columns, pilasters, and entablatures-survives. the wall is punctuated by 7 exadrae (niches)-rectangular alternating semicircular-that originally held statues of gods. this simple repetition of square against circle is found throughout the building. the square, boxlike coffers inside the dome, which help lighten the weight of the masonry, may once have contained gilded bronze rosettes or stars suggesting the heavens. in 609 ce, pope boniface iv dedicated the pantheon as the christian church of saint mary of the martyrs thus ensuring its survival through the middle ages. 

Arch of Constantine, south side, rome, italy, late imperial period, 312-315 CE. he saw himself as a person representing the christians. he had many connections to the christian world. he issues the edict of milan so all forms of religion can be expressed. christianity now back on the rise and then become official. next to the colosseum and roman forum. devoted to constantine by senate to celebrate his victory against a tryant. great scale. different from earlier arches. made up of earlier works of art/monument especially from the great emperors of the 2nd century. consciously went and took materials from early imperial monuments. used them on the arch of constantine. forum of trajan, hadrian sculptures, etc. pattern used again in late antiquity. sopolia-booty; using bits of pieces from other places. in rome, next to the colosseum, the senate erected a memorial to constantine's victory over maxentius, a huge, triple arch that dwarfs the nearby arch of titus. its three barrel vaulted passageways are flanked by columns on high pedestals and surmounted by a large attic story with elaborate sculptural decoration and a traditional laudatory inscription. the triumphal insignia were in part looted from earlier monuments made for constantine's illustrious predecessors, trajan, hadrian, and marcu aurelius. the reused items visually transferred the old roman virtues of strength, courage, and piety associated with these earlier good emperors to constantine. new reliefs made for the arch recount the story of constantine's victory and symbolize his power and generosity. although these new reliefs reflect the long-standing roman affection for depicting important events with realistic detail, they nevertheless represent a significant change in style, approach, and subject matter. they are easily distinguished from the reused elements in the arch. the stocky, frontal look-alike figures are compressed by the buildings of the forum into the foreground plane. the arrangement and appearance of the uniform participants below the enthroned constantine clearly isolate the new emperor and connect him visually with his illustrious predecessors on each side. this 2d, hierarchical approach and abstract style are far removed from the realism of earlier imperial reliefs. this style, with its emphasis on authority, ritual, and symbolic meaning was adopted by the emerging christian church. constantinian art thus bridges the art of the classical world and the art of the middle ages. 

Detail of south side with the Distribution of Largess (frieze), Arch of Constantine, Rome, italy, late imperial period, 312-315 ce. different kinds of sculptures. 

Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (basilica Nova), rome, italy, late imperial period, 306-313 ce. in roman forum. new basilica. large building that could accomadate large numbers of people. oblong in shape. public life and emperor. imperial audience halls. images and sculptors of emperors. only transact public business in the presence of emperor. maxentius was his enemy. constantine completed this building. long central hall that was higher. clerestory windows to let light in. structure built on concrete and faced with brick. interior is made of nice stones. groin-vaulted nave. there is an apse at the end. clear sight of the end. statue of him is placed in the apse. seated statue. 30ft high. barrel-vaulted bays. groin-vaulted porch. he will turn to the basilica for christian buildings and churches. constantine's rvial maxentius, who controlled rome throughout his short reign ordered the repair of many buildings there and had others built. his most impressive undertakings was a huge new basilica, just southeast of the imperial forums, called the basilica nova, or new basilica. now known as the basilica of maxentius and constantine this was the last important imperial government building erected in rome. like all basilicas, it functioned as an administrative center and provided a magnificent setting for the emperor when he appeared as supreme judge. earlier basilicas, such as trajan's basilica ulpia had been columnar halls, but maxentius ordered his engineers to create the kind of large, unbroken, vaulted space found in public baths. such solid masonry construction was less vulnerable to fire, an important consideration in troubled times. the central hall was covered with groin vaults, and the side aisles were covered with lower barrel vaults. these vaults acted as buttresses or projecting supports, for the central vault and allowed generous window openings in the clerestory areas over the side walls. 3 of these brick-and-concrete barrel vaults still loom over the streets of present-day rome. the basilica originally measured 300 by 215 ft and the vaults of the central nave rose to a height of 114 ft. a groin-vaulted porch extended across the short side and sheltered a triple entrance to the central hall. at the opposite side of the long axis of the hall was an apse of the same width which acted as a focal point for the building. the directional focus along a central axis from entrance to apse was adopted by christians for use in churches. constantine seeking to impress the people of rome with visible symbols of his authority, put his own stamp on projects maxentius had started. he may have changed the orientation of the basilica by adding an imposing new entrance in the center of the long side facing the via sacra and a giant apse facing it across the 3 aisles. 

Church of Santa Maria degli Angeli (originally the frigidarium of the Baths of Diocletian), rome, italy, (michelangelo adapted the frigidarium into a church in 1563-66 and luigi vanvitelli reworked michelangelo’s desin in 1746). the luxury of these imperial establishments can still be seen in the church of santa maria degli angeli in rome, where michelangelo converted the frigidarium of the baths of diocletian into a church, thus preserving it. marble veneers and huge corinthian columns and pilasters disguise the structural concrete of the building, although the vaults have lost their decoration. 

Aula Palatina (basilica), trier, germany, late imperial period, early fourth century ce. simple brick fasade. napse higher than rest of building. emperor showed himself there in the apse. between nave and apse there is a great arch (maybe triumphal arch). taken over by christians. the tetrarchs had ruled the empire from administrative headquarters in milan, italy; trier, germany; thessaloniki, in greece; and nicomedia, in present-day turkey. these 4 capital cities all had imposing buildings. in trier, for example, constantius chlorus and his son constantine fortified the city with walls and a monumental gate which still stands. they built public amenities, such as baths, and a palace with a huge audience hall, later used as a christian church. this early 4th century ce basilica's large size and simple plan and structure exemplify the architecture of the tetrarchs; imposing buildings that would impress their subjects. the audience hall is a large rectangular building, 190 by 95 ft, with a strong directional focus give by a single apse opposite the door. brick walls, originally stuccoed on the outside and covered with marble veneer inside, are pierced by 2 rows of arched windows. the flat roof, nearly 100 ft above the floor, covers the nave and the apse. in a concession to the northern climate, the building was centrally heated with hot air flowing under the floor (a technique used in roman baths). the windows of the apse create an interesting optical effect. slightly smaller and set higher than the windows in the hall, they create the illusion of greater distance, so that the tetrarch enthroned in the apse would appear larger than life. 

Old St. Peter’s Basilica, rome, italy, late imperial, early christian period, 320-327 ce. most important church in west christiandom. nave going down to apse. aisles. an ideal type of building. easy to break up in different sections. curtain off aisles. separate the clergy from congregation. altar at the far end. perfect for christian practices and not associated with pagan form. they wouldn’t use old temple buildings. great area. building that can hold large crowds. know a lot about it. on vatican hill which outside the city. opposite side of the tiber. reason for that. built it over a cemetery where peter was supposed to be buried. honor st peter and handle crowds of pilgrimages to worship st peter. free-standing canopy that covers the burial place. basilica is built over the tomb. shrine marks the place of the tomb. the new basilica-now known as old saint peter's church because it was replaced by a new building of the 16th century-would protect the tomb of peter and make the site accessible to the faithful. our knowledge of old saint peter's is based on written descriptions, drawings before and while it was being dismantled, the study of other churches inspired by it, and modern archeological excavations. old saint peter's was an unusual basilica church having double side aisles instead of one aisle on each side of the nave. a narthex across the width of the building provided a place for people who had not yet been baptized. five doorways-a large central portal into the nave and 2 portals on each side-gave access to the church. columns supporting an entablature lined the nave, forming what is called a nave colonnade. however, the columns dividing the side aisles supported round arches. in turn these arches carried open wood rafters roofing the nave and aisles. sarcophagi and tombs also lined the side aisles. constantine's architects devised a new element for the basilica plan. at the apse end of the nave, they added a transept, a large hall that crossed in front of the apse. it created a t-form that anticipated the later latin-cross church plan, seen in the reconstruction. this area provided additional space for the large number of clergy serving the church and it also accommodate pilgrims visiting the tomb of saint peter. transept windows lit the high altar directly. saint peter's bones supposedly lie below the altar, marked by a permanent pavilion like structure supported on 4 columns called a ciborium. a roman cemetery partly destroyed and covered by the foundations of constantine's underground vault lay beneath the church. eventually a large crypt or underground vault giving access to the tomb of peter and providing additional space for important burials was built on the site. it is still used today for the burial of the popes. old saint peter's thus served a variety of functions. it was a burial site, a pilgrimage shrine commemorating peter's martyrdom and containing his relics and a congregational church. it could hold at least 14000 worshipers and it remained the largest christian church until the 11th century.

Baslica of st. john lateran, restored plan and section, rome, italy, late imperial period/early christian period, 314-18 ce. gave to the pope and still used today but rebuilt. fundamentl form for important christian churches. had been imperial palace. built over the stables. pope lived in lateran palace. in rome, constantine and his family sponsored a vast building program for the church. for the bishop of rome (the pope), constantine built a residence on the site of the imperial lateran palace as well as a baptistry and a basilican church. the church of saint john the lateran remains the cathedral of rome to this day, although the pope's residence has been the vatican since the 13th century. 
Reconstruction of the christian community house at dura-europos, syria, late imperial/early christian period, 240-256 ce. used as a christian meeting house. courtyard. meeting room. bapistry. earliest building/church. congregational service to those who had been fully baptized. 

Basilica-plan and central plan churches: adapted again and again. last great flowering of roman architecture. brick. stone, concrete. fasads are plan and interiors are decorated. 

Santa Constanza (the mausoleum of constantina), rome, italy, late imperial/early christian period, 337-351. rotunda and round. central plan. places to place the dead. not pagan temples but associated with death. built as a mausoleum for constantine’s daughter. multiple basilicas. catacombs are the burial places. round building. concrete. faced with brick. techonologically derived from pantheon. ambulatory aisle where pilgrims could walk around. a second type of ancient building-the tholos, a round structure with a central plan and vertical axis-also served christian builders as a model for tombs, martyrs' churches, and baptistries. one of the earliest surviving central-plan christian buildings is the mausoleum of constantina, the daughter of constantine. the tomb was built outside the walls of rome just before 350. the mausoleum was consecrated as a church in 1256 and is now dedicated to santa costanza (the italian form of constantina). the building consists of a tall rotunda with an encircling barrel-vaulted passageway called an ambulatory. a double ring of paired columns with composite capitals and richly molded entablature blocks supports the arcade and dome. originally, the interior was entirely sheathed in mosaics and fine marble. mosaics in the ambulatory vault recall the syncretic images in the catacombs. one section, for example, is covered with a tangle of grapevines filled with putti-naked male child-angels, or cherubs, derived from classical art-who vie with birds to harvest the grapes. along the bottom edges on each side, putti drive wagonloads of grapes toward pavilions housing large vats in which more putti trample the grapes into juice. the technique, subject, and style are roman, but the meaning has been altered. the scene would have been familiar to the pagan followers of bacchus, but in christian context, the grape juice becomes the wine of the eucharist. constantina's pagan husband, however, may have appreciated the double allusion. 

Mausoleum of Augustus, rome, italy, early imperial period, 28 bce. 

Mausoleum of hadrian, (castel saint angelo) rome italy high imperial period, 140 ce. 
round form and basilica become key forms during constantine’s reign
a hinged two-leaved tablet used in ancient times for writing on with a stylus.
Kritios Boy
Early Classical Greek, 480bce, NO ARMS ONLY ONE BOTTOM 1/2 OF LEG REMAINS! first contrapposto, naturalism, perfectionism. no more archaic smile
a covered walkway, outdoors (as in a church cloister) or indoors, especially the passageway around the apse and the choir of a church.
social history
an area of historical study considered by some to be a social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends
structure, often in the shape of an inverted "L" or triangle, set flat against a wall to support objects above
3-point perspective
vanishing points are not on the canvas; to locate the vanishing points - find horizon, find points where lineas lead from horizon to a central point off the canvas
Hagia Sophia
City: Constantinople - 537 CE - Emperor: Justinian - Architects: Anthemius and Isidodorus - Trained as Mathematicians - Dedicated to Christ - Made to outdo Solomon's Temple - Combines Basilica, Rotunda -
an elevated place or structure, as a mound or platform, at which religious rites are performed
continuous narrative
figures are shown multiple times but in different stages of a story.
Artist who did Burial at Ornans and Stonebreakers
the more a work resembles real things in the real world
Flat topped, one story building with slanted walls marking an underground tomb.
*Evolved into step pyramids and on to the classic pyramid*
Venus de Milo
An ancient Greek statue of Venus, famous for its beauty, though its arms were broken off centuries ago. Hellenistic (Hint: found in Milo, Italy)
a segment of the circular shaft of a column
A molded band framing an arch, or a series of stone blocks that rest directly on the columns.
A work of art in several colors, esp. a statue.
were written by Martin Luther in 1517 and are widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. Luther used these theses to display his displeasure with some of the Church's clergy's abuses, most notably the sale of indulgences; this
95 Theses
flying buttress
an archway built against a wall to help support it
Death mask of Tutankhamen
Tomb of Tutankhamen, Thebes, Egypt, New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, 1323 BCE
The Abduction of the Daughters of Leucippus by Castor and Pollux
Peter Paul Rubens, 1617-1618
Arch of Trajan, Benevento, Italy
Billboard-like Fxn. Presents Trajan as a gauranteer of peace and security. Trajan 1st divinely sanctioned ruler. Henceforth, became norm.
ribbed groin vault
The style of vault that was used during the Gothic period that was more delicate compared to the barrel vaults of the Romanesque period.
analogous colors
3 colors next to each other on a color wheel
"The palace of Knossos "__-__" 1450-1400 bc.
-Most __ __ from Palace of Knossos
-Distinguishes the __ by skin color; women with fair skin, young boy with dark skin.
-The figures are have distinct __ waists and highly __ and have __ hair.
Bull Leaping famous fresco genders pinched animated curly
Question about Minoan Civilization
1. The story of the Minotaur who was half-man, half-bull. The Minotaur lived in a Labyrinth where he devoured youths and maidens sent from mainland Greece.
2. the palaces were not fortified because they were on an island and protected by the sea.
3. The Minoans were not Greeks but migrated to the Crete from Asia Minor.
4. The palaces used wooden columns that have some similarity to the Dorian Columns of Ancient greece.
5. The Minoan language is called Linear A and Linear B.
6. The palaces possessed an extraordinary sewage system.
7. Minoan Pottery, also decorated with sea forms, some abstracted and geometric is very beautiful.
8. Figure in painting have thin waist.
9. Sculpture : no large scale, small sculpture of semi-clothed, bare breasted female figures
10. Harvester Vase : a relief of bare-chested men singing in praise of the richness of the harvest.
Roman. 112 CE. Continuous relief of 2000 military figures.
Column of Trajan in the Forum of Trajan
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