ARTHROLOGY Flashcards

joints
Terms Definitions
WHAT IS SYNARTHROSIS
immovable
WHAT IS DIARTHROSIS
freely movable
symphyses
composed of fibrocartilage, semi-movable joint (amphiarthrotic)
retraction
moving a part backward
condyloid joints
(biaxial joint) carpals-metacarpals, occipital bone-atlas. Movements - flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction.
Articular capsule
fibrous capsule anchors articular capsule to bone via periosteum. synovial membrane secretes synovial fliud for lubrication,
Articular cartilage
hyaline cartilage that covers articular surface to cushion joint
Amphiarthrotic joints (cartilaginous)
semi-movable joints mostly cartilagenous. Ex intervertebral disks and symphysis pubis
luxation
dislocation where bone (humerus or femur) pulls away from its position in joint socket. Complete luxation may stretch/tear ligaments and may not return to position,
tendon sheath
surround ligaments to reduce friction
Saddle joint
(biaxial joint) Only carpal-metacarpal of thumb. Movements - flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction.
extension
increasing angle between parts. ex straightening elbow or knee, rasing head from chest
hinge joints
(uniaxial joint) elbow, knee, phalanges. Movement - flexion & extension
Osteoarthritis (OA) cont.
Little inflammation occurs, Anti-inflammatory drups, pain medicationsm and cortisone used to treat, or even joint replacment
shoulder
(glenohumeral joint) synovial ball and socket joint, atriculation bewtween glenoid fossa and scapula. rotator cuff produce most support for shoulder glenoid fossa allows wide range motion
synchondroses
costal cartilages between ribs and sternum, composed of hylaline cartilage
WHAT IS BIAXIAL JOINTS
two planes of action
menisci
attach to tibia and femur, cushions the bones and provide a deeper socket to accommodate condyle of femur
Flexion
decrease of angle bewtwen parts. Ex bending elbow or knee, lowering hard to chest
elevation
raising a part. Ex shrugging the shoulder
WHAT IS CARTILAGENOUS JOINTS
bones are joined by cartilage
Intracapsular structures of knee
anterior and posterior ligaments, menisci
Synarthrotic Joints (fibrous)
non-movable joints composed of dense regular connective tissue. ex Sutures, syndesmoses
strain
pulling of a muscle tendon & other connecive tissues in muscles. Small are normal, inflammatoin causes soreness
pronation
moving the palm down or backward (hand only)
Non-axial joint
allow gliding or sliding movemnts on no particular axis. Ex. Planar or gliding joints
WHAT IS MULTIAXIAL JOINTS
many planes in action, greatest freedom of motion
Extracapsular sructures of knee
fat pad - protects knee anteriorly, medial and lateral retinacula - hold patella in position, medial and lateral collateral ligaments - prevent lateral discplacement and responsable for hing joint function
WHAT IS A BURSAE
a closed fibrous sac that is filled with synovial fluid
HOW MANY STRUCTURES OF JOINTS ARE THERE
a. fibrous jointsb. cartilagenous jointsc. synovial joints
Knee Injuries - anterior cruciate ligament
often torn as result of rapid direction change while running or violent twisting motion, or extending forcefully beyond normal range or forced sideways
WHAT IS SYNDESMOSIS & GIVE EXAMPLE
two bones seperated by a space yet connected by fibrous ct (usually a ligament)
WHAT DOES IT MEAN IF YOU HAVE WATER ON THE KNEE
build up of synovial fluid
depression
lowering a part
WHAT IS AMPHIARTHROSIS
slightly movable
protraction
moving a part forward
pivot joint
(Uniaxial joint) radius-ulna, radius-ulna, atlas-axis. Movement - rotation
Bursae
synovial sacs that lie between ligaments to reduce friction. Inflamation causes bursitis
circumduction
successin of the four movements resulting in distal end of a bone inscribing a circle.
hip
multiaxial ball and socket synovial joint. labrum grips head of femur and secures joint, intracapsular ligament (ligamentum teres) also helps hold femur in position
syndesmoses
have small ligament holding bones together such as between the tibia and fibula. non movable joint (synarthrotic)
adduction
motion that pulls part toward midline of body or toward midline of a limb. ex Bringing arms to sides, bringing knees together, bringing fingers together.
Adhesive capsulitis
"frozen Shoulder" condition in which adhesions develope between joint membranes and produce stiffness, inflammation and pain.
seperation
occurs when fibrous tissue in a syndesmosis stretches or tears. Most common is shoulder seperation where clavicle pulls from attatchment to acromion process of scapula.
deltoid actions
anterior - flexes shoulder, middle deltoid - abducts shoulder, posterior deltoid - extends shoulder
elbow
composed of humerus, radius, and ulna. hinge joint betwen trochlea and trochlear notch of humerus, pivot joint between radius and capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna
abduction
motion that pulls part away from midline of body or spreading digits of fingers or toes apart. Ex raising arms laterally ot to the sides.
Multiaxial joints
Ball-and-socket joints of hip and shoulder. movements in multiple axis - flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and roatation.
WHAT IS SYMPHYSIS & GIVE EXAMPLE
(grown together) fibrocartilage
Posterior cruciate ligament
inhibits tibia from sliding backward against femur or vice versa, and excessive flexion.
Rheumatiod arthritis (RA)
most sever type, chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes immune system to attack joints. Also affects skin, blood vessels, heart, lungs, and muscles. drastically inhibit mobility.
supination
moving the palm up or forward (only hand)
WHAT IS GOMPHOSIS
peg & socket the articulation between the roots of all teeth and the alveoli of the mandible and maxilla
WHAT IS UNIAXIAL JOINTS
one plane of actiona. hinge: bone move at right angles to each otherb. pivotal: rotation around long axis
HOW ARE JOINTS HELD TOGETHER
a. shape and size of articular surfacesb. gravityc. soft tissue (skin & fascia)d. liagmentse. muscle & tendons
WHAT DOES THE FIBROCARTILAGENOUS DISCS DO
the medial and the lateral menisci provide buffer between condyles
WHAT IS SUTURES & GIVE EXAMPLE
closely adjacent bones, connected by dense fibrous connective tissue
WHAT IS IN SYNOVIAL JOINTS & WHAT DOES IT DO
a. fibrous capsule surrounds joints creating a joint cavityb. certain portion of the cavity are lined with synovium which secretes an oily fluid synovial fluid as a lubricantc. some synovial joints have fibrocartilagenous discs (pads) which further protect articular surfaces
WHAT HOLDS THE KNEE JOINT TOGETHER
held in place by two sets of ligaments, the collaterals medial & lateral and the cruxiates anterior and posterior
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF AN OPPOSABLE THUMB
importance of joint design to manipulation of objects
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