Astronomy 103 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
jupiter
1330kg/m
Autumn Equinox
Fall
Granite
Intrusive Igneous Rock
mercury. motion.
resonance rotation
one complete ROTATION=
one day
saturn's motion
similar to jupiter's
H-R diagram
See Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.
Wavelength
distance between two adjacent peaks
radiative energy
energy carried by light
Constellation
A region of the sky.
uranus
which planet has 21 moons
chromosphere
a scarlet, gaseous envelope surrounding the sun outside the photosphere, from which enormous quantities of hydrogen and other gases are erupted.
Triton
second largest moon (size of earth)
nebula
gas and dust where stars form
Altitude
Elevation or height above sea level.
Asterism
a recognizable pattern of stars within, or part of a constellation
Right Ascension
angle around the celestial equator
*measured by hour (S=0hr)
murcury,venus,earth,mars
have high temperatures,so most water and gases evaporated,leaving behind relatively small and rocky planets
The LaGrange points were developed using Jupiter-based data, but will exist in any system of a pair of orbiting bodies.
true
electromagnetism
the phenomena associated with electric and magnetic fields and their interactions with each other and with electric charges and currents.
Lunar Phases
the appearance of the illuminated portion of the moon as seen by an observer on Earth
A
On the Main Sequence, the hottest stars are:
a) the brightest, b) dimmest, c) there is no clear trend
escape velocity
velocity needed to escape a body
albedo
fraction of sunlight that a planet, asteroid, or satellite scatters directly back into space
Galileo
Person who used a telescope and challenged conventional wisdom of the motion of objects and the nature of heavens
MIlky Way
the galaxy containing the solar system
Equinoxes
Points on the celestial sphere where the ecliptic meets the celestial equator
who proved by elctro-magnetic theory
James Clark Maxwell
Crater
A round pit on the moon's surface
Which of Galileo's discoveries most strongly supports the heliocentric model?
Venus's phases
intercrater plains
smoothed surface regions possibly from lava flow covering the craters in that region
gravity
the force of attraction between all masses in the universe
mass
the amount of matter in an object
photosphere
inner layer of the sun's atmosphere, gives off visible light
star
spherical mass of hot gases (hydrogen and helium) that produces energy
quasars
compact sources which have hundred to thousands of times the energy output of an entire galaxy
The inflationary epoch
Universe expands rapidly smaller than a proton to bigger than amelon- supported experimentally
Polaris
An important star, very close to the North Pole
Capture Hypothesis
moon formed elsewhere and was captured by Earth
Geocentric
models of the universe based on the assumption that the sun, moon, and planets all orbit Earth
meteroid
chunks of space debris while it is still in space
sunset
the daily event of the sun sinking below the horizon
solar eclipse
when moon's shadow stops us seeing Sun
Magnetosphere
the magnetic field of a planet, the magnetic field surrounding the Earth that deflects charged particles from the sun.
wavelenght
the distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of the next wave
acceleration
a change in direction of magnitude or velocity
Geocentric model
considers the earth to be stationary and at the center of the solar system
Spectral Classes
OBAFGKM is a temperature sequence that indicates chemical composition.
Irregular galaxy
no recognizable shape; may have been involved in a collision with other galaxies
galaxy
a huge group of single stars, star systems, star clusters, dust, and gas bound together by gravity
eclipse
When the moon's shadow hits earth or earth's shadow hits the moon, an eclipse occurs.
The splitting of spectral lines into several components, so that the magnitude of the splitting is related to the intensity of the magnetic field, is known as the
Zeeman effect
When do lunar eclipses occur?
During the full moon
supernova remnant
an expanding shell of gas, with accompanying strong radio and x-ray emissions, produced by a supernova.
What is the cause to all the volcanism on Io?
Gravity!
Neutron stars have diameters of about A) 1 AU, B) 1 R⊙, C) earth radius,
D) 1000 km, E) 20 km
E) 20 km
perihelion
The point in the orbit of a planet where it is closest to the Sun.
refracting telescope
uses convex lenses to gather and focus light (goes straight through)
Star A
Which is hotter: Star A has visible wavelength whereas Star B has infrared
apparent magnitude
the brightness of a star when viewed from Earth
Particle horizon
the edge of the universe; light beyond this has not reached us yet
our solar system formed
4 and 1/2 billions years ago
black hole
what remains of a super large star that dies and collapsed on itself creating huge gravity
Electromagnetic Spectrum
the spectrum made up of all possible frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, ranging from gamma rays through radio waves and including he portion our eyes can use
Sc Galaxy
Spiral galaxy with a small bulge and loose arms
nodes
the points in the orbit of the moon where the moon crosses the ecliptic plane
radio telescope
a device used to detect radio waves from objects in space
Energy level
one of the number of states an electron my occupy in an atom, depending on its binding energy
The Hesperian Era
the next 500 million to 1.5 billion years of mars
"2nd age"
What are the two types of moon terrain?
maria and highlands
2. How does this energy get to the surface of the sun (which makes the sun shine)?
The levels
What is an Extragalactic star formation?
A giant star formation region.
Explain why we cannot necessarily believe that indirect observations of planetary companions via Doppler wobbling are truly planetary companions. Are our assumed companion planet masses higher or lower than true planet masses in tilted systems? Explain.
-we can't measure tilted systems
-Since scientists cannot measure the transverse velocity, two stars that have the same radial velocity will appear to produce the same wobble, therefore appearing to have the same mass. Scientists assumed companion planet masses are lower than the possible true mass of the planet if it is in a tilted system, also known as lower limit.
lunar eclipse
an eclipse of the moon; when the moon passes into the shadow of Earth. It is not illuminated by the sun's light and cannot be seen.
on a h-r diagram where would we find stars that are cool and dim?
lower right
@ 600 million K
12C + 12C -> 24Mg + energy
auger bit
an auger having a square tang at its upper end and rotated by a brace, used for boring through wood.
All Jovian planets have _____ systems.
ring (they differ in composition, source, particle size, extent)
Bohr Model of the atom
The electrons can only orbit the nucleus in certain orbits. The orbits and energy of an electron of an atom are "quantized"
Kepler's second law
a line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time
the expected main sequence liftime of the sun is:
ten to the ten years
Nathan is four feet away from a light bulb. Jacob is eight feet away from the same bulb. How much brighter is the bulb to Nathan than it is to Jacob?
four times as bright
describe a new moon
the moon is between the sun and earth and we can't see it
Dark Line Spectrum (aka absorption-line spectrum)
A pattern of ____ lines superposed on an otherwise continuous spectrum. Produced by passing a continuous spectrum through a very rarified (not dense) gas (Sunlight)
What do moon phases describe?
the part f=of the moon that is visible to us on Earth
According to the nebular theory, the comets are
bodies composed mostly of ice and rock
that were left over from the formation of the
jovian planets
The interior of the Earth is very hot because of _______.
the radioactive decay of elements
What does Kepler's third law do for us?
tells us how much a planet weights
What likely enabled Titan to retain a dense atmosphere?
B. it's extremely low surface temperatures
What likely enabled Titan to retain a dense atmosphere?
A. The influence of Saturn's rings.
B. Its extremely low surface temperatures
C. The fact that its atmosphere is continually replenished by volcanic activity
D. the absence of other large moons orbiting Saturn
E. the intense greenhouse effect produced by methane
A typical white dwarf has a surface temperature about four times that of the Sun and a radius about
1% that of the Sun. What can you determine about the luminosity of a typical white dwarf from this
information?
The white dwarf will be less luminous than the Sun.
What can be said with certainty about a red star and a blue star?
B. The blue star is hotter than the red star
What can be said with certainty about a red star and a blue star?
A. The red star is more massive than the blue star.
B. The blue star is hotter than the red star
C. The red star has a greater Doppler shift than the blue star
D. The blue star has a greater proper motion than the red star
E. The red star is closer to Earth than the blue star
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