Astronomy 110 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
the center
45 degrees east
orbit of sun
hydrogen compounds
common on Jovians
micro waves
second longest wave
light that is transmitted
Inner four planets are
rocky (Terrestrial)
orbital period=solar distance of planets
Which planet has two moons?
length of solar cycle
10-11 years
any natural satellite of a planet
(astronomy) a collection of star systems
visible part is increasing each night
outer planets
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
electromagnetic force
the interaction between charged particles, the second of four fundamental forces in nature.
The brightest star in the sky.
Where the sky and ground meet.
carbon based
organic molecules are ______ _______.
*largest moon in solar system
*orbits jupiter
made or done without previous preparation:
a thing tacitly assumed beforehand at the beginning of a line of argument or course of action.
The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.
ancient scientist who said earth was the center of the universe
Hubble's constant is really a constant (t/f)
totality of all space, time, matter and energy
the imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and the North And South poles
The most luminous objects known. They out shine 1000 galaxies like our yet only take up a small amount of space, no large than our solar system.
The rise and fall of ocean water.
A round pit on the moon's surface
spinning neutron star that emits rapid pulses of light
T or F: Mercury has many craters
a system of organizing time that defines the beginning, length, and divisions of a year
1st planet, no atmosphere and heavily cratered
describes phases that occur after a full moon, as the visible lighted side of the Moon grows smaller
A meteor that survives its passage through the atmosphere and strikes the ground. (p. 366)
to exclude, by general consent, from society, friendship, conversation, privileges, etc.:
radio telescopes
these use large parabolic dishes to collect radio waves
Laid basics for physics; first to use telescope;
The pointer stars in the Big Dipper point to which star?
Lunar Phases
rising and setting times and the relative orientations of the Earth,
Moon and Sun are linked to the apparent shape of the moon in the sky.
In any star cluster, stars with lower masses generally outnumber those with higher masses (t/f)
when hydrogen accreted from a companion star, ignites at the surface of a white dwarf
Produces a nova
How old is our universe?
14 billion years old
geocentric theory
Arrangment of the solar system that places the earth at the center with the sun and planets orbiting the earth
The bigger the telescope
The better you can see
Sixth planet from the Sun which is surrounded by three planar concentric rings of ice particles
greenhouse effect
when heat gets trapped in an atmosphere by the amount of carbon dioxide present.
light year
measuring unit based on distance light travels in one year
the explosion of a massive star that causes a sudden increase in luminosity
Oort Cloud
a spherical region of comets that surrounds the solar system
a small robotic space probe that can move about the surface of a planet or moon
a particle consisting of a nucleus and one or more surrounding electrons
Helium Fusion
The helium-4 nuclei combine to form carbon-12
What is the approximate wavelength of red light?
700 nm
the distance traversed by light in one mean solar year, about 5.88 trillion mi. (9.46 trillion km)
the motion of a spinning body (as a top) in which it wobbles so that the axis of rotation sweeps out a cone
Tropic of Cancer
the farthest north position of sun during a year, latitude 23.5°N
Barred Spiral Galaxy
Spiral galaxies that have a straight bar of stars cutting across their centers.
what are the Trojans
asteroid like bodies found in Jupiter's orbit, 60 degrees ahead of Jupiter and 60 degrees behind Jupiter. they are trapped there by the combined gravitational influence of Jupiter and the Sun
why can't we view the surface of venus
cloud cover
The portion of a shadow in which only part of the light source is covered by the shadow-making body.
Conservation of energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed, can change form or be exchanged, and the total energy of universe came from big bang and is same today
The path of a body follows as it travels around another body in space
the angle between a planet and the sun as seen from earth
solar eclipse
The blocking of sunlight to Earth that occurs when the moon is between the Sun and Earth
Aristarchus (300 BC)-
First to suggest that Earth goes around the Sun
We describe a position on earth's surface by stating its
Latitude and longitude
New Moon
Moon phase that occurs when the Moon is between Earth and the Sun, at which point the Moon cannot be seen because its lighted half is facing the Sun and its dark side faces Earth.
a large cloud of gas and dust in interstellar space; a region in space where stars are born
What are the permanent vortices at the poles?
Venus Polar Vortex
absolute magnitude
measure of the amount of light a star actually gives off
when most but not all of the moon is visible
The point in the sky that is directly overhead is called the _____________.
Celestial Pole
Red Giant
a very large old reddish star that is greatly expanded and cooled as its fuel has begun to run out;
apparent magnitude
the brightness of a star as seen from earth.
Hubble's law
this states that the farther away to a galaxy is, the faster it is moving away from us.
the Sun dagger
What in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico do experts agree is a genuine astronomical calendar?
astronomical unit
a unit of length, equal to the mean distance of the earth from the sun: approximately 93 million miles (150 million km).
In 1989, Neptune was found to have a huge storm named the
Great Dark Spot.
main-sequence turnoff point
the point on an H-R diagram in which the main sequence diverges from the standard main sequence
why is venus so hot
all the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Orbit of Halleys Comet
@ Perihelion point very close to the Sun
@ Aphelion close to Neptune.

Orbit is tilted by 18 degrees compared to planets. Similar to Pluto. Does not follow plane of the solar system.
Exactly how long is an earth a year
365.25 or 365 1/4 days
A lunar eclipse happens...
when the earth is in between the sun and the moon and the shadow hits the moon
Quantifiably how fast do neutron stars spin?
Before their collapse they spin once every 25 days after they collapse they make a rotation in less than 1 second.
A solar eclipse happens when
the moon is between the earth and the sun and it blocks out the sun
In X-ray telescopes, the main mirrors look quite different from the parabolic mirrors we see in visible-light telescopes. What is the key difference that allows the mirrors in X-ray telescopes to focus X-ray light?
In X-ray telescopes, the mirrors are turned nearly sideways-on to the incoming light, so that the incoming light bounces off the mirrors at a glancing angle.
Why do we see moon phases?
We see moon phases because we observe some combination of the day and night sides of the moon.
The law of equal areas
- the speed of a planet is the largest when it is nearest to the Sun, and smallest when it is the farthest from the sun.
What is meant by the phrase "angular size"?
How big an object looks, expressed as an angle.
Where is the sun directly over head on each of these days?
Winter- sun directly on tropic of capricorn (23.5 degrees S)
Summer- tropic of cancer (23.5 degrees N)
Spring- At equator
Fall- At equator
What is ozone? How does the absence of ozone on Venus and Mars explain why these planets lack a stratosphere?
Ozone is triatomic oxygen: O3. Ozone absorbs UV radiation readily and thus heats the layer of the atmosphere it is mostly found in (the stratosphere for the Earth). Without ozone or a similarly UV-absorbing gas, a planet will not have a stratosphere.
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