Astronomy 113 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
6th planet
discovered gravity
no charge (atom)
God of War
0.01 - 10 nm
hose at the river
A bundle of energy
apparent brightness depends on luminosity & distances
March 20 or 21
Spring equinox.
tropic of cancer is
summer solstice
bright surface of the sun
irregular galaxy
A galaxy that lacks symmetry.
information barried in light data
temperature, composition
solid, central part of a comet
-Made pain staking observations of night sky
-Recorded crab supernova of 1054 A.D.
-Hsi and Ho emperors that had to predict eclipses, failed to do so and were beheaded
Earth's Crust
earth's outermost layer of rock.
Lighter colored, heavily cratered. An earlier state in moons history. Rugged, mountainous areas of the moon.
earths atmosphere
nitrogen 78% and oxygen 21%
What's the earth's closest neighbor
the moon
The speed (and direction) of propagation of a wave disturbance through a medium
the phenomena associated with electric and magnetic fields and their interactions with each other and with electric charges and currents.
the significant digits of the number in scientific notation
what the sun will eventually become
black dwarf
a. Land of extremes - smallest, farthest, coldest, darkest and highly eccentric
b. Discovered by Clyde Tombaugh
c. Charon, its moon, discovered by Christy and Harrison
d. 2006→ relegated to a dwarf planet
active galactic nuclei
galaxies where highly energetic objects or activities exist in the core
Most objects in the universe spin. This is called...
planet factoid; biggest planet in our solar system. Most moons. Great Red Spot, a storm more than 400 years old!
The middle layer of the sun's atmosphere
totality of all space, time, matter, and energy
synchrotron radiation
radiation emitted by charged particles moving through a magnetic field; nonthermal rotation
Radiative Energy
energy carried by light (all light)
degrees north or south of the equator
The process by which small objects gather together to make larger objects (how small "seeds" grew into planets)
synodic period
the time interval between successive similar alignments of a celestial object with respect to the Sun
types of variable stars
rr lyrae, cepheid, mira
Big Bang
Event that cosmologists consider the beginning of the universe
first quarter
the instant, approximately one week after a new moon, when one half of the moon's disk is illuminated by the sun.
_______ is massive compared to all the other planets. It is Twice as much as all other planets together.
other than using a refractor instead, what are two solutions to spherical aberration which spherecal reflectors suffer
mirror, lense
Kuiper Belt
consists of material orbiting the sun approximately in the ecliptic plane beyond the 9 planets; the source of all short-period comets
Earth's magnetic field
reverses polarity every ten thousand years; generated by currents in its liquid iron core; has north and south pole like a bar magnet; screens us from energetic particles from the sun
the core
Where is the Earth's magnetic field generated?
a cluster of stars, dust and gases held together by gravity
the study of the moon, stars, and other objects in space
Celestial equator
Earths equator projected out and drawn on celestial sphere
A burning ball of gas which radiates mainly light and heat.
The cratering of the Moon's highlands, as
opposed to its impact basins and maria, occurred
during the
early bombardment
white dwarfs are the size of what
the earth
name the three types of galaxies
spiral, pinwheel irregular
a building that contains one or more telescopes
A small robotic space probe that can move about the surface of a planet or moon.
absolute zero
The temperature at which all atoms stop moving or vibrating
mass-transferring binary
the stolen gas becomes hotter and denser as it builds up on the white dwarfs surface
Shapley-Curtis debate
A 1920 debate between Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis on the nature of spiral nebulae. Curtis argued that they are other galaxies, and Shapley argued they are internal to our own galaxy. (p. 259)
nebular hypothesis
the theory that the solar system evolved from a mass of nebular matter: prominent in the 19th century following its precise formulation by Laplace.
solar nebula theory
Planets form from the nebula around the proto-sun. When the star becomes luminous enough, the remaining gas and dust were blown away into space, leaving the planets orbiting the sun. This theory means that planets should be fairly common objects in the universe around some stars
name the planets that experience retrograde
venus, uranus, and pluto
new comet
a comet that has entered the inner solar system for the first time
scientific notation
The style of writing large and small numbers using powers of ten.
A system of one time and three spatial coordinates, with respect to which the time and place of an event can be specified.
what is a local group
25 galaxies with 2,000 others
Doppler Effect
an observed change in the frequency of a wave when the source or observer is moving. you can determine radial velocity based on this effect, which is the speed toward or away from us. The Doppler effect does not depend on the distance between the source of light and the observer. It only depends on the relative speed.
OB association
A group of very young, massive stars that have just formed.
Who was the first person to use a telescope?
the point at which earth is closest to the sun
eclipse seasons
the times, separated by about 5 1/2 months, when the eclipses of the Sun and Moon are possible
White dwarfs
the blue-white core of the star that is left behind after a star dies when it cools.
How many stars are there in our milky way galaxy?
a Star
A very large ball composed of a high percentage of hydrogen that produces a great deal of heat and light.
Electromagnetic spectrum
Is made up of all the wavelengths of electromangnetic radiantion.
project murcery
goes were to put a space craft into orbt and bring it back safely
The luminosity of a star depends on its:
Temperature and size.
a group of stars that forms a shape or pattern
spiral galaxies
have a bulge in the middle and arms that spiral outward, like pin wheels
Plane of the Ecliptic
path of Earth's orbit around the sun
describe the convective zone
region of the sun where moving volumes of gas carry energy the rest of the way to the sun's surface
law of universal gravitation
every object of matter is attracted to each other
How are HII Regions produced?
the are produced when UV radiation from hot stars ionizes nearby gas making it glow like a giant neon star
What is light?
Light is radiant energy in the form of a stream of energy particles, called photons. Light is radiant energy in the form of a wave of electromagnetic energy.
name two ways of increasing light gathering power
increase exposure time and increase collecting area
how was the moon probably formed?
something collided with earth and one of the debris coalesced and became the moon!
What would we expect about the seasons, but isnt really true?
Because perihelion is the point closest to the sun, we would expect it to be summer, and the opposite, with aphelion being winter. This is actually not the case, because perihelion for us is Jan 3rd (winter) and aphelion is July 6th (summer). Because the aphelion and perihelion are not that much different from that of the avg distance from the sun it's not a huge contributing factor in the change in seasons for us
What are tides caused by?
the moon and suns gravity and it get pulled by the gravity because the waters more flexible
nothing, except the effect they have on other objects in space
What do we know about black holes?
what is kepler's thrid law?
the square of the period of a planet is equal to the cube of its semimajor axis.
if you are driving at 30 miles per hour and increase your speed to 60 miles per hour you quadruple your kinetic energy?
find difference between velocity and kinetic energ, when velocity goes up by power of 2, then kinetic energy gets squared too.2x2 squae and 4x4 square. even though you just increase it by factor of two it goes up by 4, true
What are the main types of robotic missions?
Flyby-A spacecraft on a flyby goes past a world just once and then continues on its way
Orbiter- An orbiter is a spacecraft that orbits the world it is studying, allowing longer-term study.
Lander or probe- These spacecraft are designed to land on a planet's surface or probe a planet's atmosephere by flying through it. Some landers carry rovers to explore wider regions.
Sample return mission-a spacecraft designed to return to Earth carrying a sample of the world it has studied.
The same as the its revolution around the earth
The period of the moon's rotation on its axis is ___
what year did Neil Armstrong set foot on the moon and what ship was he in?
it was in 1920, and it was on apollo 11
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