Astronomy 138 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Balmer series
density= 3900kg/m
Tycho Brahe
Mural Quadrant
mt Olympus
90000 feet
high mass
supergiant, supernova,black hole
Saturn's largest moon.
atmosphere is 90% N2, 7% CH4, 2% Ar
Active geysers on Saturn's moon
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
hydrogen and helium
atmosphere of jupiter
Third rock from the sun
asteroid belt
located between Mars and Jupiter.
orbits the planets (Jovian planets have more moons then terrestrial planets)
(spectrum) heated gas--a few colors (emission)
Celestial Object
an object in outer space
middle layer of the solar atmosphere
Nicolaus Copernicus
proposed Earth as planet
-proposed heliocentric model
-the Earth rotates
-hated on by Roman Catholic Church
(astronomy) either of the two celestial points at which the celestial equator intersects the ecliptic, either of two times of the year when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator and day and night are of equal length
Sun's path around the Celestial Sphere.
SHARED PLANET FACT: Have primarily carbon dioxide atmosphere
Very small solid fragment that orbit the sun
A recent sunspot maximum occurred in 2001, what is the year of the sunspot maximum that immediately follows the 2001 maximum if the solar cycle continues?
a large circular motion around the earth; related to geocentric model
isthar terra
highland containing maxwell montes on venus
When you look directly up at stars
celestial pole
Points about which the celestial sphere appears to rotate.
Tully-Fisher method
spiral galaxy's rotation speed relates to its luminosity
The outer layer of the sun's atmosphere.
3 Quantities Directly From Spectra
Temperature, Composition, Velocity
expanding universe is based on redshift interpratation of galaxies as due to
doppler effect
a disposition to remain inactive or inert
planet with no moons & no atmosphere
milky way
the galaxy containing the solar system
bright because light reflects off the clouds
In blackbody radiation, the energy is radiated uniformly in every region of the spectrum so the radiation body appears black in color.
In blackbody radiation, the energy is radiated uniformly in every region of the spectrum so the radiation body appears black in color.
the force of attraction between any two masses.
the apparent change in position of an object when seen from different places
C. infrared
In which wavelengths have the births of new stars been best mapped recently?
A. gamma rays
B. extreme ultraviolet
C. infrared
D. microwave
E. radio
an open curve formed by cutting a circular cone at an angle parallel to the sides of the cone
Most naked-eye stars would fall to the top left on the H-R diagram. T or F
What are Jupiters Galilean Satellites?
Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
The alignment of two bodies in the solar system so that they appear in the same part of the sky as seen from Earth.
Neutron star
the small, dense remains of a high-mass star after a supernova
Saros Cycle
- 18 years and 11 1/3 days
inversely proportional
the strength of gravity between two objects is ___ to the square of the distance between their centers
nonbaryonic matter
proposed dark matter made up of particles other than protons and neutrons
radioactive zone
layer just outside the sun's core, where energy is transported mostly in the form of radiation
role of magnetic field
cause radiation, misalignment of rotation axis, magnetic axis
oort cloud
region outside the orbit of PLUTO thought to be the source for long-period comets with orbits of longer than 200 years: thought to be were comets come from
These range in diameter from one metre to many hundreds of kilometres
what planet is the second most rapidly rotating
the spinning of a planet on its axis
the circular motion around a body on an axis where the axis does not pass through the body in question. A complete circuit is an orbit. Earth revolves around sun yearly.
celestial equator
the great circle of the celestial sphere, lying in the same plane as the earth's equator.
terrestrial planets
the name given to the four inner planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
Chemical Fingerprints
every kind of atom, ion and molecule has a unique set of energy levels
protogalactic cloud
a cloud of hydrogen and helium that contracts to become a galaxy
unit of length, equal to jsut under 31 trillion km
The apparent movement or change of position of one star in relationship to other stars over time( __ months)
Parallax and 2
Vernal Equinox
-March 21 equal hours of day and night
-zero pt of the right ascension RA =0 Dec =0
Flatness problem? 2.
1. Even small deviations from critical density in the early history of the Universe grow rapidly in time.
2. Thus if the Universe is close to the critical density today (flat), it must have differed from the critical density by a very tiny amount.
big bang theory
10-15 billion years ago, spectra of galaxies are shifted to red indicating they are moving apart, cosmic background radiation detected
space shuttle
a spacecraft that can carry a crew into space, return to earth, and then be reused for the same purpose
Rigel appears as a bright bluish star, while Betelgeuse appears as a bright reddish star.
Rigel is ______ Betelgeuse
hotter than
nuclear fusion
the sun's source of energy and occurs in the core
Earth Atmosphere
- Nitrogen and oxygen in atmosphere
- 1 Bar = pressure
- 288-293 Kelvin - temp at solid surface
White Dwarfs
Stars at the lower left corner of an H-R Diagram.
spiral galaxy
A galaxy with a bulge in the middle and arms that spiral outward in a pinwheel pattern.
When a planet is between Earth and Sun it is called
Inferior conjunction
Conservation of Angular momentum
=mvr Cant change unless an external force acts upon object
winter solstice
point at which the sun is lowest in the sky and the day is shortest
color chart of stars
red giant, red orange, yellow, white, blue
the point in the orbit of a body when it is closest to the Sun
What are the four fundamental forces of nature?
Gravity, Electro-Magnetism, Strong Force, Weak Force.
What are the two most important properties of a telescope?
light-collecting area, and angular resolution
H2 regions, also called emission nebula, are short lived because
they require excitation by short lived, massive stars
how long does it take the moon to go through a complete cycle of phases?
29.5 days
solar nebula
a large cloud of gas and dust, such as the one that formed our solar system
What is the ecliptic?
The apparant path of the sun around the sky
the moving charged particles and currents located at the tacholine just below the convection zone. the internal dynamo generates, amplifies and sustains the sun's magnetic field
the sun's magnetism is generated by what?
What do Earth's and Jupiter's magnetic fields share?
auroral displays in the polar regions
What is a celestial sphere?
The imaginary sphere of the sky, on which stars lie.
which is not ture of scientific theories?
a scientific theory cannot be taken serious by scientists if it contradicts theories developed by scientists in the past.
How far is Proxima Centauri from the sun
1.3 pc or 4.3 light years
Give two reasons for thinking the Earth's core is liquid.
it has a magnetic field and rotation as explained with the dynamo theory.
Proof that the universe is still expanding...
is the red shift and the Doppler Effect
How do we determine a temperature of a star?
Vien's law- color of star determines its termperature
While watching a star, you see it moves 15 degrees across the sky. How long have you been watching it?
A. 1 hour
While watching a star, you see it moves 15 degrees across the sky. How long have you been watching it?
A. 1 hour
B. 3 hours
C. 15 minutes
D. 1.5 hours
E. 1.5 minutes
what is the usual ultimate fate of a high mass star
turn into a supernova and then a black hole
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