Astronomy 28 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
winter; Hunter
ionized H
free electrons
charged particles
register seismic waves
th first communication satellite
Pre-cell--> true living organisms
heredity-machinery was simple
slow evolution through natural selection
Lunar soil is called...?
Earth's path around the sun
larger part of the shadow
how are galaxies found
in clusters
terrestrial planet
not gas giant planets
Yuri Gagarin
first man in space
the darkest part of a shadow
This literally translates as "Sun stop" because the north-south motion of the Sun stops and goes in the other direction at this time.
Right side shaded crescant, first quarter, gibbous
6th phase of the moon
waning gibbous
the constellation Sagittarius in the northern hemisphere are best seen in what season...
Newton's laws
Help explain Kepler's Third Law
absorption spectrum
the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation that has passed through a medium that absorbed radiation of certain wavelengths
what planets are near the sun
An explanation that accounts for existing observations and predicts new ones.
H-R diagram
classifys stars by temperature and absolute brightness
a round pit on the moon's surface
What is Mars period of revolution?
687 days
binding energy
the energy required to separate particles from a molecule or atom or nucleus
Dynamo Effect
Earth's liquid core stirred by convection vs. rotation of the Earth, creates large electric currents and have a large magnetic field around Earth's surroundings
what kind of telescope is the Hubble
The force of attraction between all masses in the universe.
What is the diameter of the earth?
Flatness Problem
Even small deviations from critical density in the early history of the Universe grow rapidly in time
Moon Phases
the monthly cycle of the moon
inferior conjunction
the configuration when Mercury or Venus is directly between the Sun and the Earth.
the number of oscillations per second of a wave
Greek astronomer who proposed 2 types of motion, 1.Towards/away 2.around
Big Bang
an explosion that took place roughly 13.8 billion years ago, creating all space, time, matter, and energy in which the universe emerged
the spinning of a planet on its axis
the length of a line segment between the center and circumference of a circle or sphere
the apparent shift in the position of an object when viewed from two different positions; scientists measure this to determine the distance from Earth to nearby stars
retrograde motion
The apparent motion of the planets when they appear to move backwards (westward) with respect to the stars from the direction that they move ordinarily.
light travel time from nearest other star to us
4.29 years
inflation =....
period of sudden expansion during the very early evolution of the universe triggered by the sudden energy release from the decoupling of the strong and electroweak forces
Electroweak Epoch
weak and electromagnetic forces act as one.
when the moon appears to shrink in size
cosmological principle
the universe is both homogeneous and isotropic
The speed of the rotation and the revolution can change.
not based on celestial cycle but is rather 1/4 of the lunar phase cycle (29.5 days) and there were 7 "planets" known to the ancients and so each day is name for one of the "planets". Sunday- sun, etc.
The point at which an object orbiting the Sun is farthest from the Sun.
Winter Solstice
around December 21- sun farthest south of the equator, shortest day of the year
neap tide
the tide with the least difference between consecutive low and high tides
meteoroids that burn up as they pass through the Earth's atmosphere
Main sequence
90% all stars diagonally on H-R diagram
Milky Way
galaxy in which our solar system resides
Planetary Nebula
the expanding outer shell of a sun like star. This matter is blown away as the core shrinks to become a white dwarf.
Neap Tides
Have the highest low tides and lowest high tides smallest range
How big is the moon
1/4th the diameter of Earth
a state of matter in which atoms have been stripped of their electrons
The determination of a star cluster shows solar type stars (stars with the mass of our Sun) in the process of leaving the main sequence. The ago of this cluster is roughly _______
10 Billion Years
organized ( rule one)
all planetary orbits are nearly circular, all planets orbit sun in same direction, most planets rotate in same direction that they orbit, most planets exhibit similar properties
radio telescope
a device used to detect radio waves from objects in space (p96)
1 of the different shapes of the moon as seen from earth
a galaxy with a blue shift is moving ______ the Earth
Big Bang Theory
The universe started when a particle smaller than an atom exploded into the size of the whole universe in a matter of seconds
A phenomenon in which the spin axis of a body wobbles.
astronomical unit
a measurement for SS distance based on the distance from earth to the sun
Inverse Square law
Any quantity that decreases with the square of the distance between two objects
Ionization refers to
the removal of electrons from the atom
the science that deals with the use of the spectroscope and with spectrum analysis.
C. white dwarf
The order of evolutionary stages of a star like the Sun would be Main Sequence, giant, planetary nebula, and finally:
A. hypernova.
B. neutron star.
C. white dwarf.
D. nova.
E. black hole.
Spring tides occur...
when the sun, moon, and earth line up
lunar Eclipse
What type of Eclipse occurs at a full moon when Earth is directly between the moon and sun?
If the total energy is ______ and the kinetic energy is _____ the orbital velocity, the eccentricity will be 0, and the orbit will be shaped like a ________.
negative/equal to/circle
When matter falls into a super massive black hole, its gravitational potential energy is transformed into t___ e___ then into l___.
thermal energy, light
Ptolemaic System
each planet is assumed to move in a small circle called an epicycle whose center in turn moves in a larger circle called a deferent which is centered approximately on earth
45* above the south point
Looking along the observers meridian from Lincoln at night, you are most likeley to see the planet Mars at ___
The remains of a dying star that has collapsed to the size of Earth and is slowly cooling off; It is at the lower left of the H-R diagram
White dwarfs
An old star cluster in the halo of the Milky Way is generally of what type?
Globular cluster
'Other' features of Mars
Evidence of water flow in the past.
Red Dust on Surface (Iron Oxide-rust)
Cygnus A Radio Galaxy
Radio emitting lobes of either side of the optical image
-Extend 1 million pc
-Largest astronomical objects known
s in Vn, is is a "whirlpool" It is a s[iral pattern first drawn by Lord Rosse. The drawings are in boks. It may have inspired the swirling sky of Starry night.
What is the cause of Zonal belts?
Convection. Warm material rises and cool material sinks.
The Law of Equal Areas
A straight line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times; the speed of a planet is largest when it comes nearest to the sun, and the smallest when it is farthest from the sun
What is the mass-luminosity relationship for main sequence stars?
it is the requirement that a star supports the wieght of its layers by it's internal pressures
a gas that the atoms are packed so close together, the nuclei physically touch.
A neutron Degenerate gas is:
The graph that Henrietta Leavitt made looks like what?
Block RR Lyrae. Top 100 for Luminosity, with 1 pulsation period.
1.5 pulsation period for Cepheids and increasing in luminosity and Pulsation. 300 and up.
The semidetached binary Algol gives rise to the "Algol Paradox" which can be stated as follows:
The less massive star appears to be more evolved
The thick carbon dioxide atmosphere of Venus has prevented re-emission into space of the heat absorbed from sunlight.
Why is the surface of Venus hotter than that of Mercury, even though Mercury is much closer to the Sun?
Newton's 1st Law of motion
1) In the absence of a net force, a body will either remain at rest or remain moving in a straight line at a constant speed.
which is not one of kepler's laws and does not follow from them directly?
the force of attraction between any two objects decreases with the square of the distance between their centers
poor resolution , how do we fix it ? human made radio intfernce
what are the disadvantages of radio telescopes
Alpha Cepheus
the highest point
What causes tides?
full moon rises
at sunset
Search for extraterrestrial intelligence
center of the sun
the search for extraterrestrial intelligence
orbital point nearest the sun
nuclear fussion
the combining of atoms
boundary between Earth and sky
least variation in temperature between day/night
Gas Giants (planets)
-Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
-large, with extended gas envelopes
-mostly H and He
-located far from sun
the atmospheric pressure on the surface of venus is how many times that of earth?
when was the apollo space program
medicine taken internally to kill pathogens but not cells
Eighth Planent from sun
Revolves sun in 164 years
Rotates axis in 19 hrs, 50 mins
Has system of rings
6+ moons
Blue green methane atmosphere containing whirlpools and white clouds of frozen methane
twice-yearly time, each spring and fall, when the Sun is directly over the equator and the number of daylight and nighttime hours are equal worldwide
Venus unusual motion
VERY slow retrograde rotation
frequency of an annular eclipse
7-9 months
lunar maria
The dark-colored, low-lying plains of the Moon, named after the Latin word for "seas" (maria). Because few craters are found on these plains, they are known to be younger than the lunar highlands.
fine dark particles
Jupiter's rings are made of
Kuiper Belt
a doughnut-shaped region that extends from beyond neptune's orbit to about 100 times Earth's distance from the sun
The most elongated of the elliptical galaxies are class:
a magnifier of images of distant objects
measures the average kinetic energy of particles
An imaginary line that passes through earth's center and the North and South poles, about which Earth rotates
a star's ___ determines its core pressure and temperature; therefore determines its fusion rate
igneous plutonic rock with high silica content
Waxing phase
Illuminated portion of moon getting larger
When the angle of insolation is greatest
The brilliant explosion of a dying super giant star.
neutron star
are the remains of high-mass stars
Kepler's 3rd law relates a planet's distance from the Sun and its orbital
Asteroid Belt
most asteroids are located there between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
Lunar Interior
Crust (thinner on side closest to Earth)
Semi-solid outer core
Small Iron (Fe) core
terrestrial planets
earth like planets mostly composed of rock (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars)
Islamic Contributions
8th and 9th Centuries AD
Kept and translated historical records, Developed Algebra
New instruments and techniques, Developed many constellation & star names, Examples: Aldebaran, Algol (Al: "the")
celestial sphere
An imaginary hollow shpere upon which the ancients believed the stars were hung and carried around Earth.
the blocking out of one object in space by another (Sun, Moon)
Mars Jupiter and Saturn retrograde in opposition of
the sun
Isaac Newton
A scientist who showed that all objects in the universe attract each other through gravitational forces; gravity depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them. His laws of gravity helped explain the orbits of the planets around the sun.
Plute and Charon
Neither a terrestrial or jovian planet. Closer to sun than Neptune until 1999. Maybe a truly double planet system.
The circular path that the Sun appears to trace out against the background of stars.
When it is summer in the United States, South America has _______.
Tropic of Cancer
23.5 degrees north of the equator.
vernal equinox
Equal day and night, going from shorter to longer days.
Kelvin temperature scale
A temperature scale using Celsius degrees and based on zero at absolute zero. (p. 107)
shift in an objects position due to the obervers motion
A huge ball of gas, most of it hydrogen
the earth is a planet and it moves around the ______ which has been called an average size star
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atoms
S0 galaxies
Galaxy that shows evidence of a thin disk and a bulge, but which has no spiral arms and contains little or no gas.
Barred spiral
The Milky Way is a ____ _____ galaxy
object whos gravity is so strong that its escape velocity exceeds the speed of light
black hole
spiral density waves
coiled waves of gas compression that move through the galactic disk, squeezing clouds of interstellar gas and triggering the process of star formation as they go
regular cluster (of galaxies)
evenly distributed group of galaxies bound together by mutual gravitational attraction
Imagine that you are building a scale model of the Earth and the Moon. You are going to use a 12-inch basketball to represent the Earth and 3-inch tennis ball to represent the Moon. To maintain the proper distance scale, about how far from the surface of
30 feet
modern (after 1650)
begin to understand physical laws that govern heavenly motion. Important advances in scientific equipment
Superior Conjunction
As seen from a planet that is superior, if an inferior planet is on the opposite side of the Sun, it is in superior conjunction with the Sun.
cepheid variable
a variable star in which changes in brightness are due to alternate contractions and expansions in volume.
Absolute Visual Magnitude is
the apparent magnitude of a star observed from a distance of 10 pc
universal law of gravitation
every mass attracts every other mass through the force called gravity; the strength of the gravitation force attracting any two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses; and, the strength of gravity between two objects decreases with the square of the distance between their centers
Neutron Star and Remnants
A very dense, compact star composed primarily of neutrons.
Annular Eclipse
An event that occurs when the moon in farther from the Earth and the disk of the moon does not completely cover the disk of the sun
Heliocentric model
considers the sun to be the center of the solar system
Evidence for the Big Bang:
1. Expanding Universe: Galaxies are not moving randomly, but uniformaly expanding.
2. Nucleosynthesis: says that once the Universe was hot and dense enough to be a nuclear furnace.
3. Cosmic Microwave Background: The UV photons that escaped after recombination have been expanded down to microwave wavelengths (3K)
4. Fluctuations in the CMB: 1 part in 100,000: need to be small, or the Universe would be too lumpy. Yet need to be there, or the Universe would be a smooth gas and could not form stars and such.
Pluto unusual motion
Unusual motion - due to its elliptical orbit, Pluto is sometimes closer to the Sun than is Neptune.
Emission Line Spectrum
A pattern or series of bright lines superimposed on a dark background
light year
how far light is able to travel in one year
The two known ways to get energy from one place to another are:
Waves and particles.
how much more radeaion flux is emitted by a 200 k object than a 100 k one
2(4 power) = 16
what happens as more matter is pulled into a protostar
tempature and pressure increases
Northern Hemispheres winters are colder than their summers why?
the light from the sun shines more directly on the northern hemisphere during the summer ~the period of sunlight is longer during the summer than during the winter
venus: size, Rotation rate, atmosphere rotation and effects, problems with surface images and how they are obtained, lithosphere and volcanoes
-Size similar to Earth,
-rotates once every 243 Earth days,
-atmosphere rotates faster than planet,
-keeps temperature fairly even on day and night sides,
-veiled by sulfuric acid clouds
-images of surface obtained by radar
-Relatively thin lithosphere, like the earth w/ volcanos that are probably still active
where are most asteroids found
in the asteroid belt between mars and jupiter
A. a mass-transfer binary, with the white dwarf already at 1.3 solar masses
Which of these is the likely progenitor of a type I supernova?
A. a mass-transfer binary, with the white dwarf already at 1.3 solar masses
B. a contact binary, with the neutron star at 2.3 solar masses
C. an evolved red giant which is just starting to make silicon in its core
D. an evolved blue supergiant that is about to experience the helium flash
E. a helium-neon white dwarf
What are superclusters? Give a name of a famous supercluster.
Superclusters are clusters of galaxies that group together. A famous supercluster is called the great wall. Coma cluster is at the neck of the person.
If the laboratory wavelength of a certain line is 600 nm, but we observe it in the spectrum of a star as 594 nm, then
A. the source is approaching us
If the laboratory wavelength of a certain line is 600 nm, but we observe it in the spectrum of a star as 594 nm, then
A. the source is approaching us.
B. the source is getting cooler
C. the source is rotating faster
D. the source is receding from us
E. some of the radiation is absorbed by our atmosphere
An infrared photon has half the frequency of a blue photon. Also....
The infrared photon also has half the energy of a blue photon.
1st law of elliptical orbits (keplers law)
the orbits of the planets are ellipses w/the sun at one focus of the ellipse
the position of our sun on the hr diagram
towards the right of the middle line
The smooth surfaces of the lunar maria were most likely caused by
lava flows in the early history of the Moon.
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