Astronomy Exam Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
our planet
getting bigger
Partial shadow ,
sun is the center
A pattern of stars
moon on Mars;
means panic
zodiac constellations
constellations along the ecliptic
the earths yearlong elliptical orbit
Celestial object
Anything outside Earth's atmosphere.
made first measurements of earth
a collection of star systems
sun's appearent path through the celestial sphere
an average star; middle-aged; absolute magnitude is about average; shines with a yellow star; much closer to Earth than other stars; light from it reaches Earth in about eight minutes; not close to any other stars
most moons, how many..?
saturn 21 moons
Means large and gassy planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.)
reflecting telescope
the largest visible light telescopes
Light Years sun to earth
8 minutes
how many moons does mars have
Despite its thick cloud cover, astronomers can observe the surface of Venus with
the brilliant explosion of a dying supergiant star
earth is farthest away from the sun
(July 4
What scientist is famous for the heliocentric model?
glactic disk
flattened shape, spiral arms, both population 1 and 2 stars, interstellar gas, dusk
Wein's law links
surface temp and wavelength frequency
the region in the solar atmosphere from which most of the visible light escapes into space.
What planet is 9th from the sun?
shorter wavelengths = more or less energy
the force of gravity on an object
- dark, cooler areas on the photosphere, caused by disturbances in sun's magnetic field
Most meteorites originate from ________ .
the asteroid belts
The north-south component of the grid system used to describe the location of an object or point on the celestial sphere.
nuclear fusion
the process by which hydrogen atoms join together to form helium releasing energy
The corona is the coolest region of the Sun.
first correct model of solar and lunar eclipses
Trojan Asteroids orbit ___ at _____ points of Jupiter
sun, Lagrange
The value of the Hubble Parameter is _______ km/sec/MPc
All stars pass through a T-Tauri phase on their way to the Main Sequence line
Terrestrial Planets
rock and metal, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
A small circle riding on a larger circle on which the planet moves. (necessary to explain geocentric retrograde motion)
dark line in the spectrum is called
absorption lines
How many embryo sized moons are there in the solar system?
what can be estimated by only having the color of a star
center of mass
location associated with an object system at which we may regard the entire mass of the system as being concentrated. The point in any isolated system that moves according to Newton's first law of motion.
The distance traveled by light in an interval of time is equal to the speed of light multiplied by...
1 of Jupiter's moons, LARGEST moon in solar system
__________ is how much of a conic section, a circle, ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola varies from being circular.
space probe
Unmanned spacecraft that is sent into space to collect information and transmit it back to earth
galactic cannibalism
The theory that large galaxies absorb smaller galaxies. (p. 296)
Big Bang Theory
States that all matter and energy started out concentrated in a small area and, after a gigantic explosion, matter began to organize into subtonic particles and atoms
Moon Formation
caused from getting hit by a large objest that was hit into earth that made a ring of debris around earth and accreted and formed the moon.
Total eclipse
A solar eclipse during which the Sun is completely hidden by the Moon, or a lunar eclipse during which the Moon is completely immersed in the Earth's Umbra
What type of eclipse is caused by the earths casts a shadow over the moon.
open magnetism
fast winds emerge from regions of what kind of magnetism?
the spinning motion of a planet on its axis
One of the tens of thousands of rocky objects located, for the most part, in a belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
first stage of a star; large cloud of gas and dust that contracts under gravitational force and breaks apart into smaller pieces, each of which might collapse to form a star
What phase of the moon will you see?
Full moon
sidereal time
24 hr time, 1 total spin of Earth
Black Hole
light cannot escape - 6 solar masses and above
Planetary Nebula
An expanding shell of gas that occurs during the later stages of a stars evolution.
A net force acting on an object will always cause a change in the object's _________.
strong nuclear force
holds together protons and neutrons in groups or solo; strongest force in nature; short range
Speed of Light
186,000 mi/secc = constant for speed of light
white dwarf
a star, approximately the size of the earth, that has undergone gravitational collapse and is in the final stage of evolution for low-mass stars, beginning hot and white and ending cold and dark
Oort Cloud
A vast and very distant halo of small icy bodies that surrounds our solar system.
atumnal equinox
one of the two times a year that daylight and night are of equal length
Chromatic Abberation
Tendancy for the lens to focus red and blue light differently, causing images to become blurry
Galaxies intermediate between what and what? and Example?
Galaxies intermediate between spirals and ellipticals. Evidence of this disk and flattened bulge, no gas or dust, known as So or SBO.
moment of inertia
(about an axis) a measure of the inertial resistance of an object to changes in the object's rotational motion about the axis.
The time it takes Earth to complete on orbit.
365.25 days
The _____ the frequency of light, the ______are the photons of which it is composed.
higher, more energetic
how much longer can the sun keep up its energy source
5-6 billion years
Generally speaking, proto-stars approach the Zero-Age Main Sequence line
from the right side of the H-R Diagram
Sunspots are cooler than the surrounding
region on the Sun because
they have unusually strong
magnetic fields
binary accretion theory
a theory of the origin of the Moon that holds that the Moon and the Earth fromed at about the same time out of the same swarm of cloud of material
The Universal Law of Gravitation formula (Fg) is:
Fg = G X (M1)(M2) / d^2
what role does gravity play in the universe
holds everything together, fundamental creative system
What is a pulsar?
A pulsar is a neutron star that beams radiation from the sides
Venus:1) Atmosphere 2) Clouds 3) Rain
1) hot and heavy, carbon dioxide: greenhouse effect
2) Sulfur clouds
3) Sulfuric acid rain
what happens during a solar eclipse
the sun is not visible because the moon's shadow falls on earth
What is the period of repitions of the same configuration for venus?
the synodic period, 584 days
What determines the life cycle of a star?
mass, composition, and the presence of a companion (what it orbits).
How did we come to be?
The matter in our bodies came from the Big Bang, which produced hydrogen and helium. All other elements were constructed from H and He in star and then recycled into new star systems, including our solar system
how long does it take to complete revolution on the suns axis?
about 1 month (25days at equator, 36 days at 80 degree latitude)
stage one of the life cycle of a star
nebula is dust and gas floating in space.
3.26 lightyears
smallest Terrestrial planet
constellation: the sea-goat
speed of light
300,000 KM/S
feeding on living organisms
Bright and Hot
upper left
Gather and focus electromagnetic radiation from stars (main types are refracting reflecting and radio)
a self-luminous, gravitationally bound ball of gas that shines/shined because of nuclear reactions in its core. held together by gravity. the sun is a star.
a positively charged subatomic particle; the antiparticle of the electron
A full shadow is called....
Johannes Kepler
3 laws of planetary motion
infrared, ultraviolet, and high energy telescopes' DESIGN
A quantity that specifies both direction and speed of an object.
Net Force
changes momentum which generally produces acceleraion (velocity)
links different spots of sunspot regions
william herschel in 1781
discovery of uranus
When is the fall equinox
September 21st
everything physical that we know of
of poor quality or inferior workmanship:
# of stars in Milky way
~200 billion
space and all the objects in it
force, pulls every object in the universe toward each other; depends on mass and distance between objects
penumbral eclipse
moon passes through only Earth's penumbra
Inferior planet viewing
when they are in quadrature
Moon's early exterior
light-weight feldspar suggests that sometime in the distant past much of the Moon's exterior - maybe the whole globe - was molten.
Differentiation left the Moon with a low-density "froth" of feldspar some tens of km thick.
=> a waterless magma ocean
Gravitational force
attraction between the sun and planets
An orbiting body's point of closest approach to Earth is called ____.
Earth's atmosphere
the _______ __________ does not interfere with images from the Hubble Space Telescope
The angular distance of a celstrial body above the horizon, measured in degrees. An object that is straight overhead (at the zenith) has an altitude of 90 degrees. An object that is 1/2 way between the horizon and the zenith has an altitude of 45 degrees
The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum
is an object that revolves around another object in space
According to Newtons ______ law, if you double the force acting on a body, the acceleration will double.
Geocentric model
Earth centered, wrong model, planets and sun revolve around earth.
The apparent visual magnitude is a measure of a star's
to maintain the same speed, and same radius, the particle has a centripetal acceleration of magnitude: _______
total lunar eclipse
moon totally dark, faint red/orange color, moon passes into earths umbra
The CNO cycle..
is the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen to form helium operating in the cores of massive stars on the main sequence.
retrograde motion
the apparent westward motion of the planets with respect to the stars
a 'cool' red star might possibly have what spectral class?
Right ascension / hour circles
celestial equivalent of longitude
celestial sphere
an imaginary sphere of very large radius surrounding earth to which the planets, stars, sun, and moon seem to be attached.
But what do you get when He burns?
Direct relationship
a relationship between two factors in which the factors move in the same direction
Shwarschild Radius
Distance from the center of the object
Days are longer than night, the Earth tilts towards the sun.
Circumpolar Constellation
a group of constellations that are visible all year round. Example: Ursa Major(Big Dipper), Ursa Minor(Small Dipper), and Cassiopia
Globular Clusters
A spherical collection of stars that orbits a galactic core as a satellite
the path an object follows as it revolves around another object
big bang
The universe then exploded in what astronomers
The Earth _____________ the Sun.
Revolves around, or orbits.
solar eclipse
occurs when the Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth and casts a shadow over part of Earth
Meaning of temperature
Measurement of the internal energy content of an object
the obscuration of the light of the moon by the intervention of the earth between it and the sun
Geostationary Orbit
an orbit in which a satellite follows the direction of the earth's rotation in such a way that it stays in the same location in the sky
solar nebula theory
disk shaped cloud orbiting around sun, with dust and gas blown away
late stage in the life cycle of a massive star in which the core heats up, heavy elements from by fusion, and the star expands; can eventually explode to form a supernova
Recent measurement of the variations of the cosmic background radiation suggest that the curvature of the Universe is ______.
Flat (i.e., no curvature)
of Moons orbit, the two points i the Moon's orbit where it crosses the ecliptic plane.
When was the first direct image of an exoplanet taken? How many images are there?
Full moon
Phase 5-The whole near side of the Moon is in sunlight
God does not throw dice
einstein's comment on quantum mechanics
Bound orbits
orbits in which an object goes around another object over and over again
Infrared Spectra
is a highley luminous at low temps because it has a large surface area
Absolute Magnitude
The brightness of the stars if they were seen from the same distance.
Cresent Moon
appearance of the moon when less than half of the body's hemisphere is visible from earth.
Radio telescope
Uses a large parabolic dish to reflect radio waves into a focus
Spiral Galaxy
has a bulge in the middle and arms that spiral out like a pinwheel, new stars form in the arms, arms slowly rotate around the center
a jet of hot gases that goes from the photosphere into the solar atmosphere. seen at the limb of the sun
caused when coronal mass ejections encounter the earth's magnetosphere with the right magnetic alignment
what causes intense, non-recurrent geomagnetic storms?
Kepler's First Law
each planet's path around the Sun i san ellipse, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse
Law of conservation energy - energy can be t____ from one object to another, or t____ from one type of e___ to another, but the total a_____ of energy is conserved.
transferred, transformed, energy, amount.
Kepler first law
States that the orbit of each planet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus
Hydrogen & helium.
Name the two elements that make up stars.
Mass luminosity relation
the higher the mass the greater the luminosity
What are the Moon's surface features named after?
ancient astronomers and scientists
Kepler's Second Law
As a planet moves around its orbit, it sweeps out equal areas in equal times: moving faster near perihelion, slower near aphelion
thermal gloves and boots
that have heating elements that run on rechargeable batteries were adapted from a spacesuit design for the Apollo astronauts
Winter Solstice
1. one of two points where the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator
2. the day on which the sun appears at this location, marking the first day of winter (about December 22 in the Northern Hemisphere and June 21 in the Southern Hemisphere)
New Moon Phase
only phase where the moon and sun are in the same direction in the sky (next to each other), we "view" the moon's night side ... but in actuality, the moon seems invisible
What is the surface temp of Venus?
864F (Temp should be around 300)
Will this always be true about Polaris? Has it always been true in the past?
No. The Earth's procession changes over a 26,000-year cycle, so a few thousand years ago (and a few thousand years in the future), Polaris was (will be) farther away from the north celestial pole. As it gets farther, it appears to make a bigger and bigger circle around the north celestial pole (which would be empty).
The constellations of the zodiac ___
Lie along the path of the sun.
According to our theory of solar system formation, why do all the planets orbit the Sun in the same direction and in nearly the same plane?
The laws of conservation energy and conservation of angular momentum ensure that any rotating, collapsing cloud will end up as a spinning disk.
J. Kepler's 2nd law
- A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
The layers of our sun from innermost to outermost are
Core, radiative zone, convective zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona
The mass of our Galaxy is best found by
measuring the rotation of the galaxy
What are the necessary conditions for a solar eclipse?
1. New Moon (ocurrs about once a month)2. Needs to cross the Earth's orbital plane at the same time that it is new moon
expanding, while 50 +/- 15 percent of astronomers believe it is contracting. (The numbers after the +/- are the margins of error for each percentage). What can you conclude about the opinions of the astronomers?
We cannot say: the poll results are the same within the margins of error of each choice.
Each of the following lists two facts. Which pair of facts can be used with Newton's version of Kepler's third law to determine the mass of the Sun?
Earth is 150 million km from the Sun and orbits the Sun in one year.
/ 176

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online