Astronomy Final Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
photon
E2-E1
Schmidt-Cassegrain focus
...
il pianeta
planet
Sirius
Alpha Canis Major
Mercury's Motion
resonance rotation
refraction
the bending of light
wien
the hotter the bluer
SETI
the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intellegence
aurora
suns wind hits upper atmosphere
Astronomy
The study of the universe
Luminosity of sun
3.86 10^26 W
Age of sun
5 billion years
Heavy Bombarddment
Leftover planetesimals bombarded other objects in the late stages of solar system formation.
Mercury
no atmosphere, large iron-core, hot enough to melt lead and tin
corona
layer above the chromosphere that extends into space for several million miles, temperature reaches 1 million Kelvin
quasars
very bright centers of distant galaxies.
atmosphere
mean pressure at the Earth's surface
Blackholes
These collapsed stars emit no detectable energy because their escape speed is more than the speed of light.
supercluster
A large conglomeration of galaxy clusters and galaxy groups; typically, more than 100 million light-years (Mly) in size and containing tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of galaxies. Compare galaxy cluster and galaxy group.
meteors
meteoroids that enter the Earth's atmosphere and become hot enough to glow
proton
A positively charged atomic particle contained in the nucleus of an atom. The nucleus of a hydrogen atom. (p. 104)
Crater
a bowl-shaped depression formed by the impact of a meteorite or bomb
The planet that moves the fastest around the sun is
mercury
planet
A nonluminous object, larger than a comet or asteroid, that orbits a star
Doppler Shift
spectral lines actually shift to higher or lower wavelength due to relative radial velocity between observer and star
An icy leftover planetismal orbiting the sun
is...
a comet!
meteoroid
rock or icy fragment moving through space
spiral galaxies
dense clouds of dust and gas.
Ptolemy
ancient scientist who said earth was the center of the universe
Nebula
Interstellar cloud of dust with some gases mixed in
ellipse
a closed curve obtained by cutting completely through a circular cone with a plane
Ptolemaic System
Geocentric model to explain retrograde motion
axis
an imaginary line that passes through the center of the north and south poles, about which earth rotates
dwarf planet
has not cleared its neighborhood
is not a satellite
a few million light years
distance between galaxies
Aristotle
ideas came from Eudoxus, believed that the earth was the center of the universe, the sun and planets revolved around it, universe made up of 55 celestial spheres, each sphere's natural motion was rotation, outermost sphere was stars, prime mover that caused stars rotation,
Meridian
the semicircle in THE SKY extending from N. Horizon, through the zenith, to the S horizon
electrons
an elementary particle that is a fundamental constituent of matter, having a negative charge of 1.602 × 10−19 coulombs, a mass of 9.108 × 10−31 kilograms, and spin of ½, and existing independently or as the component outside the nucleus of an atom.
solar pulsations
cause the sun's surface to be corregated
sidereal month
earth, moon, and star are all aligned
periodic table
a listing of the chemical elements according to their properties created by d mendeleev
light-year
the distance that light ravels in one year, about 9.5 million million kilometers
Planetary Nebula
A nebulosity surrounding a dying star, consisting of material expelled by the star
Keplers law of planetary motion were developed to explain whose data?
Trycho Brahe
venus
second planet to the sun, rotates in opposite direction, atmoshere so heavy it could crush a human
apoapse/apoastron
-The point in the orbit where the planet is most distant from the star
turbulence
___ causes the "twinkling" that we see in stars
How long is a full tide cycle?
25 hours
quasar is a particularly bright active g___ n____.
galactic nucleus.
Binary Star
a star tha revolves around another star.
Coronal Holes
Magnetic field lines are open where material can be blown out of sun into space allowing material to escape
Coronal mass ejection
huge gas bubbles threaded with magnetic field lines that are ejected from the sun over several hours.
Tides?
daily changes in the level of the ocean
earth rotates fully on its axis every
24 hours
Parallax
the apparent change in position of an object when you look at it from different places.
what are the superior planets?
mars, jupiter, and saturn
hertzsprung russell diagram
the graph showing the absolute magnitude plotted against the surface temperature for a group of stars.
religious and ritual uses
lakota sioux sacred hoop ceremonial site, celestial alignments of Egyptian and Mayan sacred structures, Inca laid out their empire as a reflection of the heavens
planetary nebula stage.
Stars gradually lose mass as they become white dwarfs during the
neap tide
a tide with the least distance between high and low tides
Starburst galaxy
A bright galaxy in which many new stars are forming.
Solar eclipse
when the moon comes between the earth & sun and occurs only at new moon phase
sunspot
a dark area of the photosphere of the sun that is cooler that the surrounding areas and that has a strong magnetic field
Red Shift
the change in the wavelength of light due to an object moving away from the observer.
How old is the sun now
5 billion years old
A technique to measure the distances of galaxies is s___ c____. we can determine distance by measuring its apparent b____.
standard candling, brightness
gas seepage, too warm for liquid
how venus's atmosphere formed
light year
the distance that light travels in a vacuum in 1 year
black hole
An object whose gravity is so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape
white dwarf
small, dense remains of a low or medium mass star. They are hot but dim.
What are reflecting telescopes and what are their strengths and deficiencies?
Mirrored Telescopes. Their deficiencies include; Sagging, Image is infront of mirror, Max Diameter ~10M.
which of the following has the longest wavelength:
red light, blue light, ultraviolet radiation, radio waves, or xrays
radio waves
What position is Earth in January?
faces away from the sun.
Any electromagnetic wave
Which waves do NOT need to travel through a medium?
Time Zone
The length of time it takes foe a planet to make one complete revolution around the Sun.
Kepler's 2nd law
a planet should move at its greatest speed when closest to the sun
solstice
the two days of the year on which the sun reaches its greatest distance north or south of the equator. June 21st is the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, and winter solstice in the souther Hemisphere. December 21st is the Winter Solstice in the North and Summer Solstice in the south.
apparent daily motion
the every day rotation and spinning of the earth
first quarter
when you can see half of the sunlit side of the moon
velocity dispersion method
A method of finding a galaxy's mass by observing the range of velocities within the galaxy. (p. 291)
the local sky
stnading on the Earth, we can only see half of our sky at any instant, one half stretches overhead to the Horizon, other half is below the Horizon
Astronomical Unit (AU)
the distance from the Earth to the Sun (1.496 X 10^11 meters)
what is a solstice
sun is farthest north or south of equator
Suppose you use the Southern Cross to determine that the south celestial pole appears 40 degrees above your horizon. Then you must be located at _________.
latitude 40 degrees south
Spacecraft: Viking 1 and 2
Space probes sent to Mars to photograph Mars from Orbit
- landed and studied surface of Mars
- searched for life on Mars
Name the Galilean moons of Jupiter and explain why they're called "Galilean".
Ganymede , Io, Europa, Callisto
They're called Galiean because Galileo Galilei first discovered them with his telescope in 1610 in Italy.
wave nature of light
light can be bent and refracted, it is the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum
frequency* wavelength= velocity of light
The Cosmic Microwave Background was emitted: (a) about 10 to the -35 seconds after the big bang. (b) minutes after the big bang. (c) when the temperature of the universe was about 3000 K. (d) when the temperature of the universe was 2.7 K.
(c) when the temperature of the universe was about 3000 K.
Earth is axis is tilted as it revolves around the Sun.
Why does Earth experience seasons?
how does a 1.2 solar mass white dwarf compare to a 1.0 solar mass white dwarf
it has a smaller radius
What happens to the rock surrounding the meteoroid?
It is pulverized to a much greater depth.
What are the Statts for Small and Large Magellanic Clouds? 3
1. Pair of nearby, irregular galaxies orbiting the Milky Way.
2. Contains lots of gas and dust, may have been disrupted by the tidal forced of the Milky Way.
3. Visible from the Southern Hemisphere.
we take results from a spacecraft that shows how much their apparent position shifts from different angles
to find the distance to the nearest stars
If two stars A and B have the same surface temperature, yet star A has a lower luminosity than star B, then
A must be smaller than B
How long does it take the Moon to orbit the Earth?
It takes a MONTH for the Moon to orbit the Earth
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