astronomy final vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Summer Solstice
Venus: Radius
6000 km
sulfuric acid clouds
graph of spectra discovers...
edwin hubble,
who discovered galaxies?
photosphere is not uniform
gas in interior is hotter
bright area 1,000 km in size
last about 10 minutes
think lava lamp
statement widely accepted by scientists to be true
the universe is mostly
empty space
the layer below the photosphere
Term meaning "Of the sky"
to confuse unintentionally or ignorantly; jumble:
E - energy of a photon
an optical device for projecting images of celestial bodies and other astronomical phenomena onto the inner surface of a hemispherical dome
A natural satelite that revolution around(orbit) a planet.
the layer of unconsolidated rocky material covering bedrock.
venus has how many moons?
no moons
the range of wavelengths of electromagnetic wave
that move around on the surface.
rapid process heaviest elements formed during the 15 minutes of the SN blast free neutrons are captured by nuclei to form the heaviest elements -> thus formed at death of star
the phenomenon exhibited by wave fronts that, passing the edge of an opaque body, are modulated, thereby causing a redistribution of energy within the front: it is detectable in light waves by the presence of a pattern of closely spaced dark and light ban
giant molecular cloud
an interstellar cloud composed primarily of molecular gas and dust, having hundreds of thousands of solar masses
he maximum deviation from a wave's undisturbed or relaxed position
motion of starscirling the north star due to earth rotaion
orbital period of pluto = _ years
Electromagnetic wave
Light is one type of ____________
moon's radius
1737 or 1/4 of the Earth
Cosmological Principle
Two important assumed properties of the universe:
True on large scales.
Homogeneous: generally the same in all places.
Isotropic: the same in all directions.
galactic disk
an immense, circular, flattened region containing most of our galaxy's luminous stars and interstellar matter
Elliptical galaxies
look like round flattened balls, contain little gas or dust, so new stars are not forming
autumnal equinox
september 21st or start of fall
Eruption on the solar surface, visible during total solar eclipse
Hadron Epoch
Creation of protons and neutrons continued for about 10-^4 seconds
Temperature drops below 10^13 K, and protons and neutrons are no longer produced in pairs
answer is read...what is an organic molecule based on? Why? ......Carbon atoms. They can form the basic building blocks of life as we know it, such as amino acids and nucleotide bases.
The study of objects outside Earth's atmosphere.
REVIEW: Neutron stars-Composition-Mass-Radius-Rotational speed-Density-Magnetic field
NeutronsVERY HEAVYVERY SMALLVERY FAST (once it compacts)VERY DENSEHIGH B FIELD (once compact)
proton-proton chain
In the proton-proton chaing of thermonuclear fusion reactions four hydrogen nuclei and two electrons are consumed to produce one helium-4 nucleus, two neutrinos and pure energy in the form of six gamma ray photons.
One year
the Earth revolution around the sun takes 3651/4 days.
240,000 miles
miles the moon is from the sun
observable portion of sun, most of the energy that reaches earth originates here. predominate features include sunspots and granulation
spring tide
a tide with the greatest difference between low and high tides
the suns rays converge in a double _lens
Arc Angle
The measurement of the angle between two objects or two parts of the same object.
Eastern quadrature
90 east from earth, rise at noon
black hole
the remains of an extremely massive star pulled into a small volume by the force of gravity (p115)
from what kind of asteroids do most meteorites come from
A large cluster of billions of stars and clouds of gas and dust held together by gravity.
a day
period of one rotation round it's axis
T/F: Chandra is to X-rays what Hubble is to visible light in space observatories.
reflecting telescope
newtonian- eyepiece placed on side of tube
Cassegranian-light is aimed through hole where eye piece is located
The part of a shadow surrounding the darkest part.
Dark Matter
Matter that does not give off electromagnetic radiation
celestial equator
the circle where the Earth's equator, if extended outward into space, would intersect the celestial sphere; circle midway between north and south celestial poles; divides the celestial sphere into northern and southern halves; every point on the circle is 90 degrees from both celestial poles
focal length
Distance between the focal point and the mirror or lens. For spherical mirrors, focal length is equal to one-half the radius of curvature.
prime focus telescope
reflecting telescope where you stick your head in. problem: your head gets in the way
a natural body that revolves around a planet such as a moon
Elliptical Galaxy
the most common type of galaxy, which looks like a flattened ball; has many stars, but small amounts of gas and dust, because of the lack of gas and dust, no new stars can form, so almost all stars are old
The third planet from the sun and is 149.6 million kilometers from the sun. this is an astronomical unit. Period of revolution is 365.26 days and period of rotation is 24 hours.
A loop of gas that protrudes from the sun's surface, linking parts of sunspot regions
Lunar Eclipse
The blocking of sunlight to the moon that occurs when Earth is directly between the sun and moon.
solar eclipse
when the moon passes directly in front of the Sun
the amount of space taken up by an objest
stars that appear to be in groups when viewed from earth
Tells you how bright a star is. What you see.
Closer= brighter.
Negatives are the brighter ones; sun=-26
a line running east and west along the Earth; a coordinate of the terrestial system
the most luminous standard candles for measuring distances of clusters of galaxies are the
giant elliptical galaxies
Frame of Reference
a coordinate system within which an observer measures positions and motions
if the moon rises tonight at 7 pm, then tomorrow night it will rise at ____
the bending of light as it passes from one material to another; a way to gather and focus light
partial lunar eclipse
part of the full moon will pass through the umbra (shows earth round)
angular momentum
a measure of how much energy an object has stored in its rotation and/or revolution
Prediction of Big Bang
Expansion of the universe shifted the initially high energy radiation in the universe to longer and longer wavelengths
Cosmological redshift
The Big Bang predicted that the universe should be "hissing" (static)
Coming from all directions
Follows "black body" curve
Temperature about 3 K (we now know it is 2.7 K)
Self propagating star formation?
Shock waves caused by star formation and evolution trigger a new round of star formation.
describe a solar eclipse
the moon passes directly between the sun and the earth and blocks our view of the sun
Newtonian reflector
Image is relected out of the side of the tube by a flat secondary mirror, most popular of the reflector designs.
T or F. The sun will begin its next core burning stage explosively.
Gas giants
The name given to the first four outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, composed of gas
waning moon
the moon at any time after full moon and before new moon (so called because its illuminated area is decreasing).
Alan Shepard
the 1st man to be put into space by the U.S.
Reasons for seasons
Because the earth is at a tilt which causes longer time in the sun which then makes it warmer which creates summer.
the sun converts mass into energy through nuclear fusion, mass allows for billions of years of shine
why does the sun shine?
What natural barrier must be overcome for two protons to collide and fuse together?
C. electrostatic repulsion
What natural barrier must be overcome for two protons to collide and fuse together?
A. gravity
B. dark energy
C. electrostatic repulsion
D. nuclear energy
E. degenerate electron pressure
Super Massive Black Hole
1,000 Msun or more that resides in the center of a galaxy, and whose gravity powers AGN
Jupiters great red spot
a giant storm twice as wide as the entire planet earth. Winds circulate around a high pressure region
The closer and larger two objects are
the greater the force of gravity.
What is a gas tail?
Vapor that points away from the sun at all times.
Barred Spiral galaxies stats? 2
1. Similar to spiral except for a bar of stellar and interstellar matter through the center.
2. Recent evidence suggests that our Milky Way is barred spiral.
What three observations create a fixed standard solar model?
1. The solar constant
2. The sun's radius
3. The surface composition
Nebular Theory of Solar System Formation
- start with cold cloud of gas & dust
- push - so part of the nebula becomes denser than another part of the cloud
- Everything starts to fall towards the denser part. (collapses)
- Conservation of Energy (hotter) & Conservation of Angular Momentum (spins faster)
If a wave's frequency doubles, its wavelength
B. is halved
If a wave's frequency doubles, its wavelength
A. is also doubled
B. is halved
C. is unchanged, as c is constant
D. is now four times longer
E. it depends on the altitude
Keplers second law, which states that as a planet moves around its orbit it sweeps out equal areas in equal times, means that
A) A planet travels faster when it is nearer to the sun and slower when it is farther from the sun.
The star Wolf 1061 has a parallax of 2.34 arcseconds, while the star Ross 652 has a parallax of 1.70 arcseconds. What can you correctly conclude?
E. Wolf 1061 must be closer to Earth
The star Wolf 1061 has a parallax of 2.34 arcseconds, while the star Ross 652 has a parallax of 1.70 arcseconds. What can you correctly conclude?
A. both stars are outside the Milky Way galaxy
B. Wolf 1061 must be brighter than Ross 652
C. Wolf 1061 must be larger than Ross 652
D. Ross 652 must be closer to Earth
E. Wolf 1061 must be closer to Earth
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