Astronomy Practice Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
lunar highlands
oldest lunar feature
Rigorous statistical tests, conducted under controlled conditions by acknowledged scientists and mathematicians, have uncontestedly proven the validity of astrology.
False
The great contribution of Copernicus to medieval astronomy was the suggestion that the planets, including the Earth, revolve around the Sun.
True.
Planets whose orbits lie outside the Earth's orbit appear to go backwards near the time of opposition.
True.
The present picture of the solar system is contained in the three laws of planetary motion established by
Kepler.
helium
The sun's energy results form the conversion of hydrogen into:
Venus
the high temperatures of this planet are associated with the greenhouse affect
The first person known to have looked at the heavens through a telescope was
Galileo.
The Greeks developed the idea that the sky had depth, with some celestial objects being farther away than others, by understanding
eclipses.
solar wind
streams of atomic nuclei, protons, and electrons emitted from the sun
Aristotle thought that
motion in the heavens involves uniform circular motion
Ptolemy and Copernicus both
used uniform circular motion to explain planetary motion
Between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance, the writings of classical Greek astronomers were preserved, and new astronomical observations added, primarily by
Islamic scholars
The length of daylight on the moon is
2 weeks
neutron star
stars that are composed of matter in which electrons have been squeezed into the nucleus of the atom
main sequence
most stars are in this stage of evolution
Remember that a star rises and sets 4 minutes earlier each day. If a star sets at midnight tonight, when will it set one month from now?
10 p.m.
If the Sun is north of the celestial equator, it will rise _____ of due east as seen from the northern hemisphere and _____ of due east as seen from the southern hemisphere.
north; north
The reason that the sidereal and synodic periods of a planet differ is
the revolution of the Earth
what are the rings of saturn composed of?
small/individual particles or moonlets
Aristarchus estimated the relative distances to the Sun and the Moon by observing the
angle between the quarter Moon and the Sun in the sky.
A superior planet is a planet
whose orbit is larger than Earth's orbit
What are key elements of Kepler's first two laws of planetary motion?
Two of the other answers are correct
Galileo demonstrated that when a heavy and a light body are dropped at the same instant, and the objects are such that the effect of air resistance on each object is equal,
they fall exactly at the same rate.
The sidereal period of the Moon is
its period of revolution relative to the stars
Retrograde motion of a planet can be described as a temporary reversal of the planet's
usual apparent motion compared to the stars.
The motions of the planets compared to the stars were harder to explain in ancient times than the motions of the Sun and Moon because
the Sun and Moon do not undergo retrograde motion.
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