Astronomy Quiz VOCABULARY Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Rings
Saturn
protostar
new star
elliptical galaxy
ellipse-shaped galaxy
Gemini
constellation: the twins
Mercury: Escape Speed
4.3 km/s
pathogen
a disease causing micro-organism
Moon's Unusual Motion
Synchronous rotation.
Celestial sphere
imaginary globe around earth
Radiative Energy
energy carried by light
Moon's Orbital Period:
27.3 day period
petroglyph
drawing or carving on rock
sidereal day
23hr and 56 min
NGC
New General Catalogue (Nebulae and star clusters)
wavelength
distance between crests of a wave
photon
A discrete unit of electromagnetic energy.
Hubble's constant
Constant of proportionality between the velocities of remote galaxies and their distances. The slope of the line on the hubble diagram
ptomley
Brahe's solar system most closely resembles those of ___.
corona
ionized gases escape the gravitational pull of the sun and stream toward Earth at high speeds, producing the SOLAR WIND
Solar wind
Constant stream of electrically charged particles (protons and electrons)
epicycles
movements of planets in perfect circle,
attentive
characterized by or giving attention; observant:
Star
any celestial body visible from the Earth at night
Orbit
earhts path as it revolution around the sun is called orbit.
Solar Eclipse
This happens when the Sun-Moon-Earth are in a direct line (in that order).
Maria
dark flat areas caused by lava flows
circumpolar
stars and constellations that never go below the horizon
star trails
earths rotation creates the apparant motion of stars EVIDENCE OF EARTHS ROATION
Greenhouse Effect
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
Recently there has been much more heating of the earth which has lead to ice caps melting
Various shapes of Galaxies
elliptical, irregular, or spiral
evection
The only perturbation of the moon's orbit that was large enough to be noticed by ancients is the ____.
brightness and temperature
the hertzsprung-russell diagram graphs stars'...
supernova
the brilliant burst of light that follows the collaspe of the iron core of a massive star.
solstace
when the northern or southern most point on earth receives the most sun because the earth is tilted toward the sun
geocentric
The earliest models of the solar system followed the teachings of the Greek philosopher Aristotle ( 384- 322 B. C.) and were ___________, meaning that Earth lay at the center of the universe and all other bodies moved around it.
heliocentric
geocentric
Alpha Centauri is a __________ class star.
G
The moon's orbital point of farthest approach to the Earth is called
Apogee
partial solar
surrounding region of totality is a larger area that falls within the moons penumbral shadow, only part of sun blocked from view
light is a wave
electro-magnetic wave, can travel through empty space
The Great Nebula in Orion
is an emission nebula
jovian
far from sun, large, mostly liquid and gas, great mass, fast rotation, rings, low density, dense atmosphere, and many moons
sunspots
sunspots grow and die in a cyclic pattern and in a certain location. they form from its magnetic fields, spots are in pairs with two different polarities (north and south) sunspots change their polarities with time and their magnetic cycle is 22 years
synodic period
rotation from one position in relation to a planet to the same position in relation to that planet (over 360 degrees because the planet moves)
Uranus
Planet that is seventh closest to the Sun. It is a gas planet and is the 3rd largest in our solar system. It multiple moons, 21 of them are named and six are unnamed. Its largest is Titania. It's revolution is 84 years and it's rotation is 17 hours and 15 minuets. It's temperature is about -355 degrees F. It's atmosphere is composed of 2% methane, 15% helium, and 83% hydrogen. It's surface is gas, but has some ice patches.
Failures in becoming a star is called?
Brown Dwarf
Astronomical Unit
The average distance between Earth and the sun, about 149.6 million kilometers
famous planetary nebula
helix nebula; in Aquarius; no M#
second of arc
1/60 of a minute of arc
Spectroscope
an instrument used to split light by using a diffraction grating, scientist use this to see the spectrums of galaxies and to determine that the universe is expanding
mars plate tectonics
starting the formation of plates (valles mariners id a huge rift valley) the planet cooled to rapidly and the process stopped
project out into space like broken rubber bands, and these particles streaming outwards cause solar wind
coronal holes
galaxy
A huge group of single stars, star systems, star clusters, dust, and gas bound together by gravity
rotation
the spinning motion of a planet about its axis
Brown Dwarfs
Never become stars because they don't have enough mass to collapse properly
Brightness decreases as…
the inverse square of a distance
satellite
a natural body that revolves around a planet; a moon.
meteor
A meteor is the streak of bright light that can be seen from Earth when a meteorite enters the atmosphere.
Equinox
The two days of the year on which neither hemisphere is tilted toward or away from the sun.
neutron star
collapsed core of a supernova that can shrink to about 20 km in diameter and contains only neutrons in the dense core
ptolemy
thought earth was in the center of the solar system
stellar occultation
the obstruction of the light from a star when a solar system body passes between the star and the observer
eclipsing binary
a star system in which one star periodically blocks the light from another
Wave Cloud (Kelvin-Hemholz Instability on Jupiter)
-The Stratosphere moves faster relative to the troposphere, causing stress to the gases at the mixing point or the "shear" (due to the outer parts of Jupiter's atmosphere moving faster than inner parts)
-The boundaries start to mix
-Form a breaking wave
-Eventually form whirlpools
New moon
Phase 1-when the Moon is between the Earth and the Sun, and we cannot see the Moon in the night sky
speed of light
relativity applies to what speed limit on the cosmos?
Solar nebula
a flattened, rotating disk of gas and dust from which the planets formed
Magnetic Force
a force associated with, or caused by, the relative motion of charges
Sidereal Time
The time kept the Sun's location in the sky is ________ ____.
Autumnal Equinox
date on which the sun crosses the celestial equator moving southward, occurring on or near September 22nd.
magnitude
a measure of brightness in a star or other celestial object
Sidereal period
True orbital period of a planet, must be calculated
Cosmic Background Radiation
in 1964 Amo Penzias and Robert Wilson detected faint radiation coming from all directions in space; it is left over energy from the big bang
Constellations
a group of stars that forms a shape or pattern
reconnection of magnetic loops
what is a plausible explanation for heating the million degree corona?
Moon Phase
One of the shapes the moon seems to have as it orbits Earth.
How to galaxies move - t_____ us or a______
towards, away
four principle phases of the moon
new moon,full moon,1st quarter moon,3rd quarter moon
Winter Solstice
December 21st
When is the shortest day of the year?
Imagine yourself in space moving at a speed of 0.1c in some direction I'll call North. What would be the MWB temperature in the East direction?
Unchanged, 2.725 K
The average distance between Sun and Earth is?
AU or Astronomical Unit
Kepler's Second Law
As a planet moves around its orbit, it sweeps out equal areas in equal times: moving faster near perihelion, slower near aphelion
Milky Way Galaxy
Our Sun and solar system are part of this galaxy.
What is meant by wave/particle duality in dealing with light?
They show characteristics of both.
1st quarter moon
a phase of the moon that comes after a waxing crescent and before a waxing gibbous that is lit up on the right half of the moon that we can see.
What does neutron degeneracy pressure do?
halts the collapse of the stellar remnant in neutron stars/black holes.
An eclipsing binary is observed along a line of sight contained in the orbital plane. If the components A and B have the SAME surface temperature but A is bigger than B, then
the eclipses have the same depth
Which jovian planet does not have rings?
All of the jovian planets have rings.
the fourth stage of the cycle, can see three fourths of the moon
What is a waxing gibbous
The layers of our sun from innermost to outermost are
Core, radiative zone, convective zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona
What are the reasons for the seasons?
1. We're tlted 23.5 verticaly so we'll have 1 hemisphere tilting towards the sun and 1 tilting away. The places facing the sun will be warmer thus making warmer seasons.
2. The length of daylight varies. Places warmed up for longer will have warmer seasons.
3. The angle of the sun's rays. Some places get direct sunlight, and some get indirect sunlight. Places with direct sunlight will be warmer and have warmer seasons.
What is accretion and when did it occur?
(4.6 Billion years ago) Earth was bombarded with interplanetary debris which made it VERY HOT.
A star expands as it gets older.
what happens to a star as it gets older?
What is the difference between a bound orbit and an unbound orbit around the Sun?
An object on a bound orbit follows the same path around the Sun over and over, while an object on an unbound orbit approaches the Sun just once and then never returns.
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