Astronomy Test 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Newtonian focus
Winged Horse
the largest planet
vernal equinox
march 21
Moon phases
Newmoon, fullmoon,waning cresent,waxing cresent,waning gibbous,waxing gibbous
earths revolution causes
stellar parallax
longest rays of visible light
n. hemisphere is more volcanic
Celestial sphere
imaginary globe around earth
G stars
5,000 - 6,000 K
photosphere, coroa
Parts of the sun
use diffracting gratings to separate the various colors of light into spectra which are then recorded with a detector such as a CCD.
a heavy positively charged nuclear particle
opaque energy; transported to surface by convection
This planet has the tallest mountain
heating via the transfer of electromagnetic waves
largest layer of the sun's atmosphere
first Greek profess a sun-centered universe
The imaginary line that separates Earth into the northern and southern hemispheres.
Small wavelength, high frequency vs opposite
Elliptical Galaxy
round or oval shaped, older stars
nearby shift from one object to another
When universe was created, it grew rapidly early on driven by a gravitational field (big bang)
any portion of a meteoroid that reaches earth's surface
The relative temperatures of two stars can be found by comparing their ___________.
pseudoscience based on the belief that the configuration of the starts and the planets determine events.
in casanova; no m#; (visible, x-rays, IR, radio)
the phenomenon, the streak of light. they enter the earth's atmosphere and collide with particles and heat up and get vaporized. "shooting star"
Edwin Hubble
HST named after him. Mt.Wilson Observatory. Galaxies and nebulae. Universe expanding.
the point on the celestial sphere located directly overhead from an observer
Magellanic clouds is an example of what type of galaxy?
average star
red giant, planetary nebula, white dark or black dwarf
A rapidly spinning neutron star that emits rapid pulses of radio and optical energy
Motion toward
blue shift, higher frequency, shorter wavelength
one of over a thousand known extragalactic objects, starlike in appearance and having spectra with characteristically large redshifts, that are thought to be the most distant and most luminous objects in the universe.
extremely dense point at center of a black hole
fourth planet from the Sun; has polar ice caps, a thin atmosphere, and a reddish appearance caused by iron oxide in weathered rocks and soil
prime focus
the point in a reflecting telescope where the primary mirror focuses light.
moon phase
the different shapes that the moon appears to have.
system of billions of stars, gases and dust
Three Laws of Motion, & Law of Gravity
waxing gibbous
waxing period when more than one quarter but less than half of the lighted side of the moons surface can be seen
Giro Bike Helmet
NASA technology to develop a lightweight helmet for more speed, improved safety, and vents for cooling
standard unit of power (1 joule per second)
metal oxide
formed when a metal reacts with oxygen
length of a stars life depends on
its mass
more than half but less than fully illuminated.
Hydrostatic Equilibrium
The condition in which the weight bearing down at a particular point within an object is balanced by the pressure within the object
H-R Diagram
a chart that shows the relationship between star temp and brightness, most stars fall along the middle of the chart called the main sequence stars
a small circle upon which a planet moved on the bigger circle (deferent) around the Earth according to the Ptolemaic model of the solar system
define universe
all of space and everything in it
Speed of Light
300,000 km/s or about 186,000 miles/s
black body radiation
radiation emitted by a hypothetical perfect radiator. The spectrum is continuous, and the wavelength of maximum emission depends on the body's temperature
Light year
the distance that light travels in a vacuum in 1 year
Doppler Effect
A change in wavelength due to motion of the source.
Caused by the rotating of the Earth. - Winter = Northern hemisphere tilted closer to sun - Summer = Northern hemisphere tilted farther from sun.
Saturns Rings:
A, B brightest. C visible from Earth. D is inside C. F, G, E is outside A. Visible only with spacecraft.
Solar System
the sun with the celestial bodies that revolve around it in its gravitational field
Phases of the moon
Full moon, waxing gibbous, first quarter, waxing crescent, new moon, waning crescent, third quarter, waning gibbous.
apparent magnitude
a measure of the brightness of light from a star or other object as seen from Earth.
Protons and Neutrons are found in the ________; the ____ of the atom.
nucleus, center
evidence of the big bang
Hubbe's law, cosmic background radiation, redshift
The apparent path of the sun over the stars once per-year.
spiral galaxy
a large group of stars that together make a spiral shape such as the milky way
Main Sequence
More than 90 percent of all stars, including the sun,
the rise and fall of ocean water that occurs every 12.5 hours.
spring tides
What does the color of a star tell us?
protoplanetary disk
a disk of material surrounding a young star or protostar that may eventually form planets
how stars are born
stars are born inside nebulas; they form when they are so large and heavy that they collapse on themselves and a protostar is made1
Spring Equinox
Occurs March 21 to 22. Length of day is same everywhere., the Earth's tilt is sideways toward the Sun and the hours of daylight are the same in both.
two kinds of planets and examples
terrestrial (earthlike) = mercury, venus, earth, mars.
jovian (jupiter like) = jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune
a type of radio telescope
Know the different types of telescopes: VLA
distance from the Sun to nearest star (Alpha Centauri complex)
4 lt. years
Why sunspots dark?
They are cooler than rest of sun because magnetic fields suppress gas
The Earth is tipped by how many degrees?
23 1/2 degrees
Mid Ocean Ridges
long mountain ranges right at the top there is a deep (Rift Valley)Magma comes up from mantle into the rift and outFew inches per yearOcean floors - basalts - mantle.
The radius of the event horizon of a black hole is
the Schwarzschild radius
Synodic Month (lunar month)
The period of revolution of the Moon with respect to the Sun; the length of one cycle of lunar phases' 29.5 Earth days.
24 hrs
how long does it take for the earth to rotates once on it axis
chemical evolution has taken place elsewhere in the universe
large molecules found in meteorites and interstellar clouds is evidence that ____ ______ ___ ____ ____ ____ __ ____ ______
planetary nebula
is a shell of gas ejected by a low mass star at the end of its evolutionary lifetime
Geocentric model of the universe
Model which places Earth at the center of the universe
Newton's third law of motion
For every force, there is always an equal and opposite reaction force.
What is the difference between a progression or regression and a precession?
The previous discussion about the Moon's perigee describes what is called the Progression of the Moon's Apsides. The discussion about the Moon's nodes describes what is called the Regression of the Moon's Nodes. The bulge of the Earth's equator together with the 23 1/2 degree tilt of the Earth's axis causes a similar effect on the Earth's axis of rotation. In attempting to "flatten" out the tilt of the Earth's spin, all the Sun can succeed in doing is twisting the axis rotation. This produces the 26,000- year wobble of the Earth's axis that is referred to as the Precession of the Pole (also referred to as the Precession of the Equinox).
water ice and exhibit comet like tails.
two known asteroids have just been found to have this.
Why do meteors "burn" as they enter the Earth's atmosphere?
Due to the presence of oxygen
Why is Venus considered Earth's "evil sister"?
The radius, mass, and density is very similar. It is evil because it rotates in opposite to Earth and it is inhabitable (900*F surface temperature). Also Venus' day is longer than it's year!
Mercury has extreme high and low temperatures between night and day because
) it has no atmosphere to moderate temperatures over the globe.
What types of information does the cosmic background radiation give us?
-A picture of the sizes of the early dark matter-shrouded galaxies
-A measure of the temperature of the present Universe, about 2.7 K.
In the dense regions of the ISM most of the gas exists in what form? Why?
Molecular form due to the extremely cold temperatures
If you see a body in space that is not moving in a straight line at constant speed, what can you say about it?
There must be a force acting on it
Uranus MSD
Blue Stars
Increase pressure
Increase density
peak wavelength
maximum wavelength
Shape of our galaxy
closest point to sun
spectacular rings, second largest planet in solar system
major ice age
every 100,000 years
reflecting telescope
mirrors to produce images
Helium Fusion
Occurs at 100,000,000 K
twice-yearly time-each spring and fall-when the Sun is directly over the equator and the number of daylight and nighttime hours are equal worldwide
material explosively ejected in space from Sun's surface
Oort's cloud
spherical cloud surrounding solar system 50,000 AU
Tropic of Capricorn
23.5 degrees south latitude
Western Hemisphere
West of the Prime Meridian
Robotic spacecrafts send communication back to Earth by
radio waves
horizontal angular distance from north measure eastward along the horizon to a point directly below a celestial body
atomic number
number of protons in nucleus
Absolute magnitude
used by astronomers to measure luminosity; cannot measure luminosity directly w/o knowing distance (can only tell its brightness)
how old is our star (sun)
5 billion
photons ___ be packing together if they are identical.
_____ is not classified as either terrestrial os gas giant. Recently, _____ was removed as a planet because it was discovered that it does not follow any characteristics of the planets. Some scientists even belive it may be an escaped moon from neptune.
Whether the Universe is open, closed or flat depends on the ______ of Universe
any natural or artificial object that revolves around another object
having the sun as the center. Copernicus, Kepler.
an electron with a positive rather than negative electric charge; an antielectron.
Big Bang
The theory that most astronomers believe that universe began as a big explosion.
synodic month is caused by both earth's and moon's __________
as gravity increases, matter spins and flattens into a disk. the center contracts and heats up over several million years.
the amount of matter in an object
Refracting Telescope
an optical magnifying instrument in which light from an object passes through a double convex lens and is bent to form an image at the focal point.
building block of matter, composed of positively charged protons and neutrons in the nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons.
doppler shift
the difference between the observed wavelength of light and actual wavelength of light based on the relative speed of the observer and the source of the light.
Which of the following constellations can never be seen from Norman? (a) cassiopeia. (b) Orion. (c) Ursa Minor. (d) Pavo
(d) Pavo
X-ray bursts
1.Matter accreting onto a nuetron star can eventually become hot enough from helium fusion
2.The sudden onsetonset of fusion produces a burst of x rays
the study of the sun, moon, planets, starts, & other objects in the sky
what planet was named after the roman god of speed?
Variable star
a star that varies noticeably in brightness
the only way to change an object's momentum
a cloud of dust and/or gas in space
solar day
From noontime to the next noontime; for Earth it is 24 hours.
an imaginary dome or sphere going around the earth that all the celestial objects are located on.
Celestial Sphere
Wien's Displacement Law
wavelength(max) = 0.2897 // T(in Kelvin)
Event horizon
the surface where the escape velocity is equal to the speed of light
neutron star
when a supernova's core only has neutrons in it
(part of a circle)- shape that an object appears to nake in the sky
Interstellar Extinction
The dimming of visible and ultraviolet light by interstellar dust
What is Earth's interior like?
HOT iron rich core
russian, first man made object put in earths orbit, first man to orbit earth in 1957
when an object in space comes between the sun and a third object, casting a shadow on that object
lunar eclipse
Long wavelength to short:
Radio- longest wavelength, lowest energy infared visible ultraviolent x-ray gamma-ray - shortest wavelength, most energy
orbital velocity
object in scircular orbit must have velocity of...

V = (G x M / R)^(1/2)
red giant
young star uses its hydrogen nearly up and gravity starts which makes it shrink, the interior becomes hotter, helium joins making heavier elements and new burst of energy, it expands and temperature drops, 2nd stage of life
solar eclipse
the blocking of sunlight to earth that occurs when the moon is directly between the sun and earth
What causes hydrostatic equilibrium? (the outward pressure that balances the inward pull of gravity in a star)
the outward flow of energy
oblers' paradox
A paradox pointing out that if the universe were infinite in both age and size, then the sky would not be dark at night.
Define Parallax
object moves because you view it from a different location
What is the name of the M20 nebula?
Trifid Nebula
autumnal equinox
when the earth is perpendicular to the sun. moving from summer to winter. equal days and nights.
Mass Extinction
Earth gets hit every few million years by a large comet or asteroid sometimes causing a...
The law of equal areas
Kepler's 2nd Law is called..
Oort Cloud
A region of the solar system beyond the Pluto where most comets are believed to spend most of their time and are born
main-sequence: middle of life cycle
giant: bigger and redder than main-sequence
supergiant: much bigger than giant
white dwarf: small star at the end of its life
Making Comparisons: State the differences between main-sequence stars, giant stars, supergiant stars, and white dwarf stars.
Jupiter, Saturn
Which two planets have a surface that consists of clouds; the clouds are in bands around the planet
gas tail
A comet tail composed of ionized gas atoms released from the nucleus and carried outward by the solar wind. Also called a type I comet tail. (p. 464)
jovian planet
any of the four large outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
Moon moves
"12 degrees per day across the sky, or its 1/2 degree in an hour"
Sidereal Month
the time it takes the Moon to complete a full 360 degree orbit around the Earth, approximately 4 weeks.
What is the only moon phase that occurs during a lunar eclipse
A full moon
how many degrees across the sky does a star move in 1 hour?
15 degrees
Which galaxy in our local group is the largest?
Milky Way??
Suppose it is full moon. What phase of Earth would someone on the Moon see at this time?
New Earth.
Ptolemaic model of the universe
-earth at the center (geocentric), other objects rotate around
-sun, moon, planets revolve on epicycles (small orbits) that are attached to the main orbit (deferent)
formation of the solar system
gas and dust cloud collapsed 4.6 billion years ago
Kirchoff's Law One
If a object is hot and dense it produces a continuous spectrum
what speed does all electromagnetic radiation travel at?
all electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum travels with the same speed, c, regardless of wavelength
north; Arctic Circle; south' Antarctic Circle
Throughout the spring the sun continues to move northward and days are getting longer in the northern hemisphere. This continues until the summer solstice, the longest day of the year in the northern hemisphere. On this day, the sun does not set at all latitudes ____ of the ___ and the sun does not rise for all altitudes ____ of the ____.
Life cycle of low mass star
1) fusion hydrogen to helium- Main sequence 2) no fusion, out of hydrogen- Red Giant 3) fusion helium to carbon- Yellow Giant 4) runs out of fuel- Red Giant 5) planetary nebula- collapse of core and explosion 6) core cools off - White Dwarf
current observations indicate that the amount of baryonic matter and dark matter in the universe imply that the universe is open. why?
Because baryonic matter is protons and neutron, which would make up up most of the stuff of the universe. Therefore, they would be the main contributors to an universal gravitational force to counteract the expansion of the universe. Current study indicates that there is not enough gravity to halt the expansion.
Second Law of Motion
If a total force F on an object produces an amount of acceleration a, then these quantities are related by the equation, F=ma, where m depends only on the object and not on F or a. (Newton)
Stars in a star cluster
All have the same age and chemical composition
on what days does the sun rise due east and set due west
spring vernal and autumnal equinox.
Newton showed that Kepler's laws are _________.
natural consequences of the law of universal gravitation
name the color of stars from largest to smallest
Red giant, red orange, yellow, white, blue
Process by which a PROTOSTAR becomes a STAR
1. Begins in dark/cool nebula (lower right corner of H-R diagram) 2. Becomes smaller and flattens out due to GRAVITY 3. As gravity COMPRESSES and INCREASES its temperature, gas pressure pushes back 4. Process continues as protostar becomes smaller hotter and hotter 5. At 15 Mill° NUCLEAR REACTIONS begin in core and now its a star on the MAIN SEQUENCE
atmospheric retention is a result of the competition between _______________ and ________________.
escape speed of a planet, avg speed of molecules in atmosphere
What is Newton's First Law of Motion?
A body at rest or in motion at a constant speed along a straight line remains in that state of rest or motion unless acted upon by an outside force.
what are solstices?
Dark Energy %
valles mariners
mars- along equator
Mined at a profit
unbound orbits
ellipse, parabola, hyperbola
types of galaxies
elliptical, spiral/barred, irregular
achromatic lens
made with 2 lens
20 km
size of neutron star
dark regions on the sun
nuclear reaction, small element atom fuses to form element with large atoms releasing large amounts of energy, elements coming together to make bigger atoms
Active Galactic Nucleus; The central region of a galaxy that shows unuasal energetic activity
short period comets
less than 200 years
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and physicist, developed theory of Gravity and laws of Physics.
Visible Light
shorter wavelength than infared radiation, but longer than ultraviolet (UV) radiation, from ~700nm-400nm.
what force is responsible for reactions such as igniting a match?
Newton's Laws of motion
weight, inertia, acceleration
how far above horizon object is
Globular Clusters
Large groupings of older stars.
the Dog Star, the brightest-appearing star in the heavens, located in the constellation Canis Major
System of latitude and longitude was introduced by
optical telescope
an astronomical telescope designed to collect and record light from cosmic sources
An assistant of Brahe, he discovered three laws of planetary motion.
Grass is green because it...
Reflects green light
celestial equator
projection of equator into space, makes a complete circle around celestial sphere
The instant a celestial object crosses an observer's meridian.
The inner layer of the sun's atmosphere
water, earth floats in water, 585 eclipse?
Large rock (smaller than an asteroid) in the Solar System that orbits the Sun.
an imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and the North and South poles, about which Earth rotates.
how much does it rain on mars?
pluto and earth
which planets have one moon
electron lands on third shell , infra-red
gravitational lensing
The process by which the gravitational field of a massive object focuses the light from a distant object to produce multiple images of the distant object or to make the distant object look brighter. (p. 293)
to make larger; enlarge in size, number, strength, or extent
from nuclear fusion in the sun's ore can be detected on Earth
impact theory
origin of the moon; planet sized object collided with early Earth, splashing off our future moon
The Very Large Array telescope studies what type of radiation?
Radio waves
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Organizes waves of energy according to their wavelength.
giant impact theory
described the formation of the moon
Apollo asteroids
group of asteroids that cross the Earth's orbit
astronomical unit
The average distance between Earth and the sun, about 150 million kilometers
the image of something as reflected by a mirror (or other reflective material)
the change in direction of the Earth's axis
Which of the following moons has the
oldest surface?
Eudoxus of Cnidus
studied with Plato, Geocentric model with earth at center, cosmogony with 27 spheres, built first observatory in Greece
Neap Tide
a tide with the least difference between the least difference between low and high tides
a star that ejects some of its material in the form of a cloud and become more luminous in the process
the length of time between one member of a series of similar eclipses and the next (6585 1/3 days)
cycle of star
1 matter in interstellar cloud condenses to form a star
2 the star synthesizes new elements in fusion reaction
3 this matter is expelled into space in planetary nebulae or supernovae
4 matter becomes available for cycle of star formation
On some telescopes, actuators on the mirror change its shape to match distortions in the atmosphere. What is this technique called?
Adaptive Optics
a device that separates a beam of light into two ray beams, usually by means of reflection, and that brings the rays together to produce interference, used to measure wavelength, index of refraction, and astronomical distances.
enuma anu enlil
major series of tablets dealing with Babylonian astrology; interpret a wide variety of celestial and atmospheric phenomena in terms relevant to the king and state
planck epoch
a mystery partly because we lack a quantum theory of gravity
The part of a shadow where only part of the Sun is blocked from view.
the amount of detail that can be seen
resolving power
classifying stars
base on information we know about the sun. stars can be classified based on their mass, color, size, temperature, brightness, and many other ways.
south celestial pole
The location on the celestial sphere directly above the Earth's south rotation pole.
Hubble Diagram
A plot of the velocity (redshift) of galaxies against their distances. v = H(nought) * D
One of the first people to use a telescope to observe objects in space. He discovered craters and mountains on the Earth's moon, 4 of Jupiters moons, sunspots on the sun, and the phases of Venus.
new moon
dark side of the moon is facing Earth
About how old is the universe?
14 billion yrs old
T or F. Lead (Pb) is the heaviest stable element.
the turning, or spinning, of a body on its axis
escape speed
For one object to escape from the gravitational pull of another, its speed must exceed the _ _ of that other object?
What are binary stars?
Pairs of stars orbiting each other
The far side of the moon has ____ cratering, but no large ______.
some; maria
big dipper
asterism 7 or 8 stars that form the hind quarter of the bear ursa major civilzation that contribute to austronomy
Solar Winds
travels from the Sun at 1 million mph and causes magnetic storms on Earth.
West to East
The earth turns in this direction as it rotates on its axis: ______ to _______.
Reason for Jupiters bands
greater size and faster rotation made the coriolis effect much stronger on Jupiter than earth so jupiters circulation cells split into many alternating bands of rising and falling air.
Milky Way
a spiral galaxy made up of our solar system and many other stars and planets
Scientific notation
use powers of 10 to write very large or very small numbers in shorter form
Edmund Halley
He was the first person to calculate a comet's orbit and predict the return of a comet.
Which kind of object is the best standard candle for measuring distances to extremely distant galaxies?
A white dwarf supernova
total energy
a change in ___ is needed to change an object's orbit
Why is the sky blue?
The air molecules scatter blue light better than red light, so more blue light reaches our eyes.
What do we call the swarm of comet nuclei in a huge shell surrounding the Sun and planets?
The Oort Cloud.
which planet has thin rings?
Jupiter, they are very thin and dim and difficult to see
Difference between weather and climate, and why is local temp variation not important in terms of global warming?
Climate is global and long term, while weather is local and short term. Local temp variation is not really important because to measure global warming, you must have the global temp for over a long period of time.
why doesn't the sun orbit the earth?
While object's orbit eachother, they technically orbit the center of mass between the two bodies. the center of mass between earth and the sun is in the sun. Thus the sun does move minimally. its movement is called a wobble.
Kepler's 2nd Law of Planetary Motion
law of equal areas, if an imaginary line connects the Earth to the Sun, it will sweep through equal areas in equal time. The planet travels faster while close to the sun and slows down when it is farther from the sun.
to determine the origin and evolution of the solar system
What is the goal of comparative planetology?
finish the sentence.... stars seem to be on the...
inner surface of a sphere surrounding the earth
Compare and contrast an open star cluster to a globular star cluster
Open clusters do not have any shape, with several thousand stars with some gas and dust, most of the stars are blue.
Globular star cluster have about a million of stars, mostly red stars, very dense (but mostly empty), stars never touch each other. Nearly spherical. They are concentrating in the core, far away from each other.
Does Mercury have an atmosphere? Why or why not?
No. It has only traces of gases temporarily captured from space. Mercury's gravitational force is too weak to retain an atmosphere in its hot environment.
During the period each year when we see Mars undergoing apparent retrograde motion in our sky, what is really going on in space?
Earth is catching up with and passing by Mars in their respective orbits.
What is the angle of Polaris to the horizon equal to?
It is equal to the latitude of the observer.
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