Astronomy Test 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Lyman series
straight up
- measures earthquakes
Point directly overhead.
Venus Greatest Elongation
47 degrees
Describe scientific intellectual freedom at the time when Copernicus and Galileo lived. Did they feel at liberty to present scientific ideas without persecution?
Northern Hemisphere
North of the equator
study of objects in space
Absolute Magnitude
absolute brightness "big M"
formation of elements in stars
Saturns Satellites spin orbit coupling:
meteorite found in antarctica, thought to be from Mars
the rate at which electromagnetic radiation is emitted from a star or other object
the commonest type of solidified lava
globular cluster
a large, round, densely-packed grouping of older stars.
the moon's appearance undergoes a regular cycle of changes, taking roughly 29.5 days to complete
Rocky object smaller than a planet
removing an electron from its atom
the force exerted per unit area
Jupiter's atmosphere looks uniform and calm, with no visible detail
Jupiter's atmosphere looks uniform and calm, with no visible detail
Thought to have went extinct 65 million years ago.
Which Apollo mission orbited the MOON?
Apollo 8
a building housing an instrument for projecting the positions of the planets onto a domed ceiling
When compared with lower frequency waves of light, higher frequency waves of light have
shorter wavelengths
on moons with icy surfaces, internal heat can melt the ice and causes water to come up through the surface like molten rock does in a volcano
Black hole:
MASSIVE, DENSE object (nothing can ESCAPE its gravity)
shortest year how long?
[mercury] 88 earth days
where it is moving the slowest- far
tidal force
a gravitational force whose strength and/or direction varies over a body and thus tends to deform the body.
action of turning around on an axis
celestial sphere
imaginary sphere of infinite radius surrounding the earth. Locations of objects in the sky are given by projecting their location onto this infinite sphere.
Generally, the smallest particle of a substance that retains its chemical properties and is composed of two or more atoms. A very few types of molecules, such as helium, are composed of single atoms
The wavelength of light appears ____ if the source is approaching.
Summer Solstice
The longest day of the year.
Light that is scattered from dust
Reflection nebula
Saros cycle
An 18-year, 11-1/3-day period after which the pattern of lunar and solar eclipses repeats. (p. 39)
the small circle of the celestial sphere whose plane is tangent to the earth at the position of the observer
Indirect Sunlight
sunlight that reaches the surface of the ear of angles less than 45°
Great circle distance
shortest surface distance between 2 points on the earth
absorption line spectrum
dark lines superimposed on a continuous spectrum
Solar Eclipse
Occurs when the moon passes between the Earth and sun.
Waxing Gibbous
3/4 of Moon visible from Earth; gaining visibility. North west of Earth.
the force that a scale measures when you stand on it, depends on both your mass and forces acting on your body
The motion of a body that travels around another in space
Star-Gas-Star Cycle
Most active star formation happens in our galaxy's disk. These stars are undergoing the...
radiation zone
layer of the Sun's interior where energy moves outward primarily in the form of photons of light; 10 million K
The star no longer cna release energy and becomes a black dwarf
one billionth (10^-9) of a meter; a unit of length used for the wave length of light
The second largest moon in the solar system and is bigger than Mercury
russian, first man made object put in earths orbit, first man to orbit earth in 1957
Convection Zone
Outermost layer of the Sun's interior that forms gas loops
day with equal amounts of sunlight / darkness
Event Horizon
The region around a black hole, within which not even light can escape is called the ______________:
hot spots
can form in the middles of plates, plume of magma wells up to the surface, builds a shield volcano, the plate slides over the fixed ____
A group of stars that form a pattern in the sky
the tendency of an object to remain as it is, either at rest or in motion along a straight line
sun and low mass stars SURFACE TEMP
under 6,000 kelvin
big bang theory
states that approximately 12 to 15 billion years ago, the formation of the universe began with a fiery explosion
nuclear fusion
the way that the sun produces energy; this reaction converts four hydrogen nuclei into the nucleus of a helium atom, releasing a tremendous amount of energy
Speed of Light
in a vacuum, c= 3.0* 10^5 km/s
The sun is the center of the Universe in the ___________ Model
The asteriod belt is located between which two planets?
Mars and Jupiter
Light Collecting area
determines how much light a telescope can gather
travel at almost the speed of light, produced in suns core through fusion reactions
solar neutrinos
gas giant
the Jovian planets made of frozen gas and much larger than terrestrial planets
Red Shift
(astronomy) a shift in the spectra of distant galaxies toward longer wavelengths
gravitational collapse
The process by which a forming body such as a planet gravitationally captures gas from its surroundings. (p. 368)
newton's law motion
any of three laws of classical mechanics, either the law that a body remains at rest or in motion with a constant velocity unless an external force acts on the body
white dwarf
a dim star that forms from a collapsed red giant
Type I supernovae
white dwarf and red giant in binary, all this type have same magnitude--standard candles
wave particle duality
electrons and light can behave as both a wave and a particle
europa might have light because of...
a liquid water subsurface layer
Name for the star at the center of our solar system.
Inverse Square Law
the rule that a quantity or effect diminishes with the square of the distance from the source
What is the name of the plane that all of the orbits lie in?
Radiometric age dating
Dating by the half-life of Uranium to measure Earth, different isotopic proportions
1 astronomical unit (AU)
the distance between the earth and the sun
diameter of mirror/lens
What is most crucial in terms of the quality of a telescope?
spiral, flat disk
what is the modern idea for the shape of the milky way?
Newton's 3rd Law
for any force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force
full moon
the moon when the whole of its disk is illuminated, occurring when in opposition to the sun.
Describe how stable isotope siblings of parents and daughters are used to determine the original composition in a rock. For example, "When a rock solidifies, the number of parent atoms is one-half the number of stable sibling atoms. The parent has a half-
Stable isotope siblings are atoms that are chemically related to the parent or daughter atom, but do not participate in the decay sequence. Stable siblings are used to guess the original composition of a material in order to determine its age.
Curtis proof that sme of the nebulae were distant galaxies
Novae occurs in spiral Nebulae.
What are evolutionary tracks used for on the H-R Diagram?
Evolutionary tracks are arrows that indicate a star or protostars shift on the H-R diagram.
Explain the phenomenon of tidal locking, which is why the same face of the Moon always points at the Earth.
Tidal locking is caused by the Earth's uneven pull on the Moon, which produced a tidal rock bulge on the Moon's surface. This tidal effect combined with the Earth's pull eventually caused the Moon's rotation to slow then stop completely. Once the rotation stopped, the side of the Moon with the rock bulge faced toward the Earth, and stayed there.
new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full, wanning gibbous, third quarter, wanning crescent
order of moon phases startin with new moon
What is the big advantage pf the Hubble Space Telescope, compared to any Earth-based instrument?
It has no atmosphere to look through
The names of the seven days of the week are based on _________.
the seven naked-eye objects that appear to move among the constellations
Precession of the rotation axis of Earth is caused by..
the force of gravity from the sun and moon on Earth's equatorial bulge.
How do you find the brightness of a star?
Inverse square law - stars farther away appear dimmer, stars closer appear brighter
Constellation X
diffuse nebula.
has many cliffs
Planck's law
E=hf (E=energy, f=frequency)
distance =
speed x time
Simplified view of reality
Law of universal gravitation
F=G(m₁ *m₂/r₂)
Stefan's Law
Law that states: Brighter=hotter
Italian astronomer and mathematician who built his own telescope and found four moons revolving around Jupiter
Terrestrial planets
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
solid bodies that orbit planets
Milky way
The name of our galaxy
darkest part of the moon's shadow
Rarest type or class of meteorite
the center around which something rotates
Solar systems that are grouped together.
Copernican revolution
realization during the Renaissance that the solar system is sun centered
The moon, Hubble telescope and Halley's Comet all are?
our sun is over degrees celcious
Radio Telescope
astronomical telescope that picks up electromagnetic radiations in the radio-frequency range from extra-terrestrial sources
first near earth object to be discovered, craters and ridges indicating a solid body,
diffraction grating
an optical device consisting of closely spaced lines ruled on a piece of glass that is used like a prism to disperse light into a spectrum
Interactions with other planetary spheres determines __________
lithosphere and magnetosphere
Jupiter cloud features
bright yellow orange and red
Solar Corona
outer layer of sun's atmosphere (visible- surrounding the moon- in a total solar eclipse.)
state of matter of sun
plasmic and gas
Electromagnetic radiation
radiation consisting of waves of energy associated with electric and magnetic fields resulting from the acceleration of an electric charge
A force that attracts all objects towards each other.
the spinning of Earth on its axis
Andromeda galaxy
nearest major galaxy, circular spiral shape
2 x 10^6 lys away
Kirchhoff's Laws
The three laws governing continuous, absorption, and emission spectra
the disintegration of atomic nuclei by absorption of high energy radiation
The full range of wavelengths that characterizes EM radiation (light) or "to display something"
wave length
The distance between successive peaks or troughs of a wave; represented by λ
Lunar Eclipse
the earth interrupts light shining on the moon
patterns and drawn figures in the sky by connecting bright stars, many look like what they are named
Remote sensing
A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
circumpolar constellations
a group of constellations that never rise or set, near Polaris, can't be seen from equator
Ionization Nebulae
Colorful, wispy cloud of gas that glows because neighboring hot stars irradiate it with UV photons that can ionize Hydrogen atoms
the apparent change in position of an object when seen from different places
universal recession
all galaxies with a few nearby exceptions are moving away from us
During a ______ eclipse, the Moon is between the Sun and the Earth
olympus mons
Shield volcano and largest mountain in the Solar System on mars
when the sun and the stars disappear in the east, out of sight
refracting telescope
(refractor) a telescope in which the principal light-gathering component is a lens.
a contracting cloud of gas and dust with enough mass to form a star
type of redshift due to motion with the environment
3rd largest moon in solar system and most heavily cratered (jupiter)
Sister Theory
Moon was formed together with (but independently of) the Earth
Cepheid variable star
one of two types of yellow, supergiant, pulsating stars
Geostationary Orbit
orbit that allows a satellite to be always located above the same location on the earth
This planet is known as the Great Dark Spot
The Earth's Seasons
Earths seasons are caused by its tilted axis as it revolves.
superior planets
planets farther from the sun than the earth
4 Categories of Density
>5000= terrestrial with large iron rich core (Mercury, Venus, Earth); 3000-4000= terrestrial w/o iron rich core (moon, Mars); 2000= ice moons (pluto), <1700= gas giants (jupiter saturn uranus neptune)
radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays
sequence of the electromagnetic spectrum (in increasing frequency)
west to east
During a lunar eclipse, the Moon crosses the umbra of earth, moving ___ to ___.
The method by which we determine the age of a rock and thus the age of the solar system is called
radiometric dating
Oscillating Big Back
agrees with everything the big bang theory says but adds the statement that eventually the galaxies will stop rushing outward and begin to fall back
Carbon Chauvinism
assumption of SETI is that life is based on carbon chemistry, like on earth
Angular size of an objects...
depends inversely on its distance
In the Doppler effect, a red shift of spectral lines shows that the source is receding from us.
In the Doppler effect, a red shift of spectral lines shows that the source is receding from us.
The flash of light that we see in the night sky caused by friction of a meteoroid passing through the atmosphere.
name three other types of observations
infrared, gamma ray, x ray
Local Mean Solar Time
position of the "mean" sun's position relative to an observer's local meridian
Spiral Galaxies
galaxy that appears to have a bulge in the middle and arms that spiral outward
winter solstice
point on ecliptic when sun is at its southernmost point below the celestial equator = shortest day for northern hemisphere
Ptolmeys solution to retrograde motion
Ptolemy attempted to explain the backwards motion in the sky by placing the planets on a small circular path that was not quite centered on a larger circular path. Offset circles on circles: Epicycles
How much electrical charge does an atom with 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 5 electrons have?
A positive charge of +1.
Bulge, Disk, Halo
List the regions of the Milky Way from the inside out
Astronomers use larger telescopes mainly because (not all the statements below are correct):
Large telescopes gather more light per second.
altitude of sun in day sky and where it rises, length of sun above horizon, number of day or night hours, temp
december to june
Which mass or mass range refers to stars that never get on the main sequence?
Less than 0.08 solar masses
Gravity results form the what?
Curvature of space time caused by the presence of mass.
What is an astronomical unit?
The average distance from earth to the sun
The energy from an AGN is produced by
matter flowing into a supermassive black hole.
which of the following statements doesnt use the term angular size or angular distance correctly
angular size: a measure of how large an object looks to you. the angle between lines drawn from the observer.
angular distance: the angular separation between two objects as perceived by an observer
Bright Line Spectrum (aka emission-line spectrum)
A pattern of ____ lines produced by a rarified (low density) gas whose atoms have been "excited." Discovered in 1855 by Kirchoff; produced by passing an electrical current, or otherwise 'excite' a rarified gas (gas discharge tubes)
apparent visual magnitude (m subscript v)
The brightness of a star as seen by human eyes on Earth
Suppose the Sun were suddenly to shrink in size but that its mass remained the same. According to the law of conservation of angular momentum, what would happen?
The Sun would rotate faster than it does now.
What is the importance of Zodiac to astronomers?
It is the constellation that the sun moves through
What two facors cause Earth to have seasons?
Earth being tilted on its axis and the tilt never changes as it revolves around the sun
valles marineris
space rocks
Active Volcanoes
Venus, Earth
Contact Earth's Surfact
Can be built larger
186,000 m/s
speed of light
Gas Giants
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
meteoriod that hit Earth's surface
Primarily uses refractor like qualities with prisms to upright and fold the image
what planet has no atmosphere
outermost galliean moon, no internal heat,
region where galaxies and galactic clusters are tightly packed.
how many rings does neptune have?
Refractors Only
- sagging of the telescope structure under its weight etc., and therefore result in a static stray light halo strewn with planet-like but spurious speckles.
Sun's luminosity
3.9 x 10 ^26 watts
all the area beyond earths atmosphere
planet named for goddess of love
Arms that spiral outward - milkyway
Rotate slower
Older pulsars are expected to ______________ than younger ones.
The moon lacks this and causes temperatures to be extreme when in sun and in shade
Launched in 1997- heading toward deep space.
chunks of rocks or dust from space
Kuiper belt
doughnut shaped region that extends from beyond Neptune's orbit to about 100 times earth's distance from the sun
A contraction of the term "picture element"; usually refers to one square of a grid into which the light-sensitive component of a charge-coupled device is divided.
imaginery line that runs around the earth halfway between the North and South Poles; used as the starting point to measure degrees of north and south latitude
curved path of a satellite that results from a combination of the satellite's forward movement and the gravitational pull of Earth
absolute age
age found through radiometric dating, half life, ect.
Takes 150 million degrees to fuse different atoms together to form another atom
Solar System
a star with its orbiting planets
terminal velocity
Terminal speed together with the direction of motion ( down for falling objects.)
magnifying power
limited by atmospheric conditions and the resolving power of the telescope
the outermost region of the sun's atmosphere
Each different isotope of an element has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
The systematic study of spectra and spectral lines.
used to designate the brightest star in a constellation
Newtonian focuses
The focal arrangement of a reflecting telescope in which a diagonal mirror reflects the light out the side of the telescope tube for easier access.
Neap Tide
A tide with the least difference between low and high tides
What is the term for a clockwise rotation?
1/4 of the earth
the size of the moon
Angular separation
Used to describe the sky's appearance; not related to stars distance from Earth.
When antimatter meets ordinary matter they:
Annihilate releasing energy.
Autumnal Equinox
Occurs in SEPTEMBER and marks the beginning of FALL in the NORTHERN HEMISPHERE.
The combined number of neutrons and protons is the a____ m_____
atomic, mass
geocentric model
the early, incorrect model of our solar system with the earth in the center
A group of stars held together by gravity. Elliptical, spiral, barred spiral, irregular.
advice that is launched into an orbit around earth
usually the 8th planet Great Dark Spot and scooter storms, highest winds 92,000 km/h
a device that breaks light into colors and produces an image of the resulting spectrum.
The lowering of the sun below the horizon, the time when the upper most portion of the sun disk disappers below the horizon
Synodic Period
The synodic period is the temporal interval that it takes for an object to reappear at the same point in relation to two other objects (linear nodes), i.e. the Moon relative to the Sun as observed from Earth returns to the same illumination phase
a hot gas at low pressure
emission (bright line spectrum)
vernal equinox
the point on the ecliptic where the sun crosses the celestial equator from south to north; the beginning of spring, around March 21.
how long is a day on mercury?
300 earth days
Who came up with the Three Laws of Motion and universal Law of Gravity?
Astronomical Unit
the average distance from the earth to the sun
outer planet
one of the four planets furthest from the sun, the gas giants, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
an achromatic lens is used to correct _______________ in _____________ telescopes
chromatic aberration
the outer part of the shadow of the body where sunlight is partially blocked by the body
Hubble's law
states that the farther away a galaxy is, the faster it is moving away from us.
When will venus next transit the face of the sun
June 2012
spiral galaxy
A flattened galaxy in which hot stars, interstellar clouds, and other young objects form a spiral pattern.
Which of the following nuclear fuels does a one solar mass star use over the course of its entire evolution?
Hydrogen and Helium
a ball of ice and dust whose orbit is a long, narrow ellipse
solidification age
the amount of time has passed since a meteorite solidified from the molten state
goals of skylab
To prove that humans could live and work in space for extended periods
Expand our knowledge of solar astronomy beyond Earth-based observations
red giant
a star that expands and cools once it uses all of its hydrogen
1,000 years
a beam of light could cross the Milky Way in...
the two days of the year on which the sun reaches it greatest distance north or south of the equator
what is the type of matter called that dose not give off light
dark matter
nodes (of the orbit)
two points when the moon crosses the ecliptic plane
Keppler's first law - the orbit of each p____ about the sun is an e___ with the sun at one f____.
second law - planets move f___ when close to the sun and s___ when farther away.
third law - more distant planets orbit the sun at a s____ average s___
planet, ellipse, focus
faster, slower
slower, speed
what is in the center of the galaxy
a huge black hole
What are eclipsing binary systems?
An eclipsing binary star system is when you have a large star and a small star orbiting each other. When one star moves infront of the other star, it blocks some of the light. By looking at a light curve astronomers know whether they are looking at an eclipsing star system or not.
Based on the galaxies found in the Local Group of galaxies, the most common type of galaxy in the universe is expected to be
The very small dwarf galaxies
Earth's Motion Through the Cosmos
We observe a blue shift from the radiation directly in front of us; a red shift from the radiation directly behind us
What causes the granulation seen in the Suns photosphere?
Hot material below the photosphere convecting upward and cool material convection downward
Every summer, when you look low on the southern horizon around midnight, you arc looking towards
the center of our galaxy
How does presession affect our choice of the North Star?
The axis points toward Polaris, making it our North Star
what evidence leads astronomers to believe that they have detected black holes
they have seen x- rays, perhaps from gas around a black hole, suddenly disappear as a companion star eclipses the hole
What planet is called the "Morning Star" and why?
Venus, because at certain times of the year (and day), it can be seen from earth.
how far away does the cosmic horizon lie from the edge of the universe?
13.7 billion light years away, we'll never be able to catch up because it is expanding
How did the theory term one period around earth? wat was an epicycle?
Deferent ; an epicycle was a smaller circular orbit the planet made.
impact of the sun on polar ice caps of Mars
Temperatures on Mars have risen .65 C in the past 50 years. Polar ice caps are shrinking, hinting at solar not human cause of global warming. 2 years for Mars to orbit the sun 25 seasons over 50 years
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