Astronomy Vocab 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Pluto
Charon
synchronous
"locked" rotation
spring and fall
-straight
mars motion
unusual motion
Right Ascension & Declination
...
Altitude
angle above the horizon
*degrees
*local
isotopes
same protons diff neutrons
Reflection
light can bounce off matter
angular momentum quantum number (s,p,d,f)
DLETE
revolution
Earth's yearlong elliptical orbit around the sun
gravity
attractive force created by mass
redundant
characterized by verbosity or unnecessary repetition in expressing ideas; prolix:
study of moon, stars, and space.
astronomy
meteorite
Meteoroid that strikes the earth's surface
latitude
east and west position on earth
luminosity
product of squared radius and temperature to the 4th power
Spectrograph
an instrument that separates light into colors and makes an image of the spectrum
Stonehenge
located in Southern England, built between 4,000 and 5,000 years ago, astronomer priests watch from the center of the circle of stones as the sun rose exactly over a special stone (called the heel stone) on only one day of the year- June 21st
Globular cluster
a large, round, densely-packed grouping of older stars
True/ False: In giant molecular clouds, dotted along the spiral arms
False
Aries
the Ram, a zodiacal constellation between Pisces and Taurus
Celestial Sphere
stars at different distances all appear to lie on the celestial sphere
Telescope
a device built to observe distant objects by making them appear closer
scientific method
1.make observations 2.ask a question 3.suggest a hypothesis 4.make a predection 5.perform a test 6.return to step 3 or 4
rotation
a single complete turn (axial or orbital)
Jupiter's Atmosphere:
colorful, three cloud layers, mostly hydrogen and helium, complex circulation, very strong winds
Asteroid
a relatively small and rocky object that orbits a star
Longitude
an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the north and south poles at right angles to the equator
tides
periodic rise and fall of sea level
the asteroid belt
is between Mars and Jupiter
red shift
shift in observed absorption spectrum from far away galaxies towards the red side of the spectrum (lower frequency) due to galaxies moving farther away from us
saturn interior
rocky core similar to jupiters. mechanism for internal heating. caused by HELIUM PRECIPITATION
nova
star that suddenly gets thousands of times brighter
Elliptical
term describing an oval or egg shape
astronomical unit
is equal to 150 million km
cosmic horizon
apparent edge of observable universe visible in all directions
Calendar
A way of showing days, organized into a schedule of larger units of time, such as weeks, months, seasons or years; usually a table or chart.
Constellation
a configuration of stars as seen from the earth which form a pattern or shape.
escape velocity
The initial velocity an object needs to escape from the surface of a celestial body.
satellites
what tool captures the most close up pictures of far away solar system objects
about how many comets are there?
over 100 billion
Earth
Planet with "Red Sea" and oceans of water
In our Solar System, distances are measured with...
Astronomical Units
Heavier elements require what?
They require energy for synthesis.
Blueshift
occurs when a light source is moving quickly toward and observer; light appears to have a blue color.
stage of life the sun is in
main sequence
rotation axis
an imaginary line through the center of a body about which the body spins
Weight
the force that a scale measures when you stand on it
Kirchhoff's Law (3)
Light, consisting of a continuous spectrum, when passing through a cool ,low density gas, will produce an absorption spectrum (ex. a star possessing a "cool" atmosphere)
mass of Venus
4.869 x 10^24kg, .815 Earth masses
Galaxy
a huge group of single stars, star systems, star clusters, dust, and gas bound together by gravity. Billions of galaxies in the universe
summer solstice
The greatest number of daylight hours occurs on the ___ path.
As a black hole evaporates due to quantum fluctuations near the horizon, the Hawking process emits a spectrum of the following type:
blackbody
What occurs when an electron in an atom jumps from a lower energy orbital to a higher energy orbital.
Excitation
comet
a celestial body moving about the sun, usually in a highly eccentric orbit, consisting of a central mass surrounded by an envelope of dust and gas that may form a tail that streams away from the sun.
Who was the first astronomer to use a telescope to see Jupiter?
Galileo
atomic mass number
the combined number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Equinox
the sun is most direct at the equator, there are 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night world wide
apparent brightness
the brightness of a star seen from Earth
Mass
What one property of a star would you want to know that would provide you with the most information about it?
Giant Star
a very large star, much larger than the Sun
Interstellar Medium
Most of the galactic disk is comprised of stars and this dust and gas between the stars.
Era of recombination
the time when the universe cooled sufficiently for atoms to exist
Seasons
What does the earths tilt on its axis cause?
365.25
Number of days it takes the Earth to orbit the sun.
Centripetal Force
a force directed toward the center of curvature of an objects curved path
The planets in order
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
inner planets
another name for the four planets with orbits closest to the Sun
Radiative Zone
a very dense region about 300,000 km thick. The atoms in this zone are so closely packed that light, which is absorbed and released by atoms along the way, takes millions of years to pass through this zone
Minute of arc
An angular measure: 1/60th of a degree
what keeps Neptune producing energy
it is still contracting, turning gravitational potential energy into thermal energy
What is the unit of measurement based on the average distance between the Earth and the sun?
Astronomical Unit (AU)
the direction the Earth spins on its axis
west to east
heliocentric theory
the truth that the earth and all other planets are rvolving around the sun.
What are Comets?
Small icy debris moving around the Sun in very elongated orbits.
jets for 1987a
The shape and motion of the matter ejected by SN1987A are roughly consistent with the expanding "breadstick and bagel" configuration expected from the model of jet-induced supernovae.
5 billion
how many years the sun is expected to give energy to earth in the form of light and heat
Theory of Relativity
The speed of light is independent of the motion of the source or the observer
-The speed of light is a constant
2 things about neptune
Features in its deep, blue atmosphere; its moon Triton
planetary nebulae
what is created when a star is in the white dwarf stage and the outer most layers of the star expand and drift away from the core
daily rotation of moon
west to east *****apears to move east to west*****
herbig-haro object
a clump of gas illuminated by a jet of matter streaming away from a young star
Core temp of 1x108 K 
Red super giant
nuclear fusion of He
He->C + energy, gas pressure up
star expands and cools
Newton's Second Law
The change of motion (a) of a body of mass (m) is proportional to the force (F) acting on it and is in the direction of the force. F=ma
Some astronomers argue that planets should be defined only by their intrinsic properties (such as size, shape or composition) rather than by their location or surroundings. What is the authors' counterargument to this idea?
he author says that we already classify too many objects as "moons" based on their orbital context. Some are as large as planets, and others are simply captured asteroids or comets, but scientists classify them by the shared dynamical characteristic of orbiting a planet.
-if we didn't consider location, than moons would be considered planets
The Oort Cloud contains material that ________ .
are slightly thermally processed small objects
stage 3 of a stars life is
hydrogen and dust heat upfrom banging against each other,it creates nuclear reactions. this is the begining of a star
What is relief and how is it measured?
Difference between high and low elevations.On earth its measured with respect to seal level and on other planets it measured with respect to the objects average radius.
Which of the following is a contribution that Kepler made to astronomy?
He discovered his Three Laws (of Planetary Motion).
What is the difference between spring tides and neap tides? Which type of tides should we expect to see during new moon? Full moon? 1st quarter? Explain.
Spring tides are tides that appear to "spring" up quickly because the new moon or full moon aligns with the Sun, amplifying the gravitational force pulling the water. Meanwhile neap tides are low amplitude tides that occur during the first and third quarter moon, because the moon and Sun are perpendicular, canceling out some of the gravitational pull.
How does Mercury's rotation relate to the Sun?
C. Its rotation rate is 2/3 as long as its year, due to tidal resonances with the Sun
How does Mercury's rotation relate to the Sun?
A. It always keeps one face tidally locked toward the Sun, as our Moon does with Earth.
B. Its year is much shorter than Earth's
C. Its rotation rate is 2/3 as long as its year, due to tidal resonances with the Sun.
D. Mercury's rotation is retrograde
E. It does not spin at all, being stopped by the solar tidal forces
How big is the Milky Way Galaxy?
It would take more than 3,000 years to count the stars in the Milky Way Galaxy at a rate of one per second, and they are spread across 100,000 light-years
why is it that messages do not get out of black holes?
Because like all mass in the universe it warps the space. BUT blackholes are so massive that they warp space so much that it actually confines the black hole.
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