Atomic Structure Vocabulary 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Hydroxide
OH^-1
Carbonate Ion
CO3^-2
protons
positive charge
cathode ray
glowing beam
Gold foil
Rutherford's experiment
electron
negatively charged subatomic particles
atoms
smalles particles of matter
proton
positively charged subatomic particle
electron cloud
where are electrons located?
atom
smallest part of an element
Rutherford
British physicist who discovered the atomic nucleus and proposed a nuclear model of the atom
group/family
vertical row on the periodic table
Radioactivity
the spontaneous emission of radiation from an atom
neutron
Neutral subatomic particle found in the nucleus.
Group
Vertical column in the periodic table
neutral
________ atoms have equal amounts of protons and electrons
metal, metalloid, nonmetal
classes on the periodic table
John Dalton
English School Teacher. Derived a theory that is still accepted today for study of chemistry
isotope
atoms of the same element having different numbers of neutrons.
isotopes
atoms that contain same number of protons, but different number of neutrons
JJ Thomson
- Added large amounts of electrical energy to small quantities of gases in tubes.
- These tubes were called cathode-ray tubes.
- Showed that cathode rays are attracted to metal plate that have a positive electrical charge
- Believed that cathode rays were actually a stream of negatively charged particles which he called corpuscles later there were named electrons
- Determined the change to mass ratio of electrons and found it did not depend on the kind of gas in the cathode ray tube on the type of metal used for its electrodes
DISCOVERED THE ELECTRON
Millikan
he carried out experiments to find the quantity of charge carried by an electron; calculated the mass of an electron=9.11*10-28
electrons
what type of particles are found in the electron cloud?
periodic table
a table system used worldwide for organizing elements into categories based on how they react
Positive ion
An atom with more protons than electrons has a
orbital
Region of space where an electron is likely to be found.
matter
anything that has mass or takes up space
Democritus
- Was a greek philosopher
- Was among the first 5 to suggest the existence of atoms
- Believed that atoms were indivisible and indestructible
- Did not carry out experiments.
nucleus
tiny central core of an atom and is composed of protons and neutrons
mass number
sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Which has the highest wavelength
orange blue red green yellow
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
what scientists discovered in an atom
ground state
Term for an atom whose electrons have the lowest possible energies
atomic number
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element
Nuclear Decay
when an element gives off one of the three types of radiation
Law of Constant composition
A given compound always had the same elements in the same proportion
How do isotopes of an element differ?
Because isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons, they all have different mass numbers.
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