Bio 20B Plants of the Day Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tracheophytes
vascular plants
ovary
becaomes fruit
Coast Redwood
Sequoia sempervirens
rhizomes
underground root systems
Vessels
-In angiospersms
-specialized conducting cells
auxin
growth horomone in plants
Conifers
-Gametophyte found in cones
Red petal flowers
-attract birds
dicots
most deciduous trees and forbs
nonvascular plants:
19k species; Bryophytes (liverworts/mosses); lack vascular tissue and cannot grow upright
double compoud leaves have
leaflets subdivided
plants
multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls made up of cellulose
foxglove
an effective treatment for “dropsy” Foxglove is the source of digitalis, a drug used to treat heart disease. It restores regular heat beats and strengthens the contractions. Goes by the names Digoxin and Digitoxin.
Roots
 Absorbs water and nutrients
 Anchor plant to the ground
 Hold soil in place and prevent erosion
 Protect from soil bacteria
 Transport water and nutrients
 Provide upright support
phloem
vascular tissue. outer most, carries food made in leaves to all part of plant
petals
modified leaves which are usually bright in color to attract pollinators.
arial
roots grow form stem into air
the molecule that plants breath out
oxygen
imperfect flowers
lack either pistil or stamen
Cytokinins
(Apical meristem) hormone that causs cell division
What are companion cells connected by?
Plasmodesmata
Eukaryotes
-have nuclei, organelles, and sexual reproduction
--protozoans, slime molds, dinoflagellates, water molds, mildew, diatoms, algae
--Land plants, Fungi, Animals
xylem
tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant
Cotyledons
structure of seed plant embryo that stores or absorbs food for the developing plant
water potential
measurment that combines the effects of solute concentrationand pressure. determines direction of movement of water. water flo
stems serve as..
support, transport water and nutrients.
Root
An organ in vascular plants that anchors the plant and enables it to absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
seeds
structures that contain a young plant inside a protective covering
strobili
The technical term for clusters of sporophylls known commonly as cones, found in most gymnosperms and some seedless vascular plants.
Vascular cylinder
Central column of conductive tissue
In eudicots = mainly primary xylem and phloem
Monocots= cortex and pith
peat mosses
have large transparent cells without chloroplasts that absorb water; and small, green photosynthetic cells sandwhiched between
What does the basal cell produce?
The Suspensor
gas exchange
takes place at the stomata
Not open all the time
Take in CO2 and release O2
Beach sand verbena (dark purple vine like)
Abronia maritima
chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
dicots=
2 seed leaves, net like leaf veins, 4/5 flower parts, vacular tissue arranged in rings, tap roots.
Secondary growth uses this kind of tissue
Lateral Meristem
Branching root system
maximizes exposure to resources in soil
source
any region of the plant where organic compounds are being loaded into sieve tubes
ex: mesophyll
capillarity
the ability of liquid to flow against gravity where liquid spontaneously rises in a narrow space such as a thin tube, or in porous materials such as paper or in some non-porous materials such as liquified carbon fibre. This effect can cause liquids to flow against the force of gravity or the magnetic field induction. It occurs because of inter-molecular attractive forces between the liquid and solid surrounding surfaces; If the diameter of the tube is sufficiently small, then the combination of surface tension (which is caused by cohesion within the liquid) and forces of adhesion between the liquid and container act to lift the liquid.[
Isomorphic Alternation of Generations
-haploid and diploid multicellular generations look similar
-eg. Ulva (green algae)
heartwood
older xylem near the center of a woody stem that no longer conducts water
cohesion of water
with its neighbors- upward pull along the entire length of the xylem
stomata
openings in the outer cell layer of a plant's leaves that enable gas exchange into and out of the plant
Taxol
It is purified from the bark of the Pacific Yew tree (Tacus brevifolia). And is very effective.Taxol works by inhibiting the cell cycle at the G2-M phase (most anti-cancer drugs act on the G1-S phase). It blocks progression through mitosis by stabilizing microtubules.
Mature pollen grain (angiosperms)
(mature male gametophyte when 3 cells)
-small generative cell (divides into 2 sperm)
-large vegetative cell (becomes tube cell)
evidence: connection btwn land plants and green algae
homologous chloroplasts, cell walls, peroxisomes, and sperm; phragmoplasts; molecular systematics; layer of sporollenin
What is the function of antipodal cells?
The function is uknown
coffea Arabica tree
Coffee is the most widely used drug in the world. Coffee contains the stimulant caffeine, an alkaloid compound that is very bitter. Humans are one of the few animals that like bitter tasting alkaloids.
What are 3 important roles of transpiration?
Cools the leaf, transports minerals from roots to shoots, opens the stomata for CO2 uptake.
What is double fertilization? What is the eventual product of each fertilization event?
Each pollen grain has 2 cells: POLLEN TUBE cell and a GENERATIVE cell.- The generative cell will divide to form 2 sperm nuclei. Once pollination occurs, the tube cell grows a long, thin pollen tube down through the style to reach the ovules within the ovary. Each pollen tube is one, long, long cell.- There are signals within the style to direct the pollen tube to individual ovules.- Each ovule contains several cells. The ones that have a direct role in fertilization are the EGG CELL and a central cell that has 2 nuclei called the POLAR NUCLEI.- Plants undergo a unique fertilization that is very different from animals. 2 sperm nuclei are delivered to the ovule from a single pollen grain.- In a process known as DOUBLE FERTILIZATION, both of these sperm nuclei will fuse with nuclei within the ovule. One sperm nucleus will fuse with the egg cell. This produces a zygote that will develop into an EMBRYO. (and eventually a seed)- The second sperm nuclei fuses with the 2 polar nuclei. The cell resulting from the 3 fused nuclei develops into the ENDOSPERM.- The ENDOSPERM nourishes the developing embryo. In monocots, it also supports the young seedling just after germination. -
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