underground root systems
-specialized conducting cells
growth horomone in plants
-Gametophyte found in cones
|Red petal flowers||
most deciduous trees and forbs
19k species; Bryophytes (liverworts/mosses); lack vascular tissue and cannot grow upright
|double compoud leaves have||
multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls made up of cellulose
an effective treatment for “dropsy” Foxglove is the source of digitalis, a drug used to treat heart disease. It restores regular heat beats and strengthens the contractions. Goes by the names Digoxin and Digitoxin.
Absorbs water and nutrients
Anchor plant to the ground
Hold soil in place and prevent erosion
Protect from soil bacteria
Transport water and nutrients
Provide upright support
vascular tissue. outer most, carries food made in leaves to all part of plant
modified leaves which are usually bright in color to attract pollinators.
roots grow form stem into air
|the molecule that plants breath out||
lack either pistil or stamen
(Apical meristem) hormone that causs cell division
|What are companion cells connected by?||
-have nuclei, organelles, and sexual reproduction
--protozoans, slime molds, dinoflagellates, water molds, mildew, diatoms, algae
--Land plants, Fungi, Animals
tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant
structure of seed plant embryo that stores or absorbs food for the developing plant
measurment that combines the effects of solute concentrationand pressure. determines direction of movement of water. water flo
|stems serve as..||
support, transport water and nutrients.
An organ in vascular plants that anchors the plant and enables it to absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
structures that contain a young plant inside a protective covering
The technical term for clusters of sporophylls known commonly as cones, found in most gymnosperms and some seedless vascular plants.
Central column of conductive tissue
In eudicots = mainly primary xylem and phloem
Monocots= cortex and pith
have large transparent cells without chloroplasts that absorb water; and small, green photosynthetic cells sandwhiched between
|What does the basal cell produce?||
takes place at the stomata
Not open all the time
Take in CO2 and release O2
|Beach sand verbena (dark purple vine like)||
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
2 seed leaves, net like leaf veins, 4/5 flower parts, vacular tissue arranged in rings, tap roots.
|Secondary growth uses this kind of tissue||
|Branching root system||
maximizes exposure to resources in soil
any region of the plant where organic compounds are being loaded into sieve tubes
the ability of liquid to flow against gravity where liquid spontaneously rises in a narrow space such as a thin tube, or in porous materials such as paper or in some non-porous materials such as liquified carbon fibre. This effect can cause liquids to flow against the force of gravity or the magnetic field induction. It occurs because of inter-molecular attractive forces between the liquid and solid surrounding surfaces; If the diameter of the tube is sufficiently small, then the combination of surface tension (which is caused by cohesion within the liquid) and forces of adhesion between the liquid and container act to lift the liquid.[
|Isomorphic Alternation of Generations||
-haploid and diploid multicellular generations look similar
-eg. Ulva (green algae)
older xylem near the center of a woody stem that no longer conducts water
|cohesion of water||
with its neighbors- upward pull along the entire length of the xylem
openings in the outer cell layer of a plant's leaves that enable gas exchange into and out of the plant
It is purified from the bark of the Pacific Yew tree (Tacus brevifolia). And is very effective.Taxol works by inhibiting the cell cycle at the G2-M phase (most anti-cancer drugs act on the G1-S phase). It blocks progression through mitosis by stabilizing microtubules.
|Mature pollen grain (angiosperms)||
(mature male gametophyte when 3 cells)
-small generative cell (divides into 2 sperm)
-large vegetative cell (becomes tube cell)
|evidence: connection btwn land plants and green algae||
homologous chloroplasts, cell walls, peroxisomes, and sperm; phragmoplasts; molecular systematics; layer of sporollenin
|What is the function of antipodal cells?||
The function is uknown
|coffea Arabica tree||
Coffee is the most widely used drug in the world. Coffee contains the stimulant caffeine, an alkaloid compound that is very bitter. Humans are one of the few animals that like bitter tasting alkaloids.
|What are 3 important roles of transpiration?||
Cools the leaf, transports minerals from roots to shoots, opens the stomata for CO2 uptake.
|What is double fertilization? What is the eventual product of each fertilization event?||
Each pollen grain has 2 cells: POLLEN TUBE cell and a GENERATIVE cell.- The generative cell will divide to form 2 sperm nuclei. Once pollination occurs, the tube cell grows a long, thin pollen tube down through the style to reach the ovules within the ovary. Each pollen tube is one, long, long cell.- There are signals within the style to direct the pollen tube to individual ovules.- Each ovule contains several cells. The ones that have a direct role in fertilization are the EGG CELL and a central cell that has 2 nuclei called the POLAR NUCLEI.- Plants undergo a unique fertilization that is very different from animals. 2 sperm nuclei are delivered to the ovule from a single pollen grain.- In a process known as DOUBLE FERTILIZATION, both of these sperm nuclei will fuse with nuclei within the ovule. One sperm nucleus will fuse with the egg cell. This produces a zygote that will develop into an EMBRYO. (and eventually a seed)- The second sperm nuclei fuses with the 2 polar nuclei. The cell resulting from the 3 fused nuclei develops into the ENDOSPERM.- The ENDOSPERM nourishes the developing embryo. In monocots, it also supports the young seedling just after germination. -