Absolute Monarchs in Europe Flashcards

Thirty Years' War
Terms Definitions
huguenots
french protestants
Descartes
(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical. Famous for saying "I think, therefore I am"
Montaigne
(1533-1592) The finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay.
Vasily
this person succeeded Ivan III
the Hohenzollerns
Prussia's ruling family; build Europe's best army.
Call themselves kings and queens and become absolute monarchs.
(pg. 606)
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator. Established Commonwealth; Drafted a Constitution; Put down a rebellion in Ireland;
Absolute monarchy
the king has total control.
grand
Louis XIII was a ______ monarch
Glorious Revolution
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
(pg. 616)
james II
James II and the Glorious Revolution
Charles's Catholic brother James becomes king in 1685
Question: How did Ivan the Terrible deal with his enemies during his "bad period"?
...
Merchantilism
An economic policy in which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
William of Orange
Who was Elizabeth secretly helping?
false
true or false: many Russians agreed with Peter I's goal of westernization
Ivan IV
this person accused boyars of poisoning his wife
Edict of Nantes
a declaration of religious tolerance for Huguenots
(pg. 596)
Michel de Montaigne
thought deeply about life's meaning, developed the form of the essay, believed humans could never have absolute knowledge of what is true
(pg. 597)
Petition of Right
Petition of Right limits Charles's power in 4 ways
No imprisonment without cause
No collecting taxes with out parliament's consent
No housing soldiers in private homes
No martial law during times of peace
He signed but ignored the demands
constitutional monarchy
form of government in which the monarch's powers are limited by a constitution
Hepeas Corpus
Gives everyone the right to a trial.
divine right
the idea that monarchs are gods representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to god
boyars
these people were accused by Ivan IV of poisoning his wife
Anastasia's death
this event sparked the beginning of Ivan IV's "bad period"
German
in the 1680s, people in this quarter of Moscow were accustomed to seeing the young Peter striding through their neighborhood on his long legs
Fredrick the Great
King of Prussia, enforces some of father's military policies but softens some of his laws; starts war against Austria to gain Silesia; as a result of the war Prussia becomes a major power in Europe
(pg. 606)
**Changes in English government
England became a constitutional state. England's government sprang from a civil war that resulted in shared authority between the king and other representatives.
Causes and Effects of Absolutism
Causes:
1) Religious and territorial conflicts created fear and uncertainty.
2) The growth of armies to deal with conflicts caused rulers to raise taxes to pay troops.
3) Heavy taxes led to additional unrest and peasant revolts.
Effects:
1)Rulers regulated eligious worship and social gatherings to control the spread of ideas.
2)Rulers increased the size of their courts to appear more powerfl.
3)Rulers created more bereacracies to control their countries economies.
Louis XIV
During his rule the French monarchy is at the height of it's power.
seven years war
a conflict in europe, NA, Indiain which forces battled other countries
edict of names
law that created religious freedom and brought the religious civil war to an end.
Spain
Louis XIV puts a Bourbon on the throne of which country?
Peter I
this person was the first czar to travel among Western "heretics"
habeas corpus
The idea that no person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime
Peace of Westphalia
The peace that ended the Thirty Years War that introduced a new method of peace negotiations.
Frederick the Great
Who was the most powerful ruler of Prussia (wayyyy back in the day)?
1689 Bill of Rights
Created a list of restrictions on the English monarchy.
Catholic, made him unpopular
Religion of James I, how did this affect his popularity?
Question: What is the significance of England's defeat of the Armada?
Ended Spain's domination of the Atlantic
Question: How did Colbert intend to stimulate economic growth in France?
He believed in the theory of mercantilism. He tried to make France self-sufficient by manufacturing everything they needed.
1. Muslims in Europe (through Spain, Africa, or Turkey into Austria) 2. Competition with France (wars of control) 3. Protestantism
Charles V's 3 problems with his empire were...
Mazarin
Richelieu's successor regarding centralization in France, ruled France during Louis XIV's childhood
westernization
Goal of westernization—using western Europe as model for change
Michael
Who was the first "Romanov"?
cabinet
a group of goverment ministers
(pg 617)
Question: How does a constitutional monarchy differ from an absolute monarchy?
...
guild
medieval assacoation of merchants and craftsman
Protestants
Who won the 30 years war?
Westernzation
Using Europe as a model for change
**Frederick the Great
King of Prussia (1740-1786). Successful in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) and the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), he brought Prussia great military prestige in Europe. He followed his fathers military policies and encouraged religious toleration and legal reforms.
Maria Theresa
Powerful monarch of Austria whose daughter becomes Queen of France.
Catholics vs. huguenots
(french protestants vs calvinists) they did not accept eachother's beliefs, then there was war. The hugenots were nobles and wealthy businessmen, which made up for their lack of population
Charles I
Ruler who signs Petition of Right?
Michael Romanov
in 1613, representatives from many Russian cities met and chose this person to be the next czar
Peter the Great
One of Russia's greatest reformers. Continued trend of increasing Csar's powers
St. Petersburg
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweeden
(pg 611)
**Charles I
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which he was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649; Son of James I.
Ivan the Terrible
(1533-1584) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia. Killed his son.
Inflation
A decline in the value of money, accompanied by a rise in the prices of goods and services.
rembrant van rijn
dutch artist who painted wealthy middle-cless merchants and group portraits that showed the individualith of each man for individual faces
bill of rights
guarantees the english people certain rights. It forced the king answer to the parliment (follow the petition of right)
Henry of Navarre
Who passed the Edict of Nantes?
Phillip of Anjou
Louis's grandson, heir to the Spanish crown; sparks War of the Spanish Succession
(pg, 601)
**absolute monarch
Englands form of government: A king or queen with complete authority over the government and people in a kingdom.
king louis XIV
the most powerful ruler in frence history
Charles II
son of charles the first, came back after cromwell died and he's the king again.
Protestants vs. Catholics
Who was the 30 years war between?
**Cardinal Richelieu
King Louis XIII was a weak ruler and Richelieu filled the void, more or less running the empire via his advice to the king. A clever politician and strategist, Richelieu expanded royal power, punished dissent harshly, and built France into a great European power
Grand Embassy
A long visit that Peter the Great took to Western Europe.
N. Ireland Switzerland England Scotland Wales N. Germany Netherlands Denmark Sweden Norway
Name a few Protestant countries in Europe.
Question: What steps did the Austrian Hapsburgs take towards becoming absolute monarchs?
They centralized the government and created an army.
Bill of Rights of 1689
Commenced as a law during the reign of William and Mary, affirming Parliament's right to make laws and levy taxes and making it impossible for kings to oppose or do without Parliament by stipulating that standing armies could be raised only with the consent of Parliament. Allowed citizens to petition the sovereign, keep arms, have a jury trial, and not be subject to excessive bail. Kings could not interfere with the elections of Parliament by the people, and the Bill of Rights laid the foundation for a constitutional monarchy.
Turns it into a strict Puritan state
What does Cromwell do to the English kingdom?
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