Bio 9 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
threadlike structures, shorter thanflagella, which project from the surfaces ofsome bacteria. help bacteria to adhere to oneanother during mating, as well as to animalcells for protection and food
capsule
Nucleus
Double Phospholipid bi-layer structure wchich contains most of the cell's DNA
Conflict situations often arise between lions and hyenas over resources, as they both live in the Africansavannah and they both share preference for the same prey species. Therefore, the relationship betweenlions and hyenas provides a good example of:a. P
D
Lumen
Space  found in lysosomes and chloroplast
 
 
 
Fats 
 
 
 
Glycerol with 3 fatty acid chains. 
Selection operates on _____, while _____ evolve.a. Individuals; individualsb. Individuals; populationsc. Populations; populationsd. Populations; individuals
B
Photosynthesis
The Combination of the light reaction and the calvin cycle to create Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate
What is the PH of a lysosome?
5
Ecology
the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their physical environment
What is in a nucleotide? 
Nitrogenoues Base
Deoxyribose in DNA
Ribose in RNA
and a Phosphate group (PO4)
What is this molecule below and where is it found?
 
Ribose
RNA
C4 Photosynthesis
plants that have adapted to hot climates such as sugarcane and corn adapt to this process so that they do not run out of CO2 even in hot weather
 
Element
A substance made of only one kind of atom
Four events of cell reproduction:
signal to reproduce– Replication of DNA and cell components.– DNA must be distributed to new cells.– The cell membrane must separate the twonew cells.
 
 
 
Neutral Atom 
The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons.
 What does DNA do?
DNA codes for the proteins that drive cells
How does the nucleus affect protein syntesis?
It can regulate the amount of mRNA in the cytoplasm
pent-
five
andro-
male
acro-
extremity, peak
humor
bodily fluid
symphysis joints
VertebreaSymphysis pubis
Population size
number of individuals
Consumption: herbivory vs. parasitism
Herbivory:Parasitism:
cyanobacteria
autotrophs, bacteria that photosynthesizes.
Community
Assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area
Cell Wall
permeable structure
peptides and polysaccharides (bacteria)
Proteins (archaeans)
 
Bile
a watery mixture containing electrolytes, cholesterol, a phospholipid called lecithin, and pigments derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin
JGA helps _________________ loss
conserve water
Vasomotion
intermittent contraction & relaxation of sphincters that allow filling of capillary bed 5-10 times/minute
corals
are polyps that contain symbiotic algae
Bacteria live 3.5 km underground within the Earth’s crust and gain their energy from _______ gas.
methane
protists modes of nutrition
all exccept chemoautotroph
(blank) means to change over time
evolve
central sulcus
separates frontal and parietal lobe
Mitochondria
animals & plants• main function is cellular respiration (the process of converting the chemical energy of sugars into ATP)• double-membraneo outer membrane defines shapeo inner membrane is connected to a series of sac-like cristae• cristae are foldings of the inner membrane• increase surface area and can pack more enzymes in• solution inside inner membrane is mitochondrial matrix• have their own gene – encodes proteins that function in mitochondria• manufacture their own ribosomes• cells that have greater energy demands have more mitochondria (muscle cells)• constantly moving around in cellso important b/c without it they don’t survive as well
Jame and Crick
Discovered double helix structure
eucoelomates
animal that possessess a true coelom(fluid-filled body cavity lined by tissue completely derived from mesoderm)
protista
a taxonomic kingdom comprising the protists.
oligotrophic
type of lake. usually deep and nutrient-poor (b/c nutrients concentrated in aphotic zone) often dominated by salmonid fishes (salmon, trout)
Centrifuge
spins test tubes holding mixtures of disrupted cells at various speeds.
Ancestral Traits
traits inherited from a common ancestor
the signal to proceed through anaphase goes through the ___.
APC
heterotroph [2]
[consumers] need existing food source to survive
Cretaceous Extinction


65 Ma
85% of species lost
Big losers: dinosaurs & marine reptiles
Unaffected: mammals, birds, amphibians, crocodiles, lizards, snakes
Likely caused by big meteor impact in Yucatan
Genetic Recombination
The production of offspring with combinations of traits differing from either parent
Down syndrome:
is also known as trisomy 21.
root system
water and nutrient uptake, anchorage, and storage
conducting cells
Nonvascular Plants - how many clades?
meaning that each cell contains two haploid nuclei
- heterokaryotic
polygenic inheritance
the heredity of complex characters that are determined by a large number of genes, each one usually having a relatively small effect.
ecosystem
consists of all living things in a particular area, along with all nonliving components with which life interacts
• parenchyma cells:
have relatively thin primarycell walls and are the most abundant and versatileplant cells
– primary site of photosynthesis in leaves– store starch in roots
placoderms and acanthodians
acanthodians - first vertebrates with jaws (420 mya)
 
devonian period - "age of fishes" (360-400 mya)
 
all extinct - later out - competed by bony fishes (360 mya)
Ionic bonding
association of 2 ions of opposing charges

John Needham’s experiment

the idea of spontaneous generation took hold in scientific
communities
transforming light energy to chemical energy
light dependent reaction
lampreys, SB: Vertebrata repoduce...?
they are sexually reproductive individuals, adults swim up freshwater streams, they build rock nests, spawn, and then die. The eggs hatch young larval lamprey called AMMOCOETES LARVAE
Noncovalent bond
Based on other types of chemical reactions between atoms, such as the mutual attraction between atoms that have an opposite electrical charge.
minerals
essential for the body but do not contain carbon
shoot system
the aerial portion of a plant body, consisting of stems, leaves, and (in angiosperms) flowers
Water displays these following properties
excellent solvent, high surface tension, high specific heat.
Cytoplasm
semifluid solution Bound by plasma membrane Contains inclusion bodies DNA is NOT membrane bound; located in nucleoid
what is modular approach?
building polymers by using small organic molecules like sugar as subunits to make longer molecules
Pacific Tree Frog Experiment (Scientific Method)
deformity; riberoia infection causes deformities
femur
a bone in the human leg extending from the pelvis to the knee, that is the longest, largest, and strongest in the body; thighbone.
continental drift
all land on earth was once one great mass, which broke up into continents that drifted like rafts to their present positions(Alfred Wegener)
losing the medusa
1. medusae no longer released, and 2. medusae development is arrested, become sexual while still attached to colongy
-lost medusa stage by changing rules of growth (medusa isn't released and reproductive polyp stays connected to the colony, making the colony itself the sexual stage b/c the gametes are released from the colony not the medusa stage)
 
Huntington\'s disease
is lethal and kills you at older age. but you don\'t know you have it until then.
amino group
a FG with a nitrogen atom bonded o two hydrogen atoms
Relationship between climate and weather
"Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get"
What is the CASPARIAN STRIP?
-a hydrophobic band found in the endodermProvides:APOPOPLASTIC BARRIER-gives selectivity by the root-includes non-living parts such as cell walls intercellular spaces, mature tracheary elements-extracellular routeSYMPLAST BARRIER-allows good shit into the vascular sysmetm-living parts (eg: cytoplasm and plasmodesmata)-intracellular route
examples of air diespersal
air rises when it is heated by the sun, so warm air rises in tropics, which recice greatest solar engery input
 
(i dont know if this is right)
Primary barrier to keep pathogens out
skin then secreted products and mucous membranes
What is the typical phenotypic ratio for linked genes?
3:1 because there is only one homologous pair.
2. The net force driving a charged solute across the membrane is a composite of its concentration gradient and voltage across the membrane...called the electrochemical gradient
3. Sometimes the voltage and concentration gradient wok in the same direction, creating a strong electrochemical gradient. however the voltage and concentration gradients have opposing effects the resulting electrochemical gradient is small
Which one of the following is a difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?
Sexual reproduction is more likely to increase genetic variation than is asexual reproduction.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 




· 
found outside the gray matter – consists of
myelinated axons arranged buddle call tract or pathways



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


Acensending tracts
-gen
producing
amensalism-
-/0
parental cues
 
environmental/behavioural
photoperiod
hormonal
chemical
olfactory
hormonal
visual/auditory
 
heter, hetero
other, different
light
–visible electromagnetic radiation–must cause a photochemical reaction to produce a nerve signal
pter-
having wings or fins
Define tissue
Group of cells
AN ANCIENT UNIVERSAL SYSTEM
GLYCOLYSIS
neutrons
------- determine radioactivity and the isotope
Ascomycota
Cup Fungi, morels, truffles, yeast
half of the species in lichen
dutch elm disease, chestnut blight
asexual reprod produces CONIDIA, naked spores
fruiting bodies: ascocarps that contain asci which contain the sexually formed spores, ascospores
8 ascospores per ascus
chain reaciton in release of spores from asci
intussuscpetion
receiving one part in another
Any measure related to fitness
Performance
good model
fits observations, explains experimental results, makes predictions that shape future research
disaccharide
double sugars, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a dehydration reaction
Rearrangement
juggling of internal bonds converts one type of organic compound into another. (Enzyme Mediated RXN)
Parsimony
Simplest explanation is often the correct one. Occom's razor
Examples of Carbohydrates
Glucose (monomer)Starch (polymer): energy storage made in plant cellsCellulose (polymer): structural component of bark, leaves, etc.Glycogen (polymer): energy storage made by muscle cells
Pleiotropy
Limits evolution: One gene has multiple effects
chemoreceptors
•in aortic arch, carotid arteries and medulla oblongata •sensitive to blood pH, CO2 and O2 levels
Anaphase
-chromosomes separate into single copy chromosomes
dense network of intermediate filaments that line the inner surface of the nuclear envelope. essential for disarrangement of the envelope into vesicles during cell division and its rearrangement afterwards.
Nuclear Functions
bi-
a combining form meaning "twice," "two," used in the formation of compound words:
Self tolerance
normal situation wherby a persons immune response doesnt respond to its own body constituents
Morphogenisis
The development of form; the overall consequence of determination, differentiation, and growth.
photosynthesis and cellular respiration cycle
photosynthesis produces organic molecules and O2 which fuel cellular respiration which produces CO2 and H2O which fuels photosynthesislight energy converted to chemical energy
allelopathy
the chemical inhibition of one plant by another
Charles Lyell 
+ Principles of geology
+ thought maybe earth was a million years old
heterochrony
evolutionary change in the rate or timing of developmental events (hetero- different, chron- time)
Competitive InhibitorvsNoncompetitive Inhibitors
Competitive-A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.vsA substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing the enzyme’s shape so that the active site no longer functions effectively.
pores that allow for exchange of gases in plants
stomata
What class of molluscs include squids and octopuses, carnivores with beak-like jaws surrounded by tentacles of their modified foot?
Cephalopoda
mycelium
the mass of filaments (hyphae) of which a fungus is composed
occurs when individuals leave one population, join another, and breed. Allele frequencies may change when this occurs, because arriving individuals introduce alleles to their new population and departing individuals remove alleles from their old populatio
- Gene flow
mutation
a sudden departure from the parent type an heritable characteristic caused by a change in a gene or a chromosome
extinction
the death of a species or larger classification category
What are the "fight or flight" and "rest and digest" responses, and which are controlled by the sympathetic division versus the parasympathetic division?
Dawin
 
Thought about Variation
Variation - adaptive (evolved by natural selection)
the 3rd cleavage is ?
an 8 celled embryo. 

Cohesiveness

Each water molecule can bind up to four other water molecules by H-bond
da F2 phenotypic ratio of a monohybrid cross involving a gene w/incompletely dominant alleles is
1:2:1
comparative anatomy
evolution is a remodeling process via alteration of existing structures
Controlled experiment
an experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time. All other variables are kept unchanged/controlled
Facilitated Diffusion
Goes through channel proteins or by means of carrier protiens.
Operculum
Boney fishes have a ____ to cover and protect their gills
What is the shared, derived character which characterize gnathostomes and began in the chondrichthyes?
Jaws.
Chondrichthyes also have skeletons composed primarily of cartilage, not bone.
Succession
Replacemnt of one plant or animal in a community for another
 
Sodium-Potassium Pump
3 sodium ions and ATP binds to the sodium-potassium pump, the ATP breaks down to ADP and produces energy. 3 sodium inos enter the cell and 2 potassium ions exit the cell
What is unique sequence DNA?
Only one copy of it
Digestion and Nutrition of Echinodermata
predation (sea star), filter-feeding *sea-lily
sex linked
(of a gene) located in a sex chromosome.
– essential fatty acids
– obtained from diet, body can not synthesize
Leaf Venation in Dicots
Net Leaf Venation is obseverved in Dicots
Priming DNA for Synthesis
Required for both the leading & lagging strands5' to 3' Okazaki fragments get ________ separately
helper t-cell
A type of T cell that is required by some B cells to help them make antibodies or that helps other T cells respond to antigens or secrete lymphokines or interleukins.
kinds of epithelium
simple - only one cell layer thick so can exchange materials across of itstratified - multiple cells thick, provides cushioning and protection-pseudo stratified - lining respiratory tract, resembles stratified-cuboidal epithelium - secretory function, forms glands (secretion of hormones, sweat, milk, etc)
Zinc, an essential trace element, is presented in the active sit of the enzyme carboxypeptidase. The zince most likely functions as a...
Cofactor necessary for enzyme activity.
What is a hydrophilic substance?
A substance that has an affinity for water.
The seed of ??? contains an extremely potent toxin that is ??? and kills by ???.
castorbean, a protein, stopping protein synthesis
In compaction of eukaryotic DNA, what protein complexes with the DNA? Why can they complex together?
histone -- histones are (+) charged, DNA are (-) charged
An insectivorous bird has the choice of eating (1) meadow beetles, which are abundant and large but expose the bird to hawk predation; (2) under-a-rock beetles, which are large and fatty but hard to obtain; and (3) under-a-leaf beetles, which are easy to
eat all three kinds of beetles, balancing the energy spent obtaining each against the energy gained and the risks incurred.
Why do fats have more energy than sugars
they have more Carbon Hydrogen bonds to be broken & release e- & H+ to run ETC & ATP synthase
What is the relation of A and G to C and T?
A and G are twice as big as C and T.
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