Absolute Monarchs Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
huguenots
French Protestants
Spanish Armada
1588
Glorious Revolution
x
Louis XIV
France
L'etat,c'test moi 19
19
2nd Estate
Nobility- 1%
spain
phillip ii country
Thomas Hobbes
English Philosopher
War of Spanish Succession
...
Characteristics of Absolute Ruler
???
henry iv
edict of nantes
Suleiman the magnificent
Encouraged tolerance
Cardinal Richelieu
French prelate and statesman
westernization
policy of Peter the Great
Edict of Nantes
Promotes religious tolerance
Tsar
designated certain Eastern European monarchs
intendants
Created by Napoleon-kept watch over their own area of France -allowed Napoleon not to have to worry about petty problems.
L'etat, c'est moi
"I am the state"
Spanish Netherlands
Seventeen provinces, (Belgium, Modern Netherlands, Luxemborg) which are basically the Low Countries. They are called low be cause they are below sea level, the are surrounded by dikes and wind mills.
Absolutism
one person has all the power
Guilds
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
Versailles
royal palace built by Louis XIV
Puritans
group of religious Christian people living in England, main
Intendant
French gov. official appointed by monarch to collect taxes and admin justice
Maria Theresa
1717-1780 Austria, Dynasty: Hapsburg, enemy Persia, Journeyed to hungry to find support of nobles, fought and won Austrian war of susession, strengthened army, religious catholic, lost 7 year war, cared for peasants and limited work
Major European Dynasties
Hapsburg, Bourbon, Hohenzollern, Romanov, Stuart, and Tudor
Who was the Sun King?
Louis XIV
inflation
a general and progressive increase in prices
Cardinal Richelieu12
minister of King Louis XVIII, appointed by Marie de Medici , had the real power, wanted to curb power of nobility, 32 generalities, military provinces France was divided into12
Jean Baptiste Colbert
economic advisor to Louis XIV
Richelieu
Church official - increased the power of the French monarchy and decrease the power of the Hugenots and nobles
charles V
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
Charles I
Fought w/ parliament began English Civil War - beheaded
Elizabeth I
highly educated queen, spoke 9 languages
Cabinet
a group of advisors or ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make government decisions
Catherine the Great
Pugachev's Rebellion; partition of Poland
Fronde
A political party in France, during the minority of Louis XIV., who opposed the government, and made war upon the court party.
habeas corpus
-1679--given to every prisoner-- the right to obtain a writ
-the king no longer has the right toimprison people for no reason
James I
Good- Growing power of Puritans, King James Bible
Bad- Refused to work with parliament
ENGLAND
Divine right
belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
Mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Phillip II
Absolute monarch of Spain, sent the armada against England to push back the Protestant tide
Cardinal Jules Mazarin
powerful chief minister for Louis XIV
Thirty Years' War
a conflict between Catholics and Protestants fought in Germany, Bohemia, and Austria (1618-1648) over religion, territory, and power
English Civil War
1640s, civil war fought between Charles and his supporters vs Cromwell and his supporters (roundheads/cavaliers vs. puritans)
treaty of nijmegen
(1678) Louis XIV gained additional Flemish towns and all of Franche-Comté
Skepticism
idea that nothing can ever be known for sure
Examples of languages that Russian military leaders were encouraged to learn
Turkish, Persian, Japanese
battle of lepanto
Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the Pope
Henry of Navarre
Political leader of the Huguenots and a member of the Bourbon dynasty, succeeded to the throne as Henry IV. He realized that as a Protestant he would never be accepted by Catholic France, so he converted to Catholicism. When he became king in 1594, the fighting in France finally came to an end.
Cardinal Mazarin19
This was the man who served under Cardinal Richelieu and laid the foundations for Louis XIV's expansionist policies19
War of the Austrian Succession
1700s-Prussia takes land from Austria-rise of Prussia, argument if women can rule, so Frederick uses it as an excuse to take land
cardinal mazarin
This was the man who served under Cardinal Richelieu and laid the foundations for Louis XIV's expansionist policies
Sir Francis Drake
1st englishman to sail around the world
Constitutional Monarchy
a system of governing in which the ruler's power is limited by law
Frederick the Great
Ruler of Prussia, known for his devotion to improving the military
what were Louis XIV's goals?
to make France economically, politically and culturally successful
philip II
son of Louis VII whose reign as king of France saw wars with the English that regained control of Normandy and Anjou and most of Poitou (1165-1223)
Louis XIII
king of France from 1610 to 1643 who relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu (1601-1643)
"L'état, c'est moi"
"I am the State"--Louis XIV, the Sun King
absolute monarchs
Kings of queens who held all of the power within their states' boundaries.
Peter the Great
Russian guy that was HUGE and wanted education, a sea port, and liked to learning new things
Catherine the Great (Russia)
the ruler most admired by the philosophies. She ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796. The well-educated empress read the works of philosophers, and she exchanged many letters with Voltaire. She ruled with absolute authority but also sought to reform Russia. She recommended allowing religious toleration and abolishing torture and capital punishment.
Palace of Versailles
a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles
What did Cardinal Mazarin do that caused him to be hated?
increased taxes and strengthened central government which caused nobles to riot against him
Frederick II (Prussia)
he was a good ruler who was like a father to his people. Religious toleration
Frederick William or Elector of Brandenburg (later known as the Great Elector)
inherited the title of elector of Brandenburg at 20 years old. After seeing the destruction of the Thirty Year's War, he decided that having a strong army was the only way to ensure safety. To protect their lands, he and his descendants moved toward absolute monarchy.
Law of Supply and Demand
the claim that the price of any good adjusts to bring the quantity supplied and the quantity demanded for that good into balance
The War of the League of Augsburg
France wanted to expand its borders, but Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and William of Orange (King of England) fight against him. No one wins; Treaty of Ryswyck ends the war and the fight between the Habsburgs and Bourbons.
Phillip II issue- helping the enemies
guilds had a tight hold on prices and it became cheaper to purchase foreign made products
Fredrick II
x
Hugenots
French Protestants
James II
England
Hapsburg
Royal ruling family
supporters of Charles
Cavaliers
English Bill of Rights
x
Boyar
landowning noble of Russia
Edward VI
helped by regent
Ivan the Terrible
Russian Absolute Ruler
William and Mary of England
x
"Sun King"
nickname for Louis XIV
service nobility
a reward system in Russia
What was his name?
The Sun King
Reformation
a 16th-century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the pope's authority.
Spanish Netherlands 10
10 Seventeen provinces, (Belgium, Modern Netherlands, Luxemborg) which are basically the Low Countries. They are called low be cause they are below sea level, the are surrounded by dikes and wind mills.
Divine Rights11
Monarch enjoyed god given power, nothing but god is higher than the king11
Restoration
monarch Charles II is restored to England's throne
commonwealth
a politically organized body of people under a single government
Henry of Narvarre
-pubically allowed Protestant faith abd embraced tradition and majority religions
-Bourbon dynasty; takes down the Catholic League of France
- politique who was a devout Protestant
divine rights
Monarch enjoyed god given power, nothing but god is higher than the king
El Greco
Spanish painter, regarded as a precursor of both Expressionism and Cubism
Peace of Westphalia
ended the thirty years war
"Royal Drill Sergeant"
nickname for Frederick the Great
Jean Bodin
an influential French writer that defined absolute rule as "The first characteristic of the sovereign prince is the power to make general and special laws, but—this qualification is important—without the consent of superiors, equals, or inferiors. If the prince requires the consent of superiors, then he is a subject himself; if that of equals, he shares his authority with others if that of his subjects, senate or people, he is not sovereign."
Huguenots 16
16 French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Absolute Monarch4
ruler with complete control over the government and the lives of the people.4
Absolute Monarch
ruler with complete control over the government and the lives of the people.
Mary I
"Bloody Mary" because she burned 300+ Protestants alive
Tudor dynasty
ruling family of England; ;H VIII, Mary, EI
Reconquista
Spanish attempt to get rid of Muslims- success
at what age did Louis XIV become king?
5
Mercantilism 23
23 an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
St. Bartholomew's day massacre
Resulted in over 10,000 Protestant deaths in France
Huguenot
a French Calvinist of the 16th or 17th centuries
7 Year's War
fought by England & allies against France—resulted in loss of France's north American possessions and in the growing independence of British North American colonies (aka French & Indian war in America)
Michel de Montaigne
Created the essay; Introduced the idea of skepticism
absolute monarchy
kings and queens who held all the power in their state boundaries
Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes wrote the Don Quixote de la Mancha, wrote about a poor Spanish nobleman who went a little crazy after reading too many books about heroic knights. Some critics believe that he was mocking chivalry, the knightly code of the middle Ages.
who does parliament get to overthrow James II
William of Orange
Compare absolute monarchy of France/limited monarchy of England
French monarchy: absolute where king has final say. England: Parliament has final say and king does not have total power.
The English bill of rights
-no suspending of parliament laws
-no levying of taxes w/o parliament consent
-no interfering w/ freedom of speech in parliament
-no penalty for a citizen who petitions the king about grievances
-no standing army in peacetime
-no excessive bail in the courts
Philip ll
in 359 bc he rose to the throne in Macedonia, lived in greece as a young man and admired everything about greece, wanted to make his kingdom strong emough to defeat the mighty Persian Empire, the father of Alexander the Great
William of Orange and Mary
Mary was protestant, not like her father, James II. She was married to William the Orange, of prince of the netherlands, helped make the bill of rights
in 1689 William and Mary agreed to what document?
English bill of rights
Causes of Thirty Years War/effect on Europe
Causes: Holy Roman Emperor closes Protestant Churches, Catholics feared rebellion, protestants feared persecution, causing war.
Effects: Germany destroyed, shifted from religion to politics, trade and agriculture decreased, ended religious war, France strengthened, began the modern state system.
Dutch East India Company
a company founded by the Dutch in the early 17th century to establish and direct trade throughout Asia.
What are the characteristics of an absolute monarch?
ruler who exercised strict control of government and rights of people
Hapsburgs of Austria/ Austrian Hapsburg
The war can be divided into two main phases: the phase of Hapsburg triumphs and the phase of Hapsburg defeats. During the first 12 years of the Thirty Years' War, Hapsburg armies from Austria and Spain crushed the troops hired by Protestant princes. They succeeded in putting down the Czech uprising. They also defeated the German Protestants who had supported the Czechs.
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