bio exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
move-; -mot
Holds sperm
Dinosaurs and stuff
two; twice; double
(ex. bicycle)
-only a couple of species
-bony fish
-about 5 species
-bony fish
revieves premade antibodies
passive immunity
a permanently frozen soil layer
teeth variance between diff mammals

4 Chemical Interactions

Electrostatic interactions
Hydrogen bond
van der Waals forces
Hydrophobic interactions
-55% of blood-water-solutes (ions, metabolites, wastes, hormones, proteins)
1 double stranded DNA molecule
Functions for proteins?
-Structural defensive
- Immune system
-Catalyst for reactions
study of structure of human body
ana= up
thus the study of the structure of the human body using disecion
transposable elements
DNA sequence
copies inserted into various sites in genome
jumping genes
Feeding Behaviors
Predator looks for for prey
typical weight of amino acid
135 daltons
Nucleosomes combined with DNA is called____
Viral Structure
core: (inside) contains hereditary material(DNA or RNA), also contains reverse transcriptase to help copy viral DNAprotein coat:surrounds the nucleic acidsenvelope:an outer layer formed from host cell's plasma membrane(lipid bilayer), it may contain "spikes" of glcoprotein
vascular- conducts water and minerals from soil to aerial parts of plant
Functions in water and mineral conduction. Woody part of tree. Star shaped in a dicot and ring shaped in a monocot cross section.
Photic zone
well-lit upper layer of the oceans
waxy layer covering the epidermis of plants that protects the plant against water loss and disease-causing organisms.
fluid that suspends organelles in the cytoplasm
Ionic Bonds
electrons are transferred from one atom to the other - ex. NaCl or tablesalt, atoms have full charge
A type of ribonucleic acid that functions as an interpreter in translation. Each tRNA molecule has a specific anticodon, pick up a specific amino acid, and conveys the amino acid to the appropirate codon on mRNA.

is the merging of two separate organisms to form a single new organism
endemic goiter
•dietary iodine deficiency, no TH, no -feedback, increased TSH stimulates hypertrophy
Filtration is when the _______________ forces fluid from the glomerulus (blood) across the Bowman's capsule epithelium into nephron
blood pressure
a whip like projection that rotates like a propellor and move the cell
A friend accidentally sends an email to you that contains a computer virus from his computer. Without knowing it, you add the virus to your computer when you open the email. This process of spreading the computer virus using emails is most like which of t
ablilty of an individual to survive and reproduce in a specific environment
having dissimilar pairs of genes for any hereditary characteristic.
Density-Dependent Controls
Factors taht affect individuals of a population according to how many individuals there are in a given area.
2 or more types of tissues get together to form an organ
eg. heart  has epithelia, connective, and muscle tissue
• Naming Convention
– named for substrate with -ase as the suffix• amylase enzyme digests starch (amylose)
Chapter 5: Passive Transport is diffusion across a memmbrne with no energy investment
Concentration Gradient

 "a gradual change in the concentration of solutes in a solution as a function of distance through a solution."

blastula stage
first stage that shows development of form, have cavity called a blastocoel
exocrine glands
–have ducts carry secretion to an epithelial surface or the mucosa of the digestive tract –‘external secretions’–extracellular effects (food digestion)
Character Displacement
The change that occurs to allow individuals to exploit different resources
allosteric inhibitor
binds and stabilizes inactive form of enzyme-a shape change in one subunit transmits to all others
a specialized part of a cell having some specific function; a cell organ.
specific heat
the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of a substance to change its temperature by 1 degree C
(Blank) is the process of unraveling (blank) so that they are no longer functional.
a. denaturation; proteins
b. solubility; monosaccharides
c. dehydration synthesis; proteins
d. catalysis; double helices
a. denaturation; proteins
indirect flight muscles
wings attached to eachother, works as 1 wing
Molecular Systematics
the disciplined of that uses DNA and other molecular data to determine evolutionary relationships.
seive tubes
strand of cells made by sieve tube elements-ends connected by sieve plates (contain pores)-companion cells: provide nourishment
Species Richness
How many species are there?Total # of species in a given area
polar molecule
a molecule in which the centroid of the positive charges is different from the centroid of the negative charges.
3 steps of cell communication (in order)
1 reception
2 transduction
3 response
Recombinant DNA
two or more segments of DNA that have been combined by humans into a sequence that does not exist in nature
the dicots constitute the class dicotyledonae which includes
roses,clover, tomotoes, oaks and daisies and the flowering trees such as maple, oak, elm, apple and dogwood.
any of two or more forms of a chemical element, having the same number of protons in the nucleus, or the same atomic number, but having different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus, or different atomic weights. There are 275 isotopes of the 81 stable elem
Budding in sponges is?
is an out growth of a sponge that detaches and the detached thing becomes a new sponge. it also reproduces gemmules. 
4. Forth mass extinction
1. 215 million years ago 2. Less Devastating
three distinct populations of cells behind the root cap:
– zone of cellular division– zone of cellular elongation– zone of cellular maturation
What is unique about blood in pulmonary arteries compared with blood in other arteries?
It is loaded with carbon dioxide.
Why do plants often suffer from a shortage of phosphate even though there is abundant phosphate inthe soil?
Present but often unavailable-stuck to other compounds so plantsPO4-form insoluble can’t get itComplexes with Fe and Al in soilThe PO4 does not come off
59. Explain what is meant by the terms cotransport process and transport maximum.
Cotransport process refers to the active transport of one solute "uphill" (against a concentration gradient) coupled to the "downhill" (with a concentration gradient) movement of another during tubular reabsorption. Transport maximum reflects the number o
What does group I intron represent? How are they removed?
introns that are part of the primary transcript of rRNAs. They are removed by two esterification reactions with guanosine involved as a cofactor.
Which of the following is a possible use of recombinant bacteria?
all of the above A. A gene for pest resistance can be inserted into plants. B. A gene can be used to create a strain of bacteria that can clean up toxic waste. C. Large amounts of protein can be produced that will help dissolve blood clots in heart attack therapy. D. Large amounts of protein can be produced that can be used to make snow form at higher temperature.
modified leaf
divide into
stomach secretions
"HCl, pepsin"
an agent that initiates
Cryphonectrin parasitica
-chestnut blight
-plant pathogen
The study of life
Prevailing long term weather conditions.
Influences ecosystem structure.
Gets long term responses such as adaptations.
A transporter that couples conformational changes to an energy source.

Levels of Organization

Organismal Level


organ systems



Smooth ER
Outer surface lacks ribosomes
synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs and detox of poisons
Bacteria- produce endospores (hard heat-resistant capsules)
lineage of amniotes: evolved muscular diaphragm, turbinate bones, heterodont teeth, some endothermic
When is CO2 decreased
with metabolic alkalosis
geographic isolation
populations physically isolated from other populations by distance/barrier
-when water molecules cling to dissimilar particles
"hairpin like structure, controls DNA translation, regulates Ln14 example in class"
2nd most common skin cancer
squamous cell

Type of endocytosis used for large solid material

1. Insects2. Gastropods3. Birds4. Cartilaginous fish
Cenozoic name?
the many proteins specified by bacterial DNA are synthesized on tiny particles called
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
in club mosses, terminal clusters of leaves that bear sporangia.
the passive transport of water across a selectively pereable membrane
increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment
Covalent bonds
can be single or double bonds

One of the most important discoveries in

microbiology was the development by ............  of a


solid nutritional medium for isolating pure cultures


Robert Koch
area of effect
–nervous-targeted and specific (one organ)–endocrine-general, widespread effects (many organs)
-Allows for clotting (i.e Fibrinogen to fibrin)
-prevents spread of microbes
-prevents blood loss
Inflammatory Response
pyruvate dehydrogenase
catalyzes the pyruvate processing in the second step of glucose oxidation
Which of the following organisms are common soil inhabitants and grow in the form of a filamentous mass of branching cell chains that superficially resembles a fungus?
a cell containing two sets of homologous chromosomes
to develop to a different adaptive state or condition
the hollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleavage during early embryonic development
What is the phenotypic ratio for a cross btw two dihybrids?
– Potential energy
energy contained in an object because of its position or internal state
inhibitors do what?
these bind to enzymes, slowing reaction rates down
How many genes are in the human genome?
Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)
•composed of two structures with independent origins and separate functions–adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)–neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)
Okazaki fragments
the lagging strand makes these when it synthesizes away from the replication fork
left side
speech, language, logic, right side of your body
gene pool
the aggregate of genes in a population at any one time
Where are bacteroids found?
Bacteriod= bacterium sourounded by PM from host
organ system
A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions
Archaea and Eukarya Similarities
No Peptidoglycan cell wall, several kinds of RNA polymerase, Introns in genes, growth not affected by anibiotics
males don't defend a territory but try to detect receptive females as soon as possible
scramble competition polygyny
Evidence for Acoustic Communication
males reared in isolation produce THEIR species' callHybrid (raised in isolation) = call components from both species
bile duct
a large duct that transports bile from the liver, having in humans and many other vertebrates a side branch to a gallbladder for bile storage
the first phase of aerobic respiration produces
2 net ATP molecules
Viral stds
HIV = AIDS• HPV = genital warts and Cervical CANCER• HBV = Hepatitis B• HSV-1 = cold sores• HSV-2 = genital herpes
-have a portion of primary phloem on either side of primary xylem
one of the two organs in the back of the abdominal cavity that excrete urine, regulate fluid and electrolytes, and act as endocrine glands
The 9 major phylums does make up 50%?
True or False?
False, silly..its about 99% 
In making recombinant DNA, what is the problem with using two different restriction enzymes?
Don't have matching sticky ends
How do light microscopes differ from electron microscopes?
Light microscopes can examine living specimens; electron microscopes cannot.
at scale of a ribosome or organelle or cell, gravity is nonconsequential; dominant forces are ________
charge- or polarity-based electrostatic attractions
What is a disaccharide? And how are they linked?
A disaccharide is two monosaccharids bonded by a glycosidic linkage, a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
Why is there an imbalance in the Oxygen Cycle?
Hole in ozone layer in atmosphere
What is the central vacuole and what does it do?
Found in plant cells, which accounts for more than half of the volume of the cell. Serves as storage, and helps with structure.
Why do people that eat a high sodium diet have a higher blood pressure?
Eating a high sodium diet leads to hypotonic cells loosing water to the hypertonic blood environment due to osmosis. Cells shrink and water is added to blood therefore increasing blood pressure
Biotic components
Nucleating actin
unstable, readily moving
Forelimbs; covered by feathers
Three types of Lipids
A bonds with _
High pH level
Substance is basic
3 conditions
1. variation
2. genetically inherited variation
3. differing fitness due to variation

Major Eukaryotic microbes


molds, yeast, mushrooms...


Paramecium, Amoebae…


Algae       plants
(aka subunits) molecules covantely bonded together through a condensation rxn
Quaternary (1.8mya)
Present Era of Earth
neural crest
characteristic of vertebrates: group of embryonic cells found on either side of the neural tube as it develops. cells disperse throughout the embryo where they contribute to the development of the skeleton
What is common with HIV patients
"beside the tribe"
consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all of its descendants
-proteins embedded in the cell membrane that regulate the flow of water
coagulation or coalescence of finely divided or colloidal particvles into largeer particels
Allows scientists to visualize the collective transcription of thousands of genes in different cells and tissues
a generalization that explains many observations -- has been tested and researchers have yet to find evidence that disproves it
Crenarchaeota, "Extremophiles"
What does Archaea metabolism create?
cells in ______ gain water
hypotonic solution
An immune response in which the binding of antibodies to the surface of a microbe facilitates phagocytosis of the microbe by a macrophage.
Inorganic Compound
Any compound that doesn't contain carbon
Tropical forests
- Warm, moist belt along the equator• Most diverse ecosystem on Earth• Large-scale human destruction• Endanger many species, may alter world climate: absorbs CO2
Electron Shells
orbital levels, lowest number closest to nucleus
Pyrimidines form which nucleotide bases?
C, U, T
Consists of various species that lack a common ancestor
Anatomy of Hypothalamus
•regulates primitive functions of the body from water balance and thermoregulation to sex drive and childbirth
__________ derive most body heat from their own metabolism
endoplasmic reticulum
an extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells.
How many periods of mass extinction have occurred in the last 600 million years?
human chrom banding patters match most closely to those of:
the science of heredity, dealing with characteristics of related organisms resulting from the interaction of their genes and the environment
Define homeostasis.
Process by which organisms mantain a relatively stable internal environment
Where might you find simple squamous epithelial tissue?
lung capillaries
• Cohesion
tendency of like molecules to cling to each other– water is very cohesive due to its hydrogen bonds
1.Where do the light reactions take place?
Thylakoid Membrane
Asexual Reproduction: Disadvantages
– Since all offspring are identical– low ability to adapt to environmental change
In other RNA viruses, the genome is transcribed from RNA to DNA by a viral reverse transcriptase.
functions of cortex/pith
support (fill w/ water --> turgor)storage (store startch)photosynthesis
161. What is the name given to the female homologue to the penis?
No. Because the tracheal system touches all cells in the body
Amphibians: Positive pressure
a mass of protoplasm found in most cells, directing their growth, metabolism, reproduction, and functioning in the transmission of genic characters
octet rule
states that the outer shell is most stable when is has 8 electrons; either loses or fains to make stable
What iss bioinformatics?
The use of computational tools to store, organize, and analyze the huge volume of data that comes from "high throughput" methods.

Gametophytes in seed plants (megaspore)
Never leaves the:

Gametophytes in seed plants (megaspore)
aka: megagametophte/ eggs
Never leaves the: sporophyte
Functions of the Skin
1. Regulation of body temp2. Protection3. Sensation4. Excretion5. Synthesis of vitamin D
- In an angiosperm, a short stem with up to four sets of modified leaves, bearing structures that function in sexual reproduction.
We would expect that a 15-nucleotide sequence will direct the production of a polypeptide that consists of
5 amino acids.
the part of the arm between the elbow and the wrist
What are some common characteristics of the Myxini?
Cartilage skull, jawless, no vertebrae, segmented muscles; small brain, ears, and nasal opening; mouths contain tooth-like formations.
Extinction of Dinosaurs caused most likely by _____ and evidence
-Asteroid/Bollide Impact -Thin layer of iridium that separates sediments from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras-Iridium is very rare on earth but common in extraterrestrial objects that fall to earth -Extinction effects larger vertebrates more
-prop roots-roots that do not form from the primary root; instead, form from stems and leaves
an end organ or a group of end organs of sensory or afferent neurons, specialized to be sensitive to stimulating agents, as touch or heat.
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An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome.
What are the functions of the muscular system?
movement, posture, heat production
1) What are the four characteristics of Phylum Chordata?
1) Largest animals, Presence of flexible, dorsal NOTOCHORD-which gets replaced by our vertebral column, hollow dorsal nerve tube-> brain, spinal cord, Gill slits present-> at least in embryo, and they have a post anal tail
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)
are found in 80% of all land plant species
What is the difference between organic compounds and inorganic compounds?
Organic compounds are only found in living organisms and inorganic compounds are found only in the nonliving world.
Why and when does genetic drift occur
In small populations because of the Founder affect and the Bottleneck affect
165. What is the purpose of the male bulbourethral gland?
They produce a thick, clear mucus, some of which drains into the spongy urethra when a man becomes sexually excited and neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra.
1. binds one or more molecules o ions on one side of the membrane...leads...conforomational changes....leads passage to other side of membrane
2. binds it substrate in such a way that it shields the polar or charged groups from the nonpolar interior of the membrane
-non-parasitic flatworm
used for DROPSY
-muscular pumping chamber
Other Solutes
1% of plasma
prostate gland
"enzymes, prostaglandins, bicarbonate"
Francis Crick
-1916-2004-Physicist, neuroscientist, molecular biologist-1962 co-recipient of Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine-“Central dogma” : genetic info flow in cells is unidirectional from DNA to RNA to Protein-Played important role in research related to revealing the Genetic Code
External Environment
pollution, sunlight, temperature, diet, radiation, drugs
Sticky secretion of prokaryotes outside the cell wall that serves as protection from attack by a host's immune system and as glue for adhering to a substrate or other prokaryotes
stack of thylakoids in chloroplast
phylum that includes non-vascular plants (mosses)
identical copy of DNA molecule
plant enzyme that breaks the cross-links (hydrogen bonds) between cellulose microfibrils and other cell wall constituents, loosening the wall's fabric
Cystic fibrosis
Recessive genetic disease. chloride transport channels are defective, causing a mucus that coats certain cells to become thicker and stickier than normal. Coats organs and causes poor absorption of nutrients, chronic bronchitis, and recurrent bacterial infections. Can be treated by daily antibiotics.
A molecule that stimulates the expression of a specific gene or set of genes
formation of urine
-pressure filtration-reabsorption of water-selective reabsorption-tubular secretion-further reabsorption of water
voltage-regulated gates
change in electrical potential (voltage) across the plasma membrane
Structure of Protein
amino acids-> monomers-> polymers(polypeptides)-> protein
Environmental science
Social, political, ethical, and economical problems related to human impact on ecosystems (and each other)
direct exchange of DNA through conjugation tube or sex pili
different versions of genes are called
Food web
model that shows many interconnected food chains and pathways in which energy and matter flow through an ecosystem
cylinder rods that fill muscle fibers and contain filaments that can shorten and cause contraction (two filaments are Actin(thin) and Myosin(thick))
small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of proteins begin
Two molecules that have the same chemical formula but different structures.
Ecological Role of Cndiaria
Jellyfishes: cosmopolitan; bad reputation with stinging cellsSea Anemones: large polyps; solitaryCorals: small polyps; colonial; secrete CaCO3 baseCoral Reefs: -distribution: warm, clear waters    -Diversity of phyla: greatest    -Size: largest structures built by organisms    -Provide home and groceries for many species
A graphic representation of the pattern ofdiversity in a group of organisms is called a
phylogenetic tree
Cellular Respiration 
catabolic pathway for the production of ATP
Class Cephalaspidomorphi characteristics are...?
Suctorial mouth w/rasping teeth; nasal sac not connected to buccal cavity; 7 pairs of pharyngeal pouches
the fact that digestion, circulation, the produciton of human hormoones and disease are not results of a vital or supernatural force, as was once though, but are effected through physico-chemical mechanisms supports the philosophy of
Serves as hereditary material in all cells and many viruses. This is the largest molecule in the cell. All 46 chromosomes of a human cell, ranging from 2-5 um in diameter contain approximately one cm of this if it were played end to end.
division resulting to two new individuals of roughly the same size
binary fission
circular fold
large valvular flaps projecting into the lumen of the bowel.
oceanic zone
zone beyond the edge of the continental shelf divided into photic and aphotic zone.
What is Gastrulation?
phase of embryonic development that transforms blastula .adds more cells to embryo in layers
What's the difference between eukaryotics?
-presence of a cytoskeleton-Compartmentalization (nucleus & organelles)
Tight Junctions
-the closely associated areas of two cells whose membranes join together forming a virtually impermeable barrier to fluid
-a type of junctional complex present only in vertebrates
-also hold cells together
3rd line of defense
"specific defense, lymphocytes and antibodies"
Anticodon is found on which type of molecule?
Beadle and Tatum
1940s: worked with bread mold (Neurospora) and proposed the "One gene, one enzyme" theory-they used two mutant strains of moldMUTANT A-had a defect in enzyme that convertes citrulline to agrnineMUTANT B- had a defect in enyzme that converted ornithine to citruilline
Having one of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species.(Human gamete is haploid)
(배우자, 생식세포-gamete)
what does rifampicin do?
targets beta subunit or RNAP
the old kingdom for bacteria, now its Archaea and Bacteria
pH scale
The measure of the acidity or the basicity of a solution
evolution and diversity of vertebrates
1. cartilaginous fish
2. ray-finned fish
3. coelacanths
4. lungfishes
5. tetrapods - amphibians
What is a liposome?
An artificial lipid bilayer that self-assembles into a spherical vesicle or vesicles when in an aqueous environment.
in light dependent reaction, electrons lost from ps1 get replaced by ____ and electrons lost from ps2 and replaced by ____
-these reactions produce _____ and _____
-splitting water
Tetrads of chromosomes are aligned at the center of the cell; independent assortment soon follows.
II. Metaphase I.
occurs when K+ ions leach out of the cell, and the inside of the cell becomes negative
Cloning Vector
A carrier used to clone a gene and transfer it from one organism to another in genetic engineering.
myogenic heart vs. neurogenic heart
myogenic: the arrangement of pacemaker within the heart of vertebrates
neurogenic: of most arthropods, controlled by motor nerves originating outside the heart
summary of transcription in bacteria
Transcription begins when sigma, as part of the holoenzyme complex, binds to the promoter at the start of a gene. Once binding occurs, RNA polymerase begins to synthesize mRNA by adding ribonucleotides that are complementary to the template strand in DNA. Transcription ends when a termination signal at the end of the gene leads to the formation of a hairpin in the mRNA, disrupting the transcription complex.
ATP gives up energy when it is converted to
ADP and phosphate
apical meristems in root and shoot give rise to threedistinct populations of cells:
– protoderm– ground meristem– procambium
Good genes theory
-A female chooses a mate based on a trait that is somehow linked to better genes. ie gray tree frogs, frogs with long calls have better genes.
What are two problems with Biological Species definiation
What about asexually reproducing species? Extinct Organisms-how do we classify?
Cone cells (color vision in bright light)
outer segment tapers to a point
Adaption Strategies for Food Shortage
5 villages in Kabias in Nepal. used
Small Livestock distibuation
organic farming
had positive influence on food production and income generation
What is hypertonic, isotonic and hypotonic solutions.
Hypertonic- H2O moves out of the cell shrinksIsotonic- H2O moves into and out of the cell and stays normal sizeHypotonic- H2O moves into the cell and expands
Much of the biomass goes into detritus matter. Is this considered an inefficient waste?
No. much of this detritus matter contains nutrients, which are needed in plant growth
What are the 5 adaptations that had to occur in Class Amphibia to live on land?
1. Legs to support body’s weight2. Lungs to extract oxygen from air3. Redesigned heart to drive larger muscles4. Reproduction in H2O to prevent egg drying5. System to prevent whole body desiccation
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