Absolute Monarchs Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
hugenots
French Protestants
divine right
x
Maria Thersa
x
Huguenots
French Protestants
Henry VIII
England
Edict of Nantes
x
louis xiv
good advisors
Jan Vermeer
Dutch painter
William and Mary
England
Peter the Great
westernized Russia
Queen Mary I
devount catholic
cardinal richelieu
French prelate and statesman
English Civil War
Charles
cavaliers
Oliver Cromwell
round heads
Francis Bacon
enlightenment writer elizabeth I
Philip I
Catholic King of Spain
Junkers
Prussia's landowning nobility resisted the king's growing power. Frederick William I gave them the exclusive right to be officers in his army.
l'etat, c'est moi
I am the state
Intendants
Created by Napoleon-kept watch over their own area of France -allowed Napoleon not to have to worry about petty problems.
Intendants20
Created by Napoleon-kept watch over their own area of France -allowed Napoleon not to have to worry about petty problems.20
Guilds
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
Stuart
English ruling family; Jameses and Charleses
Spanish Netherlands
Seventeen provinces, (Belgium, Modern Netherlands, Luxemborg) which are basically the Low Countries. They are called low be cause they are below sea level, the are surrounded by dikes and wind mills.
Inflation
increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money
maria theresa
improvements in education, medicine, military
Essay
expressed a persons thoughts and opinions
Asiento
permission to send enslaved Africans to Spain's American colonies.
Charles V
Good- Spread of Protestantism:Peace of Augsburg
Bad- too much land to govern
HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
Jean Baptiste Colbert
economic advisor to Louis XIV
Elizabeth I
monarch of England, greatest domestic problem was the Puritans, had to face the Spanish who wanted to restore Catholicism in England
Jean Bapiste Colbert
Believed in mercantilism. Exported more, imported less. He gave subsidies to benefit French companies. Tried to create a balance of trade. Also placed high tariffs on imported goods. Recognized the importance of colonies. Helped the French migrate to Canada to obtain resources. Transportation was vital. Built roads and canals. Also built over 100 warships. France had become the industrial leader of Europe.
Eastern European Absolutism
Absolute monarchies emerged in Austria, Prussia, and Russia that exercised enormous influence until 1918 and created the authoritarian tradition that lasted into the last twentieth century. All of them were impressed by Louis XIV's accomplishments, but their governments differed in that the eastern European governments were based on social class and structure. Serfdom was still in existence and its peasantry was greatly oppressed, the nobility was extremely powerful, and the middle class was weak.
commonwealth
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
power of monarchs
regulate everything from religious worship to social gatherings, anything to make them appear to have more control
James II
Good- England refused to let him govern absolutely, after he left country English Bill of Rights signed by William and Mary:Glorious Revolution
Bad- tried to rule as absolute
ENGLAND
absolutism
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
treaty of nijmegen
(1678) Louis XIV gained additional Flemish towns and all of Franche-Comté
Mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Louis XIV17
king of France from 1643 to 171517
Spanish Armada
the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588
Henry IV
issued the Edict of Nantes, converted to the Catholic religion to win the crown of France
Oliver Cromwell
Lord Protector of England during the Puritan Protectorate
Rise of Prussia
Beginning with Frederick the Great's rule in the 1700s, Prussia rose in power. His religious tolerance and reform helped.
Absolute Monarch
ruler with complete control over the government and the lives of the people.
What was the name of his royal family?
Hohenzollern
Sir Francis Drake
pirated spanish ships, knighted by elizabeth I
Charles II
King of England and Scotland and Ireland during the Restoration (1630-1685)
Lord Howard
Howard took advantage of his high birth to sustain a long and distinguished career. Anne Boleyn was his first cousin. He was a grandson of the 2nd Duke of Norfolk, the hero of Flodden; he went on to serve Mary as long high admiral and Elizabeth as Lord Chamberlain. In 1569 he accompanied Hunsdon on the campaign which crushed the northern rebellion and in 1575 was given the Garter. In 1585 he was appointed Lord High Admiral for life, holding the position until he was 83; he held supreme command when the Armada was destroyed in 1588. In 1596, with Essex, he stormed Cadiz to forestall another Armada. The following year he was created earl of Nottingham and served as Lord High Steward until 1615.
Who was Louis XIV's financial minister
Jean Baptiste Colbert
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Resulted in over 10,000 Protestant deaths in France
Cardinal Richelieu 13
13 minister of King Louis XVIII, appointed by Marie de Medici , had the real power, wanted to curb power of nobility, 32 generalities, military provinces France was divided into
Henry of Navarre
became Henry IV and started the Bourbon dynasty, converted to Catholicism to save his dynasty, "Paris is well worth a Mass"
Battle of Lepanto
a naval battle fought between a Spanish and Venetian fleet and the German navy. The Spanish won. The battle meant that European navies ahd surpassed the Muslims. The Turks could no longer challenge Europeans on international routes.
cardinal marazin
ruled France when Louis XIV was too young to make decisions for himself
English Civil War Reasons
featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy following execution of previous king.
What attributed to Spain's decline?
-Hapsburg lost contorl and territory.
-Treasury drained on wars.
- Equal rights
- Foreign goods cheaper
Charles I
son of James I, devoted to divine right theory, war, bad at dealing with parliament- asked parliament for funds, they refuse until he sighs petition of rights, impeaches top advisors when long parliament wanted him to pay for his defeat in Bishop's war, only allows them to meet less often, arrests opposing members of parliament gains control of army-causing civil war
divine right theory
the idea that god created the monarchy, and that the monarch acted as God's representative on Earth
Thirty Years' War
a European conflict over religion and territory and for power among ruling families, lasting from 1618 to 1648
what did Fredrick II encourage?
religious toleration and legal reforms
treaty of nijmengen
Treaty signed by Dutch and French when French tried to take over Spanish Netherlands, France gained several towns and a region called Franche-Comite.
Spanish Armada 6
6 the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
Philip II2
son of Louis VII whose reign as king of France saw wars with the English that regained control of Normandy and Anjou and most of Poitou (1165-1223)2
Louis XIII
king of France from 1610 to 1643 who relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu (1601-1643)
balance of power
Not one country is too much more powerful than the other or else smaller countries fear of being taken over
Philip II
son of Louis VII whose reign as king of France saw wars with the English that regained control of Normandy and Anjou and most of Poitou (1165-1223)
How long did Louis XIV rule?
- Ruled for 72 year.
Wars for French Expansion
Louis XIV also fought many expensive wars for meager territorial expansion. His goal was to achieve glory for France, but the wars were not as successful as he hoped.
restoration of the monarch
begins after Oliver is removed from power
War of Spanish Succession
This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V
Palace of Versailles
a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles
Frederick II or Frederick the Great
he followed his father, Frederick William's military policies when he came to power. However, he also softened some of his father's laws. With regard to domestic affairs, he encouraged religious toleration and legal reform. According to his theory of government, he believed that a ruler should be like a father to his people.
Peter the great( Peter romanov)
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government. Went incognito to bring back ideas from western European nations to Russia . Very tall man
St. Batholomew's Day Massacre
done in the name of religion and it had the opposite effect of the Guise's intent--> it unified the protestants against the Catholics
Why did James II dissolve Parliament?
he was catholic and he appointed catholics to high positions
Law of supply and demand
the claim that the price of any good adjusts to bring the quantity supplied and the quantity demanded for that good into balance
How did Peter reformulate the tax collecting system?
by registering each person instead of households
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