BIO FINAL EXAM Flashcards

Terms Definitions
• Membrane-enclosedvesicles.• Garbage disposal• Contains enyzmescalled hydrolases thatdigest biomolecules.• Degrades food, cellulardebris, and oldorganelles.
Mitochondria
Pyrimidines
a Six carbon ring
 
Cytosine
Thymine (DNA)
Uracil (RNA) 
Robert Hooke  
Discovered Cells in Cork
Examples of Prokaryotic Celled Kingdoms
Monera (Bacteria)
 
 
 
AIDS Stands For...
 
 
 
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
• DNA replication - duplicates genome for celldivision,• DNA maintenance and repair to preventmutation• DNA transcription - to make the proteins thatcarry out cellular functions• Pores form channels that connect thenucleoplasm to the c
Nucleolus
Glycolysis
stage of cellular respiration that occurs in the cytoplasm and does not require oxygen to generate ATP

all organisms can undergo this step

1 glucose gives you 2 ATP and waster products
What smaller organelle is located inside the nucleus?
the Nucleolus
Rudolf Virchow
studies cells in diseaseCells never arise from non-cellular matter.• Pasteur (1822-1895) proved thatspontaneous generation did not occur• Diseases arise from changes in specificcells.• We summarize the work of Virchow,Schlieden and Schwann as the CellTheory
19. Based on information you learned from the article Recipe for Resurrection, which of the following is thecase?a. We can have mammoth cloned and living in a zoo within the next yearb. Thirty percent of the DNA for a cloned mammoth would have to come fro
B
 
 
Isotopes 
 
 
Atoms of an element that have an altered amount of neutrons and therefore a different mass number. 
Fission in Prokaryotes
One circular chromosome.– As DNA replicates, each of the two resulting DNAmolecules attaches to the plasma membrane.– As the cell grows, newplasma membrane isadded between theattachment points, andthe DNA molecules aremoved apart.– Cytokinesis separatesthe one cell into two,each with a complete
An example of a decomposer would be:a. vultures that feed on dead organismsb. bacteria in a septic systemc. organisms that only feed on plantsd. all of the above
B
 
 
 
1 inch = x cm.
 
 
 
1 inch = 2.54 cm.
Global climate change
any significant change in measures of climate (temp, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer)
 
 
 
Def of Carboxyl Group 
 
 
 
An Oxygen Double Bonded to a carbon which is bonded to a Hydroxyl Group 
2nd law of thermodynamics
the amount of disorder, or entropy, in the universe is increasing

(things are always naturally breaking down into smaller pieces)
oo-
egg*
atel-
imperfect
multi-
many, much
diploid
double; twofold.
mutualism?
benefits both species
animal
eukaryotic, multicellular heterotrophs that ingest their food.
-75% of organisms
Phylum NEMATODA
-80 K SpeciesRoundworms
mutation
unpredictable, spontaneous. mutations in somatic cells don't get passed down.
biometry
statistical analysis of biological data
fungi absorption
secretes exoenzymes
 
absorb small oranic molecules
 
chemoheterotrophs
Tyrosine Kinase
(Phosphorylates) Transports a phosphate group from ATP to tyrosine in a protein. Insulin receptors ARE tyrosine kinases!!!
name a serious pollutant
nitrogenous wastes
Regulate substances entering/leaving through selectively permeable membrane. Basic structure is fluid mosaic model in which proteins/carbs float in lipid "lake" called phospholipid bilayer. Proteins in this bilayer have number of specialized functions dep
Phospholipid Bilayer
host
the larger partner in a symbiosis
What secretes estrogen and progesterone?
corpus luteum
Week One
 
What term describes the movement of water from high to low concentration?
 
 
Diffusion
Chitin
-a long chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose
-material of cell walls
-forms the exoskeloton of anthropods
-used to make a strong and flexible surgical thread
-currently harvested largely from shrimp cells
Atom
The smallest basic unit of matter.
refractory period
period of resistance to stimulationAbsolute refractory period- as long as Na+ gates are openRelative refractory period- is occuring only to a small patch of membrane at one time and happens as long as K+ gates are open
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interferes with protein function & absorbtion
plasmids
circular sequences of DNA in bacteria
carbon
a widely distributed element that forms organic compounds in combination with hydrogen, oxygen, etc., and that occurs in a pure state as diamond and graphite, and in an impure state as charcoal.
Visible Light
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected as various colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength from about 380 nm to about 750 nm.
ion channel
A transmembrane protein channel that allows a specific ion to flow across the membrane down its concentration gradient.
Gene Flow
the exchange of genes between different species (an extreme case referred to as hybridization) or between different populations of the same species caused by migration following breeding
acids
substances that give up protons during chemical reactions and raise the hydrogen ion concentration of water
Ecosystem
the biotic community and its abiotic environment functioning as a system
Fusing Sponges
-advantages: surface area (double in size)
-disadvantages: risking chance that one of the colonies or the other might take over the reproduction of the entire colongy
Osteoblasts
Bone-forming cells. Found on the bone surface under the enosteum and periosteum. Baby cell.
What animal burrows underground to lower temp
gopher turtles
Biological Species Concept
Based on reproductive isolation. Populations of a species can and are interbreeding. Members of a species are reproductively isolated from other species. This concept holds up well for animals, not so well for plants and bacteria.
nectar + pollen
Monocot vs. Eudicots: Monocot Differences
evolutionary history of a group of organisms
- Phylogeny
eukaryote
any organism having as its fundamental structural unit a cell type that contains specialized organelles in the cytoplasm, a membrane-bound nucleus enclosing genetic material organized into chromosomes, and an elaborate system of division by mitosis or mei
alcohol fermentation
pyruvate --> ethanol with release of carbon dioxide
Seed Dormancy is usually a feature of seeds that inhabit ??????? Environments
Seasonal
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Stores genetic information coded in the sequence of their monomer building blocks.
movement of water
distributes thermal energy around the globe

Microbial Physiology

Study of the nutrients that microbes require for
metabolism and growth and the products that they generate
Linked Genes
Genes located on the same chromsome tending to be inherited together.
chemical reaction
the process that forms and breaks chemical bonds that hold atoms together.
Plant cells often have a large membrane-bound sac that is used for storing water and other substances. this organelle is called a
central vacuole
Emphysema
dead air which increases the size of the chest
biokinetics
the study of movements of or within organisms.
loam
the most fertile soil type, made up of roughly equal amounts of sand, silt, and clay
What are Geometric Isomers?
Geometric isomers are isomers that vary around a double bond.  The two types of geographic isomers are cis isomers which have the varing element on the same side (top or bottom) and trans isomer which has one element on top and one on bottom.
Budding (asexual)
New individual grows on the side of the adult and drops off. Hydra, other cnidarians
heat capacity
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 degree C
What enzyme is used to create a strand of DNA from RNA?
reverse transcriptase
DNA organization
On a chromosome, every gene has a ....
lipase
any of a class of enzymes that break down fats, produced by the liver, pancreas, and other digestive organs or by certain plants.
What are the consequences of climate change?
Increasing temperatures change ecosystem, increase species extinctions, stressing coral reefs (coral bleaching). Increased water levels
Hypocotyl
The part of the axis of a plant embryo or seedling plant that is below the cotyledons
Most ecosystems are solar powered. This means that...
Plants and other photosynthetic organisms convert light energy to chemical energy, which is then available to animals.
membrane attack complex (MAC)
a mulitunit protein formed by the activation of completment proteins; the complex creates water channels in the microbial plasma membrane and causes the microbe to swell and burst
What are examples of two nontropic hormones?
Prolactin (PRL) which stimulates lactation, and Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) which influences skin pigmentation and metabolism
What's the function of COLLENCHYMA CELLS?
-a supportive cell type (for strength), occurring in groups
What kind of birds are Anseriformes? Describe them.
Swans, geese, and ducksAll members have webbed front toes and long breast bones
Another chemical compound leaves much of the male reproductive system intact. What is its name, and what does it affect?
gossypol, makes sperm unable to swim as well
zygote: an ______ produced when two ________ combined into a _____ cell.
cleavage: the rapid series of _______ division that immediatly follows _________.
morula: an _______ at an _____ stage of embryonic development.
blastula: an embryo composed of a
zygote: an organism produced when two gametes combined into a single cell.
cleavage: the rapid series of mitotic division that immediatly follows fertilization.
morula: an embryo at an early stage of embryonic development.
blastula: an embryo composed of a single layer of cells surrounding a fluid space.
blastocoel: the fluid space.
4. thinner, shorter and more flexible than microtubules; in total length of all actin filaments in most cells is ~30 X's that of microtubules
4. Globular actin is basic subunit, highly conserved
2. Asymmetry begins at the ER, the point of membrane biogenesis....enzymes bound tot the cytosilc monolayer insert newly synthesized phospholipids into that monolayer
3. Symmetrical growth of bilayer is accomplished by the action of flippases that flip selective phospholipids from cytosolic monolayer to inner monolayer
if a DNA sequence is coded from 5' 3' what will the transcription process produce?
3' to 5' and A are matched with U
mycet-
fungus
cartilage
-cis
Femoral
femur thigh
oxy-
sharp, acid, oxygen
Rhizomes
horizontal, underground stem
Biotic
Living; interactions between organisms
Physical charateristic of alleles
phenotype
helix
the shape of DNA
heterotrophs
can't make their own food
liverworts 
nonvascular
 
form huge mats near streams, extremely prolific, produce microhabitats for other organisms to grow
 
thalloid - flattened - looks like a liver
 
division/phylum Hepatophyta
 
small (2-20 mm wide)
 
highly dependent on water (close to wet ground)
Menstrual cycle
prepares uterus for pregnancy
Each ribosome has _________ subunits.
two
Eucaryotic chromosomes have ____ origin(s) of replication.
Multiple
Mitochondria
Site of cellular respiration, creates ATP
root system:
below-ground; takes in H2O andnutrients from the soil
fungi as decomposers
nitrogen cycles
 
decomposing food - common mold Rhizopus
(blank) is granular material visible within the nucleus
Chromatin
Convection
heat exchange with surface, air currents
Collecting Vessels


 course through many lymph nodes
organelle
a specialized structure in a eukaryotic cell
Cytoskeleton
network of protein fibers that organize the cell and gives structural support
Benthos
the communities of organisms living in the benthic zone of an aquatic biome
Sclerenchyma
Thick secondary cell walls, dead at maturity
Character
the features of a phenotype (eye color)
transpiration
water loss in leaves occurs by diffusion
the diffusion of water vapor from the leaf to the air
regulated by opening nd closing of stomata
Tracheophyta
+ All vascular plants
+ you mow it!
+two types
(1) Seedless vascular plants
(2) Seed Plants 
 
 
 
 
Epistasis
Means "stand on" and in our definition, the A locus stands on the B locus and any other locus further downstream in the biochemical pathway.
Prokaryotic Cell
No internal membranes; only organelles are ribosomes
newly synthesized proteins destined for export have a unique signal sequence that directs them to the rough ER. these signal sequences are bound by ____ that help guide them to the ER.
signal recognition particles
osmosis
the movement of water across a membrane, following a diffusion gradient
Which of these terms applies to organisms that produce the organic molecules needed by all living things?
producers
a heritable trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment relative to individuals lacking the trait.
- Adaptation
karyotype
the chromosomes of a cell, usually displayed as a systematized arrangement of chromosome pairs in descending order of size.
molarity
the number of moles of solute per liter of solution; unit of concentration most often used by biologists for aqueous solutions
diffusion in capillaries
across endothelial cell (blood to cells or cells to blood)
-oxygen, carbon dioxide, LIPID hormones
Diffusion
Movement of solute from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Secondary structure
The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain.
morphology
The branch of biology that deals with the form and structure of organisms without consideration of function.
Decomposers
that break down the bodies of dead plants & animals
homologuus structures
in evolution a structure that is similar in differnet types of organisms because these organisms are derived from a common ancestor
Carbon Cycle
• Reservoir = atmosphere (CO2) • Abiotic to biotic via photosynthesis • Returns to reservoir: • Cellular respiration • Detritivores reactions • Burning fossil fuels
analogous structures
body parts that perform the same function but evolved seperatley
endoplasmic reticulum
a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface
collenchyma cell
a flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support young parts of the plant without restraining growth
Ionic bond
bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Batesian Mimicry
is when species that are harmless will mimic poisonous or distasteful ones to protect themselves against predators who remember a bad experience with the actual toxic organism that they are mimicking
tissue growth
increasing the number of cells or the existing cells grow larger
What is respiration
Process by which organisms break down their food and get ATP energy
1. Ordovician 2. Devonian (late)3. Permian4. Triassic5. Cretaceous
Binomial Nomenclature created by...
bacteriophage
any of a group of viruses that infect specific bacteria, usually causing their disintegration or dissolution.
What are the K-selected adaptations?
1. Lots of parental investment.2. Lower number of offspring.3. Iteroparous4. Type I survivorship (Most live to old age).5. Higher comptetitive ability.6. Exist in stable/ established environments.
What are the four types of natural selection?


Directional selection
Stabilizing selection
Disruptive selection
Sexual selection
What are some characteristics of PRODUCERS(autotrophs) of Deep Water ecosystems?
-small and numerous-small biomass (for floating)-little storage component-rapid growth/turnover
Is detritus a pool or a flux
A pool (it stores matter)
Which of the following is correct concerning development of embryos in animals but not in plants? (A) Gastrulation occurs within the embryo. (B) Fertilization produces a diploid embryo. (C) Embryonic cell divisions are mitotic. (D) Fusion of gametes resul
Gastrulation occurs within the embryo.
21. How do parasites usually differ from predators?
Parasites are usually smaller than predators.
How will water diffuse when a cell containing a 5% salt solution is place in a 10% salt solution?
 
a) It will not defuse
b) By active transport
c) Into the cell
d) Out of the cell
d) Out of the cell
The phrase "semiconservative replication" refers to the fact that:
half of the parent DNA double helix is conserved during replication.
lobe-finned fishes - coelocanth is a "living fossil"
thought extinct until caught 1939 in south africa
 
ancient characteristics - well developed notochord, fleshy appendages, divided tail
Food Web Complexity = Stability of community?
should lead to stability --> however, time lags b/w death of last animal and complicated connection = DESTABILIZE
You arrive back in the U.S. after having visited a foreign country located on another continent. The customs agent stops the person in front of you and confiscates the fruit basket this person is bringing home. Being the knowledgeable person you are, you
carrying an exotic species that could damage North American ecosystems.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


Autonomic

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


–
those that regulate the internal environment - have afferent nerves, which transmit msgs from
receptors to the CNS and efferent nerves, which transmit info back from the CNS
to the structures that respond – has 2 different kinds of efferent pathways (sympathetic and parasympathetic)
antero-
front
ARTHR/O
JOINT
terato-
malformed fetus
-al, -ac
pertaining to
DNA -> mRNA
transcription
ATP
the primary energy-transferring molecule in the cell
galactosamine
major component of cartilage
asconoid
Simple sponges with spongocoel
photoperiodism
a physiological response to photoperiod, the relative lengths of night and day. An example of photoperiodism is flowering
Isomers
same molecular formula, different structures
what starts the krebs cycle?
citrate
Exergonic or endergonic? Spontaneous reaction
exergonic
hardened flat deposits inside arteries*chloesterol: HDL = GoodLDL=Bad
Arteriosclerosis
Polymers
Long molecule consisting of many similar monomers
How are inactivated antigens removed from the body?
bilaterial animals
1. flatworms - platyhelminthes
2. acoels
3. roundworms - nematods
4. rotifers
5. arthropods
6. segmented worms - annelids
7. mollusks
8. sea stars, sand dollars - enchinoderms
lymphatic system
one-way, collects excess fluid,carries fat back to circulation, removes lymph
Vector
Some bacteria diseases are transmitted by other spices suchs as fleas or ticks
vasomotor center
of medulla oblongata exerts sympathetic control over blood vessels throughout the body
Requires membrane protein, driving force with concentration gradient.
Active Transport
guttural
of or pertaining to the throat.
Lysozyme
An enzyme in perspiratin, tears, and saliva that attacks bacterial cell walls
Vertebrate
Chordate in which the notochord is replaced by a vertebral column
occurs in somatic cells
 
a- mitosis
b- meiosis
c - both a and b
d - neither a or b
a - mitosis
Efferent neurons
carry commands to muscles and glands
 

Amitochondria protists
- 3 of them

 
-Giardin Diplonomads
-Trichomonas Trichomonads
-Microsporidia
Makeup of blood
45% red blood cells
55% plasma 
ABO blood types demonstrated da concept of
multiple alleles
binary fission
a sexual reproduction that causes identicaloffspring
What class of molluscs include many species of clams oysters, mussels, and scallops?
Bivalvia
. Defense of Arthropoda
highly diversified; includes exoskeleton in all and claws, jaws, or fangs in many
Food Web
Network of complex interactions formed by feeding relationships between organisms.
fitness
the ability of a population to maintain or increase its numbers in succeeding generations
hydrogen bonding
the attraction of a slightly positive hydrogen to a slightly negative atom in the vicinity
a type of molecule that does not interact with water
hydrophobic
 
 
cuticle
wax and other polymers that cover the epidermis of many species of land plants as a method of waterproofing and preventing dry-out
What are morphological determinates?
Cytoplasmic determinates located in the female gamete. We do not know for sure, but we propose that they act to turn on/off genes.
Photoheterotrophy
Requires light as an energy source and organic compounds as a carbon source
Horizontal Gene Transfer
From one species to another
(sexually or asexually)
Meiosis involves __ cell divisions and produces __ daughter cells
2; 4 haploid
the chief energy currency of all cells is a molecule called
ATP
What factors could affect density?
Immigration, Emigration, Births, Deaths.
variable
apt or liable to vary or change; changeable:
allochthonous energy sources
leaves fall into stream and consumed by invertebrates
Animals must be
1.
2.
3.
4.
Animals must be
1.small
2. thin in 1 d
3. be shaped in such a way to increase SA/V ratio
4. complex- special structures to facilitate diffusion
Stele
-the central part if the root or stem containing the tissues derived from the procambium
pitch
our sense of whether a sound is "high" or "low"
if a blastopore becomes the anus
it is a deuterostome
limiting nutrient
when an ecosystem is limited by a single nurtient that is scarce or cycles very slowly
pure line
a uniform strain of organisms that is relatively pure genetically because of continued inbreeding and artificial selection.
E face
Side of the lipid bilayer that is next to the outside of the cell when a sample of membrane is separated in FFEM.
cytoplasmic microtubules
singlet which is just one ring of 13 protofilamentsprone to cahnge, use in cell division and shapetracks for transport
Crossing over results in:
recombinate, happens in prophase 1 NOT at 2. chromosomes. chromosomes with genes of diff parents
how integral proteins function in transport
protein that spans membrane may provide pydrophilic channel across membrane that is selective for particular solute; other ones shuttle substances by changing shape (hydrolyze ATP as energy source)
NaCl is a ____. What does it do?
Base, releases hydroxyl ions.
What is a FUGACITY MODEL?
-a theoretical model in which an equilibrium is achieved between air, soil, water, sediment, biota, etc.-fugacity is like a pressure-therefore, if there is an unbalance of fugacity, shit would move between phases until fugacity/pressure are the same
What are the eight types of proteins?
- enzymatic proteins - accelerate chemical reactions
- structural proteins - support (cellulose in cell walls)
- storage proteins - storage of amino acids
- transport proteins - transport other substances
- hormonal proteins - regulate organisms activities
- receptor proteins - response to chemical stimuli
- contractile and motor proteins - movement
- defensive proteins - protection against disease
Why is an ATP molecule important in metabolism?
It has high-energy phosphate bonds
Organisms adapt in two ways (2)
1) Near term (Physiology) 2) Long term (Evolution)
Metaphase, what's it look like, what's it do
line of chromosomes, line up on metaphase plate - ensures equal division of chromatids
3 Key relationships of the global climate
1. Temp and water retention of air
2. Altitude and temperature
3. Altitude and pressure
tarso-
ankle
SARC/O
FLESH
phloem
FOOD-living tissue
Apomorphy
a derived character
amylase
breaks down starch
Tomy(tom)
cutting, operation of incision
location of TATA box
-10
relative dating
law of superposition
Cephalospidomorphii
Class that lampreys belong to
thylakoid
membrane bound, flattened vesicles inside the chloroplast
lysosomes
contain hydrolytic enzymes after budding off the golgi apparatus; capable of autophagy and phagocytosis (ingestiong of food or microbes into vessicles that then fuse with lysosome for digestion
vascular cambrium
produces secondary xylem/phloeminner = xylmeouter = phloem
hemophilia
a genetic blood clotting disorder
aquaporin
transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane (osmosis)
the cytoskeleton components that move organelles along a monorail
microtubles
Name the classes of mollusks?
1.Polyplacophora–chitons2. Gastropoda–limpets, snails, slugs3. Bivalvia–clams, oysters, scallops4. Cephalopoda–squids, octopuses, cuttlefishes, and chambered nautilus
interstitial fluid
fluid outside of cardio vessels
Archaeplastida
many photosynthic algae plus land plants
pulse pressure
–difference between systolic and diastolic pressure–important measure of stress exerted on small arteries by pressure surges generated by the heart
ATP synthase
1 route back into matrix
Plasmin
A proteolytic (breakdown) enzyme that is formed from plasminogen in blood plasma and dissolves the fibrin in blood clots
Limnetic Zone
Too deep for rooted vegetation, phytoplankton
Somatic Cell Mutations
may cause damage to body
which organism have no true tissues?
 
a. chodates
b. molluscs
c. sponges
d. cnidarian
c. sponges
endoderm 
embryonic middle cell layer that later forms the digestive tract 
Seedless Vascular Plants
-water conducting plants that reproduce using spores (like fungi) instead of seeds
 
-fall into the following categories or phyla: psilophyta, lycophyta, phenophyta, and pteophyta, or ferns
Seeds
Ripened or mature ovule. Also edible in most cases.
Triglycerides
fatty acid, chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms with carboxyl group at the end
deletion
when chromosomes break there is an absnce in the division and certain genes are lost
Nematodes have an alimentary canal, but lack this.
Circulatory system
absorptive
funguslike protists - slime and water molds
insertion sequence
the simplilist kind of transposome, consisting of inverted repeats of DNA flanking a gene for transpoase
ions
atom/molecule that has gained or lost an electron
Autobiography
(n) story of a person's life written by that person
nuclease
enzyme that cuts out mutation in DNA strand
 
 
Hardy-Weinberg principle
States that the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population will remain constant from generation to generation, as long as it follows HW conditions
myomere
"each of the bands of muscles along the sides of fishes."locomotion in bony and cartilaginous fish.bands of muscle attached to back bone.
Clade
A group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendents
Shared homologous characters are used to construct clades
Saturated fatty acids
carbons are saturated with covalently bound hydrogen
determination
the process in which a cell commits to a particular pathway of differentiation
Why are enzymes called catalysts?
They facilitate a reaction
Tropics are located in relation to what air fluctuation?
Rising Air
population density
how many individuals are in a given area
Evolution is _____.
Charles Darwin's term of evolution:
"_____ with _____"
Evolution is fact.
Charles Darwin's term of evolution:
"descent with modification"
Coelomates
(Body Cavity)
-animals with a coeloms, which is a fluid-filled cavity formed within the mesoderm
 
-coeloms were developed in triploblasts but were subsequently lost in several lineages, correlated w/ a reduction in body size
 
-only ever present in triploblastic animals
 
-most bilateral animals, including all the vertebrates, are coelomates
interphase
o phase of cell cycle in which cell is not dividing, everything other than mitosis (where cells spend most of their time)o three parts• S phase: time during which DNA is replicated• G1: busiest time for cell metabolism and growth• G2: allows cell to build protein machinery necessary to mitosiso gap phases exist so cells can replicated organelles and manufacture additional cytoplasm and grow large enough
structure and function of nucleic acid
macromolecules containing oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, polymers assembled from individual monomers known a nucleotides. transmit and store hereditary info. 2 kinds- DNA and RNA
No nucleiInclude bacteria, arhcaeatend to be less complex, single celled organismsHave cell walls
Structure and Function are coupled
zygote
the cell produced by the union of two gametes before it undergoes cleavage or cell division
Hamilton, Trivers, and Social Theory
 
Kin Selection
 
cooperation vs conflict
cooperation: you help your kin (explains altruistic behavior like saving someone's life although they don't matter as they are a genetic copy)
 
conflict: struggle between gene centric ideas
fibrinogen, albumin& globulins will also contribute 2
retaining fluids in da circulatory system due 2 da hydrophilic nature of proteins
recognition protein
it allows the cell to be recognized by other cells
acid precipitation
rain, snow, or fog with a pH lower or more acidic than 5.6
What are radio isotopes?
Unstable and tend to decay more than other atoms.
What is the Consumer:Producer biomass ratio in Deep Water ecosystems?
-near 1-may have inverted biomass pyramid
What are the eight categories for grouping species?
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
food travels by way of?
it is trapped by the mucus sheet, swept away by the cilia, into the esophagus, stomach, intestine, rectum, septum, atrium, out the anus
What are the 2 difference between the two classes?(diplopoda and chilopoda)
Centipedes are all carnivores (eat insects)Millipedes are largely herbivores
good for your brain muscles, heart, lungs, immune system & others
How many calories does the averge person need per day?
how does the environment play a role in natural selection? what is needed for evolution to occur? use HIV in the patient as an example
Evolution depends on the fact that random mutations and sexual reproduction will produce variants in a population and some variant will be most suited for that environment. That individual is described as the "most fit" and will reproduce the most. evolution depends on the random mutations that will occur to produce variants.
Colon
hindgut
-osis
condition; process
disaccharide
double sugars
Mimicry
Batesian-non-toxic/dangerous aninal evolves to look very similar to a dangerous animal
-ex. hawkmoth larva looks like green parrot snake
 
Mullerian-two unpalatable species mimic each other 
-ex. two types of bees
-viceroy + monarch butterflies
Chromosomes exit in-
Pairs


gamete
reproductive cells 
involves mitosis cell division 
Prions
Slow-acting, virtually indestructible infectious proteins that cause brain diseases in mammals
 
Spread by converting normal proteins into prion version
 
Ex. Scrapie in sheep, mad cow disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob dises in humans 
gregor mendel
father of genetics
What reaction links monosaccharides together into polysaccharides? What reastion splits polysacchrides into monosacchrides?
thoracic cavity
contains heart and lungs
Bilateria
bilateral symmetry, hox genes, triploblastic à proto/deutero
different populations that live together
community
macroevolution
big evolutionary changes that take place of long periods of time
Sponge
Invertebrate animal of the phylum Porifera; pore-bearing filter feeder whose inner body is lined by collar cells
function of sarcoplasmic reticulum
store calcium ions
Tundra
Northmost biome; plants grow in shallow topsoil over a layer of permafrost. Brief growing season; winter winds cause tundra plants to be very short. Soil is frozen. Likens dominate plants-fungi
Obligate aerobe
Require O2 for cellular respiration
which algae usu cause red tide?
dinoflagellates
OBSERVATION
The process of gathering information about evens and processes in a careful, orderly way. 
Robert Hooke
Idea that fossils represented organisms that no lover existed on the earth
involvement of two sperm nuclei
- Double fertilization
Lamprays
Class of vertebrates that lack hinged jaws and paired fins
-can cause tremendous damage
-bilaterian
monosaccharides
consist of only a single sugar molecule; have a hydroxyl group; most common is glucose
sexual reproduction
reproduction involving the fusion of haploid gametes from two different parents to produce a diploid zygote
Interbreeding 
breed with a different race or species
___ uses phase-shifting of light to contrast images.
phase-contrast
participants in reactions are
energy carriers, enzymes, cofactors
limbic system
–important center of emotion and learning•most anatomically prominent components are:–cingulate gyrus–hippocampus–amygdala•This system has structure centers for both gratification and aversion
Anapahase II
sister chromatids seperate to opposite poles
Which of the following is missing from the life cycle listed below?zygote-sporophyte-spore-gametophyte-gametes-______-zygote
Fertilization.
Empedocles
Concepts of atoms and elements shine through his writtings
BIOFUELSuses lots of energy, produces lots of pollution, causes soil degradation, produces very little fuel source, reduces food suppply
Corn Ethanol
endocytosis
the transport of solid matter or liquid into a cell by means of a coated vacuole or vesicle (
T lymphocyte
A type of lymphocyte responisble for cell-mediated immunity that differentiates under the influence of the thymus
population genetics
changes in the frequency of various genes in the gene pool.
resource 
any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or space
Inbreeding depression
decreased fitness that occurs as more deleterious recessive traits are expressed in the phenotypes of homozygous recessive individuals (e.g. Labelia flower=self fertilization resulted in lowered fitness)
What antibody does A blood have?
antibody for B
How do substrates and enzymes find each other
brownian motion
Rhodophyta
-red algae, sea weed, source of agar and carrageenan
The expected divergence :
D=L x mu x 2t
What happens later in development?
-cells can divide asymmetrically
-signals from other cells (inductions)
latent period
A period in which an individual is infected with a disease but cannot spread the disease.
Animals with radial symmetry include…1. The Cnidarians2. The Chordates3. The Echinoderms4. Both 1 and 25. Both 1 and 36. Both 2 and 3
5. Both 1 and 3
Physiology of Hearing -- Middle Ear
Eardrum vibrates quite easilyProtection of cochlea by muscle contraction inresponse to loud noises




Genotype
The list of alleles found at the locus or loci under consideration.

ex. AaBbCc
Free Energy
amount of energy that is available to do work
5 stage life span includes:
birth, growth, maturation, decline, and death
5' to 3' direction of one strand runs counter to the 3' to 5' direction of the other strand
a
Lymphatic vessels structure and function
-one way system-fluid inside --> lymph(water and solute)
11) Where do the microtubules of the spindle originate during mitosis in both plant and animal cells?
*B) centrosome
_________ senses temperature in the skin
nerves cells of the hypothalamus
How many RNAPs are present in eukaryotes and what do they transcribe?
3
I: rRNA
II: mRNA
III: tRNA
at the __ checkpoint, te cell ensures that all chromosomes are attached to the spindle.. this occurs in what phase?
spindle - late metaphase
Diploid, meiosis- haploid
In mitosis, a _____ cell forms a ____ cells... in meiosis?
Distinguish the following gradients across a membrane: A) a pH gradient; B) Electrical charge gradient; C) Concentration gradient for a particular substance (e.g., glucose); D) Solute gradient (will affect the movement of water).
A) A difference in H+ ion concentration across the gradient. B) A difference of positive and negative charge across the gradient. C) The steeper the concentration gradient, the greater the net movement. D) Differences in solute amounts across the gradient
Does science determine what is real?
Since science can only consider a limited range of ideas, science does not define reality. It does not determine what is real and what is not.
what happens in the calvin cycle?
1.six carbon molecules come into the cycle. Carbon dioxide combine with 6 carbon molecules= 3 12 carbon molecules
2.the twelve 3 carbon molecules convert into high-energy forms
3. two of the twelve 3 carbon molecules- removed form cycle. Plant uses these
Which structure must pass through the micropyle for successful fertilization to occur in angiosperms
Two sperm nuclei and the pollen tube
What is the purpose of the comb?
Creating wells in which DNA can be inserted into.
Describe the GNOM mutant and why it is unable to establish an apical-basal axis.
The GNOM gene allows the plant zygote to divide asymmetrically and establish apical-basal polarity. In the GNOM mutant, the plant cannot establish apical-basal polarity, it can only divide into two cells of the same size.
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