Bio Lab Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
funnel tube
nucleolus function
forms ribosomes
how many thoracic vertebrae
top of the leaf
electrical event preceding atrial systole
touch sensitive free nerve ending
composed of the embryonic leaves
Wernicke's area
language reception and comprehension, temporal lobe
What bacterial colony shape is this?
Gene Formula
p= dominant alleleq= recessive alleleIf there are only two alleles, their combined frequencies must obviously equal 100?, so: p+q=1If p is the probability that an individual will receive one dominant allele, then p^2 is the probability that one individual will receive two of that same allele (and be homozygous dominant, so:p^2+2pq+q^2=1
structures in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carry genetic material (DNA)
abiotic factors
various physical and chemical characteristics of an organism's habitat(temp, humidity, available sunlight, or soil nutrient availability)
Animal Cell
Cell Wall? no
Nucleus? yes
Ribosomes? yes
Chloroplast? no
DNA? yes
Monocot water transport
vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem
what is the nutrition of green algae?
hill reaction analysis.
More reaction, clearer substance. 2DPIP+2H20+chloroplasts--> 2DPIPH2+O2DPIP is reduced
interphase mitosis
precedes mitosis. cells spend about 90-95% of thier lives in interphase. time the cells needs to perpare for mitosis. 3 phases, G1, S, and G2
What medium can fungi grow in?
-solid-semi solid-liquid
Cambrian Explosion
525 mya (beginning of modern life)
2 processes of photosynthesis
light and dark reactions
Ground tissue in the center of the stem
What bacterial colony edge shape is this?
lobate irregular
Genetic drift:
effects of population size on gene frequencies
Where does meiosis occur in the club fungi?
Cellular Respiration
3 stage, O2 dependent harvesting of energy that goes on in most cells.
There are two common alleles for the PrP gene, the M allele and the V allele. If everyone has two copies of the gene, how many genotypes are possible?
the process by which the yolk is formed and accumulated in the ovum.
As you look up at the ceiling, what back muscle are you using?
adrenal gland
next to the kidney, part of the endocrine system.
The primary pigment is called ____ _ (green) all others are acessory pigments.
chlorophyl a.
the dyads line up along the equatorial planes of the spindles in the cells
metaphase II

What are the arrows pointing at?
Lab 6: Non-Vascular Plants; HepatophytaGenus Marchantia (liverworts): Thallus (400x).
Air pore.
Air chamber.
Photsynthetic tissue.
 Support tissue.
What type of cell makes up the endothelium of capillaries?
Simple squamous epithelium
Draw and label Puccinia graminis. Disease and Host?
Disease: Stem rusts of cerealsHost:cereals, grasses and barberryDid you get:-epidermal cell-pycnium/spermogonium-receptive hyphae-mesodermal cells-aecium-peridium-aeciospores-uredial infections (beanshaped, aseptate; multicelled pedicel)-telial infections (2 celled; single celled pedicel)
What goes into light reactions?
1. H2O
3. ADP
4. phosphate
5. light
Age Structure of populations
1. Age structure charts show how many of each age class are present in the population. 2. The width of the band determines the relative number of each age class in the population.
Briefly describe the circulatory system of a clam.
Clams have an open circulatory system in which the
How did we prepare Powdery Mildew Cleistothecia for observation?
-took leaves with cleistothecia and scraped it onto a microscope slide and mounted it in cotton blue-let sit for 20-30min to soften it up-crushed it and saw the asci and ascospores ooze out-also saw appendages
Some of the nasal cartilages are made of hyaline cartilage. What functional adaptation does cartilage have over bone in making up the external framework of the nose?
Cartilage maintains shape and is flexible where the bone is brittle. This is important for keeping breathing passages open but is capable of breathing.
What is the effect of TSH, and where is it produced?
Produced in the anterior pituitary lobe; stimulates the thyroid gland. Secretes and produces T3 and T4, which are other thyroid hormones.
Horned lizards have been living in a desert valley, free of predators, for many generations. The average size of the horns of this lizard population is 1.02 cm; the range of variation of horn length is 0.4 cm to 1.2 cm. A pair of shrikes, predatory birds
C. Lizards with a range of horn lengths - very short horns (0.4cm), average length horns (1.02cm) and very long horns (1.2cm) are equally likely (or unlikely).
Precipitates DNA
intersexual selection
female choice
gustatory (taste) area
parietal lobe
-primarily unicellular fungi -reproduce asexually by budding
Which has greater blood pressure:
Arteries or Veins
abiotic limiting factors
-water supply-environmental conditions-availability of shelter
Father of Modern genetics
Gregor Mendel
Entamoeba Histolytica
Protist, causes Amebic Dysentary, lesions in the intestine wall
distal portion of the small intestine
Colonial Bacteria. have chlorophyll a, which gives them their color.
golgi apparatus
processing, packaging and distribution of proteins and lipids
change in gene frequency over time
Where do light reactions take place?
Complex tissue usually a single cell layer thick compose of certain cell types (ex: stomata, guard cells, etc...)
what is the cell organization of cyanobacteria?
centromeres of chromosomes line up at the equatorial plate; centers of the chromosomes are at the equator of the cell and loose arms of chromosomes fall to either side of the equator
The dark reactions produce ____, the carbohydrate that incorporates energy initially harvested from sunlight.
second generation (from F1 hydrids)
F2 generation
process by which an electron is gained
the early developmental stage of an animal, following the morula stage and consisting of a single, spherical layer of cells enclosing a hollow, central cavity.
Proprioceptive senses
respond to changes in muscle length, tendon tension, joint angle, deep pressure
important in guiding body movements
Eras of the Fossil Record
Precambian, Stromatolites, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
precaval vein
drains the upper part of the body
Auto - Induction
Bacteria produce a diffusible compound (N-Acyl homoserine lactone), the more bacteria, the more inducer.  Once the levels are high enough, bacteria knows that nutrient levels are good and energy can then be expended
Monosaccharides (2and example)
-simplest-serve as monomoers to build larger more complex carbohydrates-Ex: Glucose and Fructose
shrinking of the cytoplasm of a plant cell in reponse to diffusion of water out of the cell and onto hypertonic solution surrounding the cell
Organisms in Phylum Nematoda (5)
Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, Wuchereria bancrofti
Myocardial Contractility
the force of contraction for a given cardiac muscle fiber length, and therefore the force of contraction of the ventricles
Alternation of Generations
When both haploid and diploid stages are multicellular -- A lifecycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form (the sporophyte) and a multicellular haploid form (the gametophyte); characteristics of plants and some algae.
What Phylum is the Sac Fungi in ?
Phylum Ascomycota
roots of infections
spread from person to person, surface to surface, environment, oatherpods

What is the arrow pointing at?
BONUS: What is produced here?
Lab 6: Non-Vascular Plants; HepatophytaGenus Marchantia (liverworts): Archegoniophore.
BONUS: The sporophyte produces spores by meiosis.
The superior mesenteric artery takes blood to what major abdominal organs?
Small intestine, cecum, ascending colon, and also to the first part of the transverse colon
What causes Bunts or Stinking Smuts of Wheat?
Pathogen: Tilletia tritici (Basidiomycetes - Ustilaginales, smuts)-original host tissue inside of the smutted kernels has been replaced by a mass of sooty spores-bunts cause less destruction of the kernels (pericarp remains intact) than overed smut of barley-has a fishy smell-germinated telopspore produces promycelium (basidium) with primary sporidia forming at the terminal end-primary sporidia will fuse in paris by a lateral tube to give them an H appearance-primary sporidia then germinate to produce dikaryotic secondary sporidia
What does chlorophyll appear green?
it absorbs red and blue light
Because a colony produced by a single bacterium has distinctive characteristics, colony characteristics can be a useful means for _____.
distinguishing between different bacteria
Functional Groups are impt. in a biological molecule b/c
They determine it's chemical properties
Heterosporous - Name 2 types of spores
1. microspores - produce male gametophytes which are individual pollen grains2. megaspores - produce female gametophytes one cell makes egg
In what part of the arterial wall does cholesterol plaque develop?
Deep to the tunica interna
List the three broad activities of the nervous system.

Its sensory systems permit it to sense events occurring inside and outside the body.
It interprets, integrates, and may store this sensory information (memories), then it decides on an appropriate response.
It sends commands to muscles and glands (MOTOR function of NS)
How do you do a tape mount slide?
-dab the tape in the colony-dab the tape in ethanol-dab the tabe in cotton blue-have tape, spore side up-cover with coverslip-have at it
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